Export 575 results:
Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Águas, H., Ram Araújo Gaspar Vicente Filonovich Fortunato Martins Ferreira S. K. A. "Silicon thin film solar cells on commercial tiles." Energy and Environmental Science. 4 (2011): 4620-4632. AbstractWebsite

Nanostructured silicon single junction thin film solar cells were deposited on commercial red clay roof tiles with engobe surfaces and earthenware wall tiles with glazed surfaces, with a test area of 24 mm 2. We studied the influence of the type of substrate tile, back contact, buffer layer and SiO x passivation layer on the optoelectronic performance of the solar cells. Despite the fact that typical micrometre-sized defects on the surfaces of the tiles and the porous nature of the ceramic substrates make deposition of homogeneous thin films on them quite challenging, we have been able to achieve a cell efficiency of 5% and a quantum efficiency of 80% on non-fully optimized cells on commercial tiles. The method is industrially employable utilizing pre-existing plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition technologies. The cost-effectiveness and industrial feasibility of the technique are discussed. Our study shows that photovoltaic tiles can combine energy generation with architectural aesthetics leading to significant implications for advancement in building integrated photovoltaics. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Ferreira, I.a, Brás Martins Correia Barquinha Fortunato Martins B. a J. I. "Solid-state paper batteries for controlling paper transistors." Electrochimica Acta. 56 (2011): 1099-1105. AbstractWebsite

A commercial sheet of paper based on natural cellulose fibers acting as permeable membrane with thin film metal cathode (Cu) and anode (Al) layers in each face was used to produce paper batteries that could be interconnected in series and rechargeable using water as electrolyte. Their electrical characteristics and the set of electrochemical reactions that support the experimental behavior observed are described in this paper. A series of integrated batteries able to supply a voltage of about 3 V and a current ranging from 0.7 μA to 25 μA in cells with sizes of 1.2 cm × 3.0 cm for a relative humidity in the range of 50-65% were produced in a single sheet of paper, and successfully applied to control the ON/OFF gate state of paper transistors. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Baptista, A.C.a, Martins Fortunato Martins Borges Ferreira J. I. b E. "Thin and flexible bio-batteries made of electrospun cellulose-based membranes." Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 26 (2011): 2742-2745. AbstractWebsite

The present work proposes the development of a bio-battery composed by an ultrathin monolithic structure of an electrospun cellulose acetate membrane, over which was deposited metallic thin film electrodes by thermal evaporation on both surfaces. The electrochemical characterization of the bio-batteries was performed under simulated body fluids like sweat and blood plasma [salt solution - 0.9% (w/w) NaCl]. Reversible electrochemical reactions were detected through the cellulose acetate structure. Thus, a stable electrochemical behavior was achieved for a bio-battery with silver and aluminum thin films as electrodes. This device exhibits the ability to supply a power density higher than 3μWcm-2.Finally, a bio-battery prototype was tested on a sweated skin, demonstrating the potential of applicability of this bio-device as a micropower source. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Elangovan, E., Saji Parthiban Goncalves Barquinha Martins Fortunato K. J. S. "Thin-film transistors based on indium molybdenum oxide semiconductor layers sputtered at room temperature." IEEE Electron Device Letters. 32 (2011): 1391-1393. AbstractWebsite

Thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using a 20-nm-thick indium molybdenum oxide (IMO) semiconductor layer at room temperature. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that the deposited films are amorphous. The average transmittance (400-2500 nm) and the optical band gap are ∼88% and 3.95 eV, respectively. The TFTs fabricated on glass substrates showed a saturation mobility of 4.0 cm2/Vċ s with an I ON/IOFF ratio of 2 × 103 and a threshold voltage of-1.1 V, which are encouraging preliminary results in order to develop IMO as high-performance semiconductor layer. © 2011 IEEE.

Fortunato, E., Martins R. "Where science fiction meets reality? With oxide semiconductors!" Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters. 5 (2011): 336-339. AbstractWebsite

Transparent electronics is today one of the most advanced topics for a wide range of device applications, where the key components are wide band gap semiconductors, where oxides of different origin play an important role, not only as passive components but also as active components similar to what we observe in conventional semiconductors. As passive components they include the use of these materials as dielectrics for a wide range of electronic devices and also as transparent electrical conductors for use in several optoelectronic applications, such as liquid crystal displays, organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, optical sensors etc. As active materials, they exploit the use of truly electronic semiconductors where the main emphasis is being put on transparent thin film transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, ultraviolet sensors and integrated circuits among others. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

b Fortunato, E.a, Figueiredo Barquinha Elamurugu Barros Goņalves Park Hwang Martins V. a P. a. "Erratum: Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu2 O thin films produced at room temperature (Applied Physics Letters (2010) 96 (192102))." Applied Physics Letters. 96 (2010). AbstractWebsite
Martins, R., Pereira Barquinha Correia Gonçalves Ferreira Dias Fortunato L. P. N. "Floating gate memory paper transistor." Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 7603. 2010. Abstract

Reported herein is a nonvolatile n-type floating gate memory paper field-effect transistor, emphasizing the role of the paper structure and properties on the device performance recorded such as in the high capacitance per unit area at low frequencies (>2.5 μFcm-2) and so on the set of high charge retention times achieved (>16000 hours). The device was built via the hybrid integration of natural cellulose fibers, which act simultaneously as substrate and gate dielectric, using amorphous indium zinc and gallium indium zinc oxides respectively for the gate electrode and channel layer. This was complemented by the use of continuous patterned metal layers as source/drain electrodes. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

Wang, J.a, Elamurugu Franco Alves Botelho Do Rego Gonçalves Martins Fortunato E. a N. b. "Influence of deposition pressure on N-doped ZnO films by RF magnetron sputtering." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 10 (2010): 2674-2678. AbstractWebsite

N-doped ZnO films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering with different deposition pressures. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force morphology (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Hall measurements and optical spectrophotometer. The XRD patterns confirmed that the films are polycrystalline and the influence of deposition pressure on the structural properties. AFM microstructures also authenticated the change in the size and shape of the grains as a function of deposition pressure; the root mean square (RMS) roughness has reached a maximum (10.65 nm) at 1.5 x 10 -2 mbar. XPS spectra revealed the change in the chemical composition. The amount of adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen at oxide sites has reached the maximum at 9.0 x 10 -3 mbar, where the film showed p-type conductivity. The optical transmittance spectra have indicated that the absorption edge is shifted towards the shorter wavelength at higher deposition pressure. Correspondingly, the optical band gap is increased from 2.17 to 2.80 eV. The average visible transmittance in the wavelength ranging 500-800 nm has been increased from 49% to 82%. Copyright © 2010 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Wang, J.-Z.a b, Elangovan Franco Alvese Rego Martins Fortunato E. b N. c. "Influence of oxygen partial pressure on properties of N-doped ZnO films deposited by magnetron sputtering." Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition). 20 (2010): 2326-2330. AbstractWebsite

N-doped ZnO films were radio frequency (RF) sputtered on glass substrates and studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure (OPP) ranging from 3.0×10-4 to 9.5×10-3 Pa. X-ray diffraction patters confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the deposited films. The crystalline structure is influenced by the variation of OPP. Atomic force microscopy analysis confirmed the agglomeration of the neighboring spherical grains with a sharp increase of root mean square (RMS) roughness when the OPP is increased above 1.4×10-3 Pa. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed that the incorporation of N content into the film is decreased with the increase of OPP, noticeably N 1s XPS peaks are hardly identified at 9.5×10-3 Pa. The average visible transmittance (380-700 nm) is increased with the increase of OPP (from ∼17 to 70), and the optical absorption edge shifts towards the shorter wavelength. The films deposited with low OPP (≤ 3.0×10-4 Pa) show n-type conductivity and those deposited with high OPP (≥ 9.0×10-4 Pa) are highly resistive (>105 ·cm) © 2010 The Nonferrous Metals Society of China.

b d Bernacka-Wojcik, I.a, Senadeera Wojcik Silva Doria Baptista Aguas Fortunato Martins R. a P. J. "Inkjet printed and "doctor blade" TiO2 photodetectors for DNA biosensors." Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 25 (2010): 1229-1234. AbstractWebsite

A dye sensitized TiO2 photodetector has been integrated with a DNA detection method based on non-cross-linking hybridization of DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles, resulting in a disposable colorimetric biosensor. We present a new approach for the fabrication of dye sensitized TiO2 photodetectors by an inkjet printing technique-a non-contact digital, additive, no mask and no vacuum patterning method, ideal for cost efficient mass production. The developed biosensor was compared against a dye sensitized photodetector fabricated by the traditional "doctor blade" method. Detection of gold nanoparticle aggregation was possible for concentrations as low as 1.0 nM for the "doctor blade" system, and 1.5 nM for the inkjet printed photodetector. The demonstrated sensitivity limits of developed biosensors are comparable to those of spectrophotometric techniques (1.0 nM). Our results show that a difference higher than 17% by traditional photodetector and 6% by inkjet printed in the photoresponses for the complementary and non-complementary gold nanoprobe assays could be attained for a specific DNA sequence from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis. The decrease of costs associated with molecular diagnostic provided by a platform such as the one presented here may prove of paramount importance in developing countries. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

c Olziersky, A.a, Barquinha Vil̀ Pereira Goņalves Fortunato Martins Morante P. b A. a. "Insight on the SU-8 resist as passivation layer for transparent Ga 2 O3 - In2 O3-ZnO thin-film transistors." Journal of Applied Physics. 108 (2010). AbstractWebsite

{A nonvacuum and low temperature process for passivating transparent metal oxides based thin-film transistors is presented. This process uses the epoxy-based SU-8 resist which prevents device degradation against environmental conditions, vacuum or sputtering surface damage. The incorporation of SU-8 as a passivation layer is based on the ability of this polymer to provide features with high mechanical and chemical stability. With this approach, lithography is performed to pattern the resist over the active area of the device in order to form the passivation layer. The resulting transistors demonstrate very good electrical characteristics, such as μFE =61 cm2 /V s

Parthiban, S.a, Elangovan Ramamurthi Martins Fortunato E. b K. a. "Investigations on high visible to near infrared transparent and high mobility Mo doped In2O3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 94 (2010): 406-412. AbstractWebsite

High visible to near infrared (NIR) transparent Mo (0-1 at%) doped In2O3 (IMO) thin films with high carrier mobility were deposited on Corning-1737 glass substrates at 400 °C by spray pyrolysis experimental technique. The films were annealed in vacuum (∼1×10-4 mbar) at 550 °C for 45 min. XRD analysis confirmed that indium oxide belongs to cubic bixbyite structure. The preferred growth orientation along (2 2 2) plane for low Mo doping level shifts to (4 0 0) for higher Mo doping levels. Crystallite sizes extracted from the XRD data corroborate the changes in full-width at half-maximum due to the variation in Mo doping. Scanning electron microscopy study illustrates the evolution in surface microstructures as a function of Mo doping. The negative sign of Hall coefficient confirmed n-type conductivity. Films with high mobility of ∼149 cm2/(V s), carrier concentration of ∼1.0×1020 cm-3, resistivity of ∼4.0×10-4 Ω cm and high figure of merit of ∼1.02×10-2 Ω-1 were observed for post-annealed films (0.5 at% Mo). The obtained high average transparency of ∼83% in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm confirms that transmittance is well extended into the NIR region. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lorenz, M.a, Lajn Frenzel Wenckstern Grundmann Barquinha Martins Fortunato A. a H. a. "Low-temperature processed Schottky-gated field-effect transistors based on amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin films." Applied Physics Letters. 97 (2010). AbstractWebsite

We have investigated the electrical properties of metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET) based on amorphous oxide semiconductor channels. All functional parts of the devices were sputter-deposited at room temperature. The influence on the electrical properties of a 150 °C annealing step of the gallium-indium-zinc-oxide channel is investigated. The MESFET technology offers a simple route for processing of the transistors with excellent electrical properties such as low subthreshold swing of 112 mV/decade, gate sweep voltages of 2.5 V, and channel mobilities up to 15 cm2 /V s. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

e Barquinha, P.a, Pereira Gonçalves Kuscer Kosec Vilà Olziersky Morante Martins Fortunato L. a G. a. "Low-temperature sputtered mixtures of high-κ and high bandgap dielectrics for GIZO TFTs." Journal of the Society for Information Display. 18 (2010): 762-772. AbstractWebsite

This paper discusses the properties of sputtered multicomponent amorphous dielectrics based on mixtures of high-κ and high-bandgap materials and their integration in oxide TFTs, with processing temperatures not exceeding 1 50° C. Even if Ta2O5 films are already amorphous, multicomponent materials such as Ta2O5-SiO2 and Ta2O5-Al2O3 allow an increase in the bandgap and the smoothness of the films, reducing their leakage current and improving (in the case of Ta2O5-SiO2)the dielectric/semiconductor interface properties when these dielectrics are integrated in TFTs. For HfO2- based dielectrics, the advantages of multicomponent materials are even clearer: while HfO2 films present a polycrystalline structure and a rough surface, HfO2-SiO2 films exhibit an amorphous structure and a very smooth surface. The integration of the multicomponent dielectrics in GIZO TFTs allows remarkable performance, comparable with that of GIZO TFTs using SiO2 deposited at 400°C by PECVD. For instance, with Ta2O5-SiO2 as the dielectric layer, field-effect mobility of 35 cm2/(V-sec), close to 0 V turn-on voltage, an on/off ratio higher than 106, a subthreshold slope of 0.24 V/dec, and a small/recoverable threshold voltage shifts under constant current (ID = 10 μ,A) stress during 24 hours are achieved. Initial results with multilayers of SiO2/HfO 2-SiO2/SiO2 are also shown, allowing a lower leakage current with lower thickness and excellent device performance. © Copyright 2010 Society for Information Display.

Contreras, J.C.a, Costa Pereira Fortunato Martins Wierzbicki Heerlein Ferreira D. a S. a. "Micro cantilever movement detection with an amorphous silicon array of position sensitive detectors." Sensors. 10 (2010): 8173-8184. AbstractWebsite

The movement of a micro cantilever was detected via a self constructed portable data acquisition prototype system which integrates a linear array of 32 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD). The system was mounted on a microscope using a metal structure platform and the movement of the 30 μm wide by 400 μm long cantilever was tracked by analyzing the signals acquired by the 32 sensor array electronic readout system and the relevant data algorithm. The obtained results show a linear behavior of the photocurrent relating X and Y movement, with a non-linearity of about 3%, a spatial resolution of less than 2μm along the lateral dimension of the sensor as well as of less than 3μm along the perpendicular dimension of the sensor, when detecting just the micro-cantilever, and a spatial resolution of less than 1μm when detecting the holding structure. © 2010 by the authors.

Pereira, L., Águas Gomes Barquinha Fortunato Martins H. L. P. "Nanostructured silicon based thin film transistors processed in the plasma dark region." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 10 (2010): 2938-2943. AbstractWebsite

Nanostructured silicon (na-Si:H) thin films were fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique under high silane hydrogen dilution and a discharge frequency of 27 MHz, where the substrate was located in the dark region of the plasma, protected by a grounded metal grid. By not exposing the growth surface directly to the plasma we avoid the silicon growth surface to sustain a high ion bombardment leading to a less defective surface and highly compact films. The intrinsic films grown under these conditions were used to produce the channel region of thin film transistors (TFTs) with a bottom gate staggered configuration, integrating different dielectric layers. The devices produced exhibit a field effect mobility close to 1.84 cm 2 V -1S -1, threshold voltage around 2 V, on/off ratio above 10 7 and sub-threshold slope below 0.5 V/decade, depending on the dielectric used. Copyright © 2010 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Fortunato, E., Barquinha Gonçalves Pereira Martins P. G. L. Oxide Semiconductors: From Materials to Devices. Transparent Electronics: From Synthesis to Applications., 2010. AbstractWebsite
Barquinha, P., Pereira Gonçalves Martins Fortunato L. G. R. "P-202L: Late-news poster: Long-term stability of oxide semiconductor-based TFTs." 48th Annual SID Symposium, Seminar, and Exhibition 2010, Display Week 2010. Vol. 3. 2010. 1376-1379. Abstract

Long-term electrical stability measurements, including current/bias stress and aging over 18 months of idle shelf life are presented for GIZO-based TFTs. The effects of oxygen partial pressure, annealing temperature and passivation are discussed. Optimized devices show highly stable properties, such as a recoverable ΔVT<0.5 V after 24h of 1D=10 μA stress, quite promising for integration in electronic circuits.

Barquinha, P., Pereira Gonçalves Martins Fortunato L. G. R. "P-202L: Late-news poster: Long-term stability of oxide semiconductor-based TFTs." Digest of Technical Papers - SID International Symposium. Vol. 41 1. 2010. 1376-1379. Abstract

Long-term electrical stability measurements, including current/bias stress and aging over 18 months of idle shelf life are presented for GIZO-based TFTs. The effects of oxygen partial pressure, annealing temperature and passivation are discussed. Optimized devices show highly stable properties, such as a recoverable ΔV T<0.5 V after 24h of I D=10 μA stress, quite promising for integration in electronic circuits. © 2010 SID.

b Águas, H.a b, Filonovich Bernacka-Wojcik Fortunato Martins S. A. a I. "Role of trimethylboron to silane ratio on the properties of p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin film deposited by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 10 (2010): 2547-2551. AbstractWebsite

Trimethylboron (TMB) has been receiving attention as a valid alternative to diborane and methane mixtures for the deposition of p-type silicon films for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this paper we report on p-type hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-Si:C:H) films produced by standard 13.56 MHz plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique, using TMB as gas source, under high hydrogen dilution (98%) and using high deposition pressures (3 Torr). The films obtained were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and electrical measurements to determine their optical, structural and electrical properties. We achieved conductivities as high as 8.3 (Ω cm) -1, one of the highest values of conductivity published to date using TMB with standard rf-PECVD. Spectroscopic ellipsometry modeling revealed that the films growth mechanism proceeds through a sub-surface layer mechanism that leads to the formation of nanocrystalline silicon. Copyright © 2010 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Ferreira, I., Brás Correia Barquinha Fortunato Martins B. N. P. "Self-rechargeable paper thin-film batteries: Performance and applications." IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology. 6 (2010): 332-335. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports on the use of cellulose paper simultaneously as electrolyte, separation of electrodes, and physical support of a rechargeable battery. The deposition on both faces of a paper sheet of metal or metal oxides thin layers with different electrochemical potentials, respectively as anode and cathode, such as Cu and Al, lead to an output voltage of 0.70 V and a current density that varies between 150 nA/cm2 and 0.5 mA/cm2, subject to the paper composition, thickness and the degree of OHx species adsorbed in the paper matrix. The electrical output of the paper battery is independent of the electrodes thickness but strongly depends on the atmospheric relative humidity (RH), with a current density enhancement by more than 3 orders of magnitude when RH changes from 60% to 85%. Besides flexibility, low cost, low material consumption, environmental friendly, the power output of paper batteries can be adapted to the desired voltagecurrent needed, by proper integration. A 3-V prototype was fabricated to control the ON/OFF state of a paper transistor. © 2006 IEEE.

Parthiban, S.a, Elangovan Ramamurthi Goncalves Martins Fortunato E. b K. a. "Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium-molybdenum oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis." Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science. 207 (2010): 1554-1557. AbstractWebsite

Molybdenum doped indium oxide (IO) thin films were deposited on the Coring F1737 glass substrates at 400 °C by spray pyrolysis technique. TheModoping was varied between 0 and 4 at.%. The films were characterized by their structural, electrical and optical properties. The films are confirmed to be cubic bixbyite In 2O 3 with a strongest orientation along (222) for 0.5 at.% Mo, which is shifted to (400) plane when the Mo doping is increased to ≥1.2 at.%. The films deposited with 0.5 at.% Mo showed high mobility of ̃90 cm 2/Vs, resistivity of ̃6.8×10 -4ωcm and carrier concentration of ̃1.01× 1020 cm -3 with >̃73% transmittance in the visible range between 500 and 800 nm. The transmittance is well extended into near infrared region.

b Fortunato, E.a, Figueiredo Barquinha Elamurugu Barros Goņalves Park Hwang Martins V. a P. a. "Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu2 O thin films produced at room temperature." Applied Physics Letters. 96 (2010). AbstractWebsite

Copper oxide (Cu2 O) thin films were used to produce bottom gate p-type transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Cu2 O was deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and the films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The TFTs exhibit improved electrical performance such as a field-effect mobility of 3.9 cm2 /V s and an on/off ratio of 2× 102. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

b Fortunato, E.a, Barros Barquinha Figueiredo Park Hwang Martins R. a P. a. "Transparent p-type SnOx thin film transistors produced by reactive rf magnetron sputtering followed by low temperature annealing." Applied Physics Letters. 97 (2010). AbstractWebsite

P-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) using room temperature sputtered SnOx (x<2) as a transparent oxide semiconductor have been produced. The SnOx films show p-type conduction presenting a polycrystalline structure composed with a mixture of tetragonal Β-Sn and α -SnOx phases, after annealing at 200 °C. These films exhibit a hole carrier concentration in the range of ≈ 1016 - 1018 cm-3; electrical resistivity between 101 - 102 cm; Hall mobility around 4.8 cm2 /V s; optical band gap of 2.8 eV; and average transmittance ≈85% (400 to 2000 nm). The bottom gate p-type SnOx TFTs present a field-effect mobility above 1 cm2 /V s and an ON/OFF modulation ratio of 103. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Nayak, P.K.a, Busani Elamurugu Barquinha Martins Hong Fortunato T. a E. a. "Zinc concentration dependence study of solution processed amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors using high-k dielectric." Applied Physics Letters. 97 (2010). AbstractWebsite

The effects of zinc concentration on the performance of solution processed amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been investigated using high-k aluminum titanium oxide as gate dielectric. The x-ray diffraction results confirmed that all the IGZO channel layers are amorphous. The performance of a-IGZO TFTs were investigated in the linear regime operation. Highest linear field-effect mobility of 5.8 cm2 /V s with an Ion / Ioff ratio of 6× 107 and subthreshold swing of 0.28 V/dec were obtained for the a-IGZO (311) TFTs. The obtained performance of the a-IGZO TFTs is very promising for low-voltage display applications. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.