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Martins, R., Pereira Barquinha Ferreira Prabakaran Gonçalves Gonçalves Fortunato L. P. I. "Zinc oxide and related compounds: Order within the disorder." Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 7217. 2009. Abstract

This paper discusses the effect of order and disorder on the electrical and optical performance of ionic oxide semiconductors based on zinc oxide. These materials are used as active thin films in electronic devices such as pn heterojunction solar cells and thin-film transistors. Considering the expected conduction mechanism in ordered and disordered semiconductors the role of the spherical symmetry of the s electron conduction bands will be analyzed and compared to covalent semiconductors. The obtained results show p-type c-Si/a-IZO/poly-ZGO solar cells exhibiting efficiencies above 14% in device areas of about 2.34 cm2. Amorphous oxide TFTs based on the Ga-Zn-Sn-0 system demonstrate superior performance than the polycrystalline TFTs based on ZnO, translated by ION/IOFF ratio exceeding 107, turn-on voltage below 1-2 V and saturation mobility above 25 cm2/Vs. Apart from that, preliminary data on p-type oxide TFT based on the Zn-Cu-O system will also be presented. © 2009 SPIE.

Fortunato, E., Gonçalves Pimentel Barquinha Gonçalves Pereira Ferreira Martins A. A. P. "Zinc oxide, a multifunctional material: From material to device applications." Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing. 96 (2009): 197-205. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we report on some of the recent advances in transparent thin film oxide semiconductors, specifically zinc oxide produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with multifunctional properties. By controlling the deposition parameters it is possible to produce undoped material with electronic semiconductor properties, or by doping it to get either n-type or p-type semiconductor behavior. In this work we refer to our experience in producing n-type doped zinc oxide as transparent electrode to be used in optoelectronic applications such as solar cells and position sensitive detectors, while the undoped zinc oxide can be used as active layer of fully transparent thin film transistors. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Silva, L.B.a, Baptista Raniero Doria Martins Fortunato P. b L. c. "Characterization of optoelectronic platform using an amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon biosensor for the specific identification of nucleic acid sequences based on gold nanoparticle probes." Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical. 132 (2008): 508-511. AbstractWebsite

Nanotechnology is having a positive impact on nearly every industry, and in particular in healthcare, where it is extending the limits of molecular diagnostics to the nanoscale-nanodiagnostics. Here we describe an innovative optoelectronic platform for the colorimetric detection of nucleic acids based on oligonucleotide-derivatized gold nanoparticles. The device integrates an amorphous/nanocrystalline biosensor and a light emission source with a gold nanoprobe for specific DNA detection. This low cost, fast and simple optoelectronic platform permits detection of few picomole of nucleic acid without target or signal amplification making it suitable for application in population diagnostics and in point-of-care hand-held devices. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J.a, Elamurugu Barradas Alves Rego Gonçalves Martins Fortunato E. a N. P. "Co-doping of aluminium and gallium with nitrogen in ZnO films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering." Journal of Physics Condensed Matter. 20 (2008). AbstractWebsite

N, (N+Ga) and (N+Al) doped ZnO films were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The samples were characterized by their structural, surface morphological, compositional and optical properties. The x-ray diffraction studies confirmed the co-doping of (N+Ga) and (N+Al) besides showing improvement in the crystallinity when compared with the single Ndoping. The surface of the films becomes rougher after co-doping. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford back-scattering analysis indicate that the co-doping changes the chemical states and varies the amount of nitrogen (N) in ZnO. The amount of 'N' has been greatly increased for (N+Ga) co-doping, indicating that it is the best co-doping pair for p-type ZnO. Additionally, co-doping has increased the average visible transmittance (40-650nm) and the optical band gap is shifted towards shorter wavelength. In the case of (N+Al) co-doping, the band gap becomes wider than that of undoped ZnO. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

Gonçalves, G., Barquinha Raniero Martins Fortunato P. L. R. "Crystallization of amorphous indium zinc oxide thin films produced by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering." Thin Solid Films. 516 (2008): 1374-1376. AbstractWebsite

In this work we studied indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The films were annealed at high temperature (1100 K) in vacuum, and the oxygen exodiffusion was monitored in-situ. The results showed three main peaks, one at approximately 600 K, other at approximately 850 K and the last one at 940 K, which are probably from oxygen bonded in the film surface and in the bulk, respectively. The initial amorphous structure becomes microcrystalline, according to the X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity of the films decreases (about 3 orders of magnitude), after the annealing treatment. This behavior could be explained by the crystallization of the structure, which affects the transport mechanism. Apart from the changes in the material structure, a small variation was observed on the absorption coefficient. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Elangovan, E., Marques Pimentel Martins Fortunato A. A. R. "Effect of annealing on molybdenum doped indium oxide thin films RF sputtered at room temperature." Vacuum. 82 (2008): 1489-1494. AbstractWebsite

Thin films of molybdenum doped indium oxide (IMO) were deposited on glass at room temperature using an in-built three-source RF magnetron sputtering. The films were studied as a function of oxygen volume percentage (O2 vol. %; ranging from 0.0 to 17.5%) in the sputtering chamber. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized on post-annealing. The as-deposited films are low conducting and Hall coefficients were undetectable; whereas post-annealed films possess fairly high conductivity. The lowest transmittance (11.96% at 600 nm) observed from the films deposited without oxygen increased to a maximum of 88.01% (3.5 O2 vol. %); whereas this transmittance was decreased with the increasing O2 vol. % to as low as 81.04% (15.6 O2 vol. %); a maximum of 89.80% was obtained from the films annealed at 500 °C in open air (3.5 O2 vol. %). The optical band gap of 3.80 eV obtained from the films deposited without oxygen increased with increasing O2 vol. % to as high as 3.91 eV (17.5 O2 vol. %). A maximum of 3.92 eV was obtained from the films annealed at 300 °C in N2:H2 gas atmosphere (17.5 O2 vol. %). © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Wang, J.a, Elamurugu Sallet Jomard Lusson Rego Barquinha Gonçalves Martins Fortunato E. a V. b. "Effect of annealing on the properties of N-doped ZnO films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering." Applied Surface Science. 254 (2008): 7178-7182. AbstractWebsite

N-doped ZnO films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering in N2/Ar gas mixture and were post-annealed at different temperatures (Ta) ranging from 400 to 800 °C in O2 gas at atmospheric pressure. The as-deposited and post-annealed films were characterized by their structural (XRD), compositional (SIMS, XPS), optical (UV-vis-NIR spectrometry), electrical (Hall measurements), and optoelectronic properties (PL spectra). The XRD results authenticate the improvement of crystallinity following post-annealing. The weak intensity of the (0 0 2) reflection obtained for the as-deposited N-doped ZnO films was increased with the increasing Ta to become the preferred orientation at higher Ta (800 °C). The amount of N-concentration and the chemical states of N element in ZnO films were changed with the Ta, especially above 400 °C. The average visible transmittance (400-800 nm) of the as-deposited films (26%) was increased with the increasing Ta to reach a maximum of 75% at 600 °C but then decreased. In the PL spectra, A0X emission at 3.321 eV was observed for Ta = 400 °C besides the main D0X emission. The intensity of the A0X emission was decreased with the increasing Ta whereas D0X emission became sharper and more optical emission centers were observed when Ta is increased above 400 °C. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Elangovan, E., Martins Fortunato R. E. "Effect of annealing on the properties of RF sputtered indium molybdenum oxide thin films." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 354 (2008): 2831-2838. AbstractWebsite

Indium molybdenum oxide thin films radio-frequency sputtered at room temperature on glass were studied as a function of oxygen volume percentage. The as-deposited films were post-annealed in the temperature range of 300-500 °C in oxidizing (open air) and reducing (N2:H2 gas) atmospheres for 1 h. The as-deposited amorphous films become crystalline on post-annealing irrespective of the annealing conditions. In most cases, the (2 2 2) diffraction line is emerged as the high intensive peak. The films annealed at ≥400 °C in N2:H2 show a carrier concentration >1020 cm-3. The better electrical properties are obtained for the films post-annealed at 300 °C. The optical transmittance of the as-deposited films varies between 10% and 85% depending on the deposition and annealing conditions. Atomic force microscope analysis reveal that the films annealed at 300 °C are composed of closely packed crystallites (size of which varies between 5 nm and 150 nm) whose size varies noticeably when the annealing temperature is raised to 400 °C. On the other hand, the surface of the films annealed at 500 °C becomes rougher, with the RMS roughness varying between 2.00 nm and 16.97 nm. The surface of the films deposited in the presence of oxygen shows metal like features when annealed at ≥400 °C in N2:H2 that is attributed to the segregation of indium. Further, the segregation of In is substantiated from the scanning electron microscope analysis of these samples. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barquinha, P., Pereira Goņalves Martins Fortunato L. G. R. "The effect of deposition conditions and annealing on the performance of high-mobility GIZO TFTs." Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters. 11 (2008): H248-H251. AbstractWebsite

The influence of oxygen content, radio-frequency (rf) sputtering power, and postdeposition annealing on the electrical properties of gallium-indium-zinc oxide (GIZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is analyzed. Little to no oxygen content in the sputtering chamber is crucial to obtain high-performance devices, even before annealing. In contrast, a high oxygen content and rf power lead, respectively, to unstable/poor performing and depletion mode TFTs before annealing, and mainly for these "nonideal" conditions, annealing proves to be effective to improve device performance/stability and to decrease the performance discrepancy among TFTs processed under different oxygen and rf power conditions. Best TFTs present a field-effect mobility of 46 cm2 / V s, subthreshold swing of 0.26 V/dec, threshold voltage of 0.70 V, and an on/off ratio 108 - 109. These results are a consequence of the optimized processing and of the usage of proper GIZO target composition, 1:2:1 mol. © 2008 The Electrochemical Society.

Figueiredo, V.a, Elangovan Gonçalves Barquinha Pereira Franco Alves Martins Fortunato E. a G. a. "Effect of post-annealing on the properties of copper oxide thin films obtained from the oxidation of evaporated metallic copper." Applied Surface Science. 254 (2008): 3949-3954. AbstractWebsite

Thin films of copper oxide were obtained through thermal oxidation (100-450 °C) of evaporated metallic copper (Cu) films on glass substrates. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the cubic Cu phase of the as-deposited films. The films annealed at 100 °C showed mixed Cu-Cu2O phase, whereas those annealed between 200 and 300 °C showed a single cubic Cu2O phase. A single monoclinic CuO phase was obtained from the films annealed between 350 and 450 °C. The positive sign of the Hall coefficient confirmed the p-type conductivity in the films with Cu2O phase. However, a relatively poor crystallinity of these films limited the p-type characteristics. The films with Cu and CuO phases show n-type conductivity. The surface of the as-deposited is smooth (RMS roughness of 1.47 nm) and comprised of uniformly distributed grains (AFM and SEM analysis). The post-annealing is found to be effective on the distribution of grains and their sizes. The poor transmittance of the as-deposited films (<1%) is increased to a maximum of ∼80% (800 nm) on annealing at 200 °C. The direct allowed band gap is varied between 2.03 and 3.02 eV. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Prabakaran, R.a, Peres Monteiro Fortunato Martins Ferreira M. b T. b. "The effects of ZnO coating on the photoluminescence properties of porous silicon for the advanced optoelectronic devices." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 354 (2008): 2181-2185. AbstractWebsite

In the present work we investigate, the role of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films passivating layer deposited by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature on low (18%) and high (80%) porosity porous silicon (PS). The micro-Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis have been carried out to understand the effect of ZnO films coating on PS. A systematic investigation from Raman spectroscopy suggests the formation of a good quality ZnO wurtzite structure on PS. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements on PS and ZnO coated PS shows a red, blue and UV emission bands at around ∼1.8, ∼2.78 and ∼3.2 eV. An enhancement of all PL emission bands have been achieved after ZnO films deposition on high porosity PS. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Martins, R.a, Barquinha Pimentel Pereira Fortunato Kang Song Kim Park Park P. a A. a. "Electron transport in single and multicomponent n-type oxide semiconductors." Thin Solid Films. 516 (2008): 1322-1325. AbstractWebsite

The electron transport in n-type polycrystalline zinc oxide, nanocrystalline Zinc-Gallium-Oxygen and amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxygen systems produced by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature, under different oxygen partial pressure were investigated. It was found that the carrier transport is not band tail limited, being governed by metal cations irrespective to the film's structure. The highest net room temperature electron mobility was achieved on the amorphous films and noticed that for the single component oxides the mobility decreases as the carrier concentration increases, while the reverse behaviour was observed for the multicomponent oxides, independently of their structure. These behaviours are related to the role that negative charge defects in excess of 1010 cm- 2 generated on multicomponent oxides have on carriers scattering and so on their electronic performances. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Prabakaran, R., Fortunato Martins Ferreira E. R. I. "Fabrication and characterization of hybrid solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine/porous silicon." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 354 (2008): 2892-2896. AbstractWebsite

This work refers to the fabrication of hybrid solar cells based on porous silicon (PS) filled with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) to form GZO/CuPc-PS/Si/Al structure. We used n-type Si since photoinduced charge transfer from CuPc to Si is observed only for n-type Si. The characteristic 100% peak at 6.8°2θ from XRD confirms that the CuPc coating on PS exists in α-CuPc polymorph. The systematic increase in FWHM of XRD peak at 69.1°2θ and red-shift of LO phonon Raman spectra indicate a progressive reduction of Si nanocrystallites size with increasing etching time and the estimated size agrees well with atomic force microscopic images. The FTIR results confirm the formation of α-CuPc polymorph and it is also corroborated well with XRD and Raman results. © 2008.

Barquinha, P.a, Vila Gonçalves Pereira Martins Morante Fortunato A. M. b G. "Gallium-indium-zinc-oxide-based thin-film transistors: Influence of the source/drain material." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. 55 (2008): 954-960. AbstractWebsite

During the last years, oxide semiconductors have shown that they will have a key role in the future of electronics. In fact, several research groups have already presented working devices with remarkable electrical and optical properties based on these materials, mainly thin-film transistors (TFTs). Most of these TFTs use indium-tin oxide (ITO) as the material for source/drain electrodes. This paper focuses on the investigation of different materials to replace ITO in inverted-staggered TFTs based on gallium-indium-zinc oxide (GIZO) semiconductor. The analyzed electrode materials were indium-zinc oxide, Ti, Al, Mo, and Ti/Au, with each of these materials used in two different kinds of devices: one was annealed after GIZO channel deposition but prior to source/drain deposition, and the other was annealed at the end of device production. The results show an improvement on the electrical properties when the annealing is performed at the end (for instance, with Ti/Au electrodes, mobility rises from 19 to 25 cm2/V · s, and turn-on voltage drops from 4 to 2 V). Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), we could confirm that some diffusion exists in the source/drain electrodes/ semiconductor interface, which is in close agreement with the obtained electrical properties. In addition to TOF-SIMS results for relevant elements, electrical characterization is presented for each kind of device, including the extraction of source/drain series resistances and TFT intrinsic parameters, such as VTi (intrinsic threshold voltage). © 2008 IEEE.

Pereira, L.a, Barquinha Fortunato Martins Kang Kim Lim Song Park P. a E. a. "High k dielectrics for low temperature electronics." Thin Solid Films. 516 (2008): 1544-1548. AbstractWebsite

In this work the electrical and structural properties of two high k materials as hafnium oxide (HfO2) and tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) produced at room temperature are exploited. Aiming low temperature processing two techniques were employed: r.f. sputtering and electron beam evaporation. The sputtered HfO2 films present a nanocrystalline structure when deposited at room temperature. The same does not happen for the evaporated films, which are essentially amorphous. The density and the electrical performance of both sputtered and evaporated films are improved after annealing them at 200 °C. On the other hand, the Ta2O5 samples deposited at room temperature are always amorphous, independently of the technique used. The density and electrical performance are not so sensitive to the annealing process. The set of data obtained show that these dielectrics processed at temperatures below 200 °C present promising properties aiming to produce devices at low temperature with improved interface properties and reduced leakage currents. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fortunato, E., Barquinha Gonçalves Pereira Martins P. G. L. "High mobility and low threshold voltage transparent thin film transistors based on amorphous indium zinc oxide semiconductors." Solid-State Electronics. 52 (2008): 443-448. AbstractWebsite

Staggered bottom gate transparent thin film transistors (TTFTs) have been produced by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature, using amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) semiconductor, for the channel as well as for the drain and source regions. The obtained TTFTs operate in the enhancement mode with threshold voltages of 2.4 V, saturation mobility of 22.7 cm2/V s, gate voltage swing of 0.44 V/dec and an ON/OFF current ratio of 7 × 107. The high performances presented by these TTFTs produced at room temperature, make these TFTs a promising candidate for flexible, wearable, disposable portable electronics as well as battery-powered applications. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fortunato, E.a, Pereira Barquinha Botelho Do Rego Gongalves Vilà Morante Martins L. a P. a. "High mobility indium free amorphous oxide based thin film transistors." Proceedings of International Meeting on Information Display. Vol. 8. 2008. 1199-1202. Abstract

High mobility bottom gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with an amorphous gallium tin zinc oxide (a-GSZO) channel layer have been produced by rf magnetron cosputtering using a gallium zinc oxide (GZO) and tin (Sn) targets. The effect of the post annealing temperatures (200 °C, 250 °C and 300 °C) was evaluated and compared with two series of TFTs produced at room temperature and 150 °C during the channel deposition. From the results it was observed that the effect ofpos annealing is crucial for both series of TFTs either for stability as well as for improving the electrical characteristics. The a-GSZO TFTs operate in the enhancement mode (n-type), present a high saturation mobility of 24.6 cm2/Vs, a subthreshold gate swing voltage of 0.38 V/decade, a turn-on voltage of -0.5 V, a threshold voltage of 4.6 V and an ION/IOFF ratio of 8x107, satisfying all the requirements to be used in active-matrix backplane.

Fortunato, E.M.C.a, Pereira Barquinha Botelho Do Rego Goņalves Vil̀ Morante Martins L. M. N. a. "High mobility indium free amorphous oxide thin film transistors." Applied Physics Letters. 92 (2008). AbstractWebsite

High mobility bottom gate thin film transistors (TFTs) with an amorphous gallium tin zinc oxide (a-GSZO) channel layer have been produced by rf magnetron cosputtering using a gallium zinc oxide (GZO) and tin (Sn) targets. The effect of postannealing temperatures (200, 250, and 300 °C) was evaluated and compared with two series of TFTs produced at room temperature (S1) and 150 °C (S2) during the channel deposition. From the results, it was observed that the effect of postannealing is crucial for both series of TFTs either for stability as well as for improving the electrical characteristics. The a-GSZO TFTs (WL=5050 μm) operate in the enhancement mode (n -type), present a high saturation mobility of 24.6 cm2 V s, a subthreshold gate swing voltage of 0.38 V /decade, a turn-on voltage of -0.5 V, a threshold voltage of 4.6 V, and an Ion Ioff ratio of 8× 107, satisfying all the requirements to be used as active-matrix backplane. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Parthiban, S.a, Ramamurthi Elangovan Martins Fortunato Ganesan K. a E. b. "High-mobility molybdenum doped indium oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique." Materials Letters. 62 (2008): 3217-3219. AbstractWebsite

Molybdenum doped indium oxide (IMO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrates preheated to 450 °C by spray pyrolysis technique. The Mo doping was varied between 0 and 2.0 at.%. The films were characterized by their structural, electrical and optical properties. The films are confirmed to be cubic bixbyite In2O3 with a strongest orientation along (222) plane, which is shifted to (400) plane for the increase in Mo doping to 1.25 and 2 at.%. The film deposited with 0.5 at.% Mo doping shows high mobility of 76.9 cm2V- 1s- 1 , resistivity of 1.8 × 10- 3 Ω-cm and high carrier concentration of 4.6 × 1019 cm- 3 with 81.3% transmittance in the visible range between 500 and 800 nm. Further, the transparency extents well into the near-IR range. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fortunato, E., Correia Barquinha Pereira Goncalves Martins N. P. L. "High-performance flexible hybrid field-effect transistors based on cellulose fiber paper." IEEE Electron Device Letters. 29 (2008): 988-990. AbstractWebsite

In this letter, we report for the first time the use of a sheet of cellulose-fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide-based semiconductor thin-film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach, we are using the cellulose-fiber-based paper in an "interstrate"structure since the device is built on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (> 30 cm2Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation, and subthreshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose-fiber-based paper FETs' characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability, after two months of being processed. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) and rival with the same oxide-based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low-cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID, and point-of-care systems for self-analysis in bioapplications, among others. © 2008 IEEE.

Fortunato, E., Raniero Siva Gonçalves Pimentel Barquinha Águas Pereira Gonçalves Ferreira Elangovan Martins L. L. A. "Highly stable transparent and conducting gallium-doped zinc oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications." Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 92 (2008): 1605-1610. AbstractWebsite

Transparent and highly conducting gallium zinc oxide (GZO) films were successfully deposited by RF sputtering at room temperature. A lowest resistivity of∼2.8 × 10-4 ωcm was achieved for a film thickness of 1100nm (sheet resistance ∼2.5ω/□), with a Hall mobility of 18cm2/Vs and a carrier concentration of 1.3 × 1021 cm-3. The films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal structure having a strong crystallographic c-axis orientation. A linear dependence between the mobility and the crystallite size was obtained. The films are highly transparent (between 80% and 90% including the glass substrate) in the visible spectra with a refractive index of about 2, very similar to the value reported for the bulk material. These films were applied to single glass/TCO/pin hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells as front layer contact, leading to solar cells with efficiencies of about 9.52%. With the optimized deposition conditions, GZO films were also deposited on polymer (PEN) substrates and the obtained results are discussed. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

d c Martins, R.a, Baptista Silva Raniero Doria Franco Fortunato P. b L. a. "Identification of unamplified genomic DNA sequences using gold nanoparticle probes and a novel thin film photodetector." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 354 (2008): 2580-2584. AbstractWebsite

This paper describes a novel colorimetric method for detection of nucleic acid targets in a homogeneous format with improved sensitivity by means of a system based on the combination of a tunable monochromatic light source and an amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon photodetector that detects color and light intensity changes undergone by samples/assays containing tailored gold nanoparticles probes. This new low cost, portable, fast and simple optoelectronic platform, with the possibility to be re-used, permits detection of at least 400 fentomole of specific DNA sequences without target or signal amplification and was applied to the rapid detection of human pathogens in large variety of clinical samples such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wang, J.a, Elamurugu Sallet Lusson Amiri Jomard Martins Fortunato E. a V. b. "Influence of different carrier gases on the properties of ZnO films grown by MOCVD." Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio. 47 (2008): 242-244. AbstractWebsite

ZnO films were grown on sapphire (001) substrate by atmospheric MOCVD using diethyl zinc and tertiary butanol precursors. The influence of different carrier gases (H2 and He) on the properties was analyzed by their structural (XRD), microstructural (SEM) and compositional (SIMS) characterization. The intensity of the strongest diffraction peak from ZnO (002) plane was increased by about 2 orders of magnitude when He is used as carrier gas, indicating the significant enhancement in crystallinity. The surface of the samples grown using H2 and He carrier gases was composed of leaf-like and spherical grains respectively. Hydrogen [H] content in the film grown using H2 is higher than that using He, indicating that the [H] was influenced by the H2 carrier gas. Ultraviolet emission dominates the low temperature PL spectra. The emission from ZnO films grown using He show higher optical quality and more emission centers.

Cui, H.-N.a, Teixeira Meng Martins Fortunato V. a L. -. "Influence of oxygen/argon pressure ratio on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of ITO thin films deposited at room temperature." Vacuum. 82 (2008): 1507-1511. AbstractWebsite

Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) such as indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films onto glass substrates are widely used as transparent and conductive electrodes for a variety of technological applications including flat panel displays, solar cells, smart windows, touch screens, etc. ITO films on glass and polycarbonate (PC) substrates were prepared at room temperature (RT) and at different PO2. The films were characterized in terms of the surface roughness (δ), sheet resistance, the refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k). The free carrier density (nc) and the carrier mobility (μ) of the ITO (In2O3:Sn) films were measured and studied. The nc and μ values vary in different ratio of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) of ITO deposition. The observed changes in the ITO film resistivity are due to the combined effect of different parameter values for nc and μ. From AFM analysis and spectra calculations, the surface roughness values of the ITO films were studied and it was observed that the δ values were lower than 15 nm. The energy band gap Eg ranges from 3.26 eV to 3.66 eV as determined from the absorption spectrum. It was observed an increase on the energy band gap as the PO2 decrease in the range of 20-2% PO2. The Lorentz oscillator classical model has also been used to fit the ellipsometric spectra in order to obtain both refractive index n and extinction coefficient κ values. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Prabakaran, R., Silva Fortunato Martins Ferreira L. E. R. "Investigation of hydrocarbon coated porous silicon using PECVD technique to detect CO2 gas." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 354 (2008): 2610-2614. AbstractWebsite

In the present work, we investigate the influence of hydrocarbon (CHx) thin film coating on porous silicon (PS) by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique to detect CO2 gas. The fabricated CHx/PS heterojunction device shows up to one and two orders of magnitude enhancement in current under CO2 gas exposure. FTIR spectroscopy measurements reveal a remarkable structural modification of the CHx/PS device during CO2 gas exposure. Further, the enhancement of CHx related absorbance bands by a factor 6.2 for the CHx/PS specimen in comparison with PS confirm the good quality of the deposited CHx thin films. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.