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Fortunato, E., Vieira Ferreira Carvalho Lavareda Martins M. L. C. "Large area position sensitive detector based on amorphous silicon technology." Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 297. 1993. 981-986. Abstract

We have developed a rectangular dual-axis large area Position Sensitive Detector (PSD), with 5 cm×5 cm detection area, based on PIN hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) technology, produced by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD). The metal contacts are located in the four edges of the detected area, two of them located on the back side of the ITO/PIN/Al structure and the others two located in the front side. The key factors of the detectors resolution and linearity are the thickness uniformity of the different layers, the geometry and the contacts location. Besides that, edge effects on the sensor's corner disturb the linearity of the detector. In this paper we present results concerning the linearity of the detector as well as its optoelectronic characteristics and the role of the i-layer thickness on the final sensor performances.

Fortunato, E.a, Vieira Lavareda Ferreira Martins M. a G. a. "Material properties, project design rules and performances of single and dual-axis a-Si:H large area position sensitive detectors." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 164-166 (1993): 797-800. AbstractWebsite

We have developed large area (up to 80mm×80mm) Thin Film Position Sensitive Detectors (TFPSD) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Although crystalline silicon PSDs have been realized and applied to optical systems, their detection area is small (less than 10mm×10mm), which implies the need of optical magnification systems for supporting their field of applications towards large area inspection systems, which does not happen by using a-Si:H devices. The key factors for the TFPSDs resolution are the thickness uniformity of the constituting layers, the geometry and the position of the contacts. In this paper we present data on single and dual-axis rectangular TFPSDs correlating, their performances with the different underlying lateral effects. For the single axis-detector, with two opposite extended contacts, the output photocurrent difference to sum ratio is a linear function of the position of a narrow incident light beam, even for low illumination levels (below 20 lux). For the dual-axis detector with extended contacts, at all four sides (except for small gaps at the vertices due to edge effects) an almost linear relation has been found between the incident light spot position along both axis and the corresponding output photocurrents. © 1993.

Vieira, M., Fortunato Lavareda Carvalho Martins E. G. C. "Role of photodegradation on the μτ product and microstructure of the a-Si:H pin devices." Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 297. 1993. 637-642. Abstract

PIN solar cells were light soaked up to 60 hours. The cell characteristics, the optoelectronic properties and the microstructure parameter (R = I2100/I2100+I2000) as well as the hydrogen content (CH) and density of states (g(Ef)) of the active i-layer were monitored throughout the entire light induced degradation process and compared with the correspondents μτ product (for both carriers) inferred through steady photoconductivity and FST measurements. Data show a strong correlation between the decrease of μτ product for electron and the increase of the fraction of hydrogen bonded on internal surfaces (R increases from 0.1 to 0.4) suggesting structural changes during the light induced defects' formation. For holes, the μτ product remains approximately constant and only dependent on the initial hydrogen content. As g(Ef) increases, μτ presents an asymmetrical decrease showing that electrons are more sensitive to defects' growth than holes. We also observe that the rate of degradation is faster for samples having the lowest defect densities, R and CH, showing that the amount of degradation is not a simple function of the photon exposure (Gt product) but also depends on the material microstructure.

Martins, R., Fantoni Vieira A. M. "Tailoring defects on amorphous silicon pin devices." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 164-166 (1993): 671-674. AbstractWebsite

This paper deals with a new model and structure able to tailor defects in pin devices. The model assumes the usual density of states profile, including donor and acceptor like states inside the mobility gap and has the capability to simulate the transient and steady state device behavior. The new structure is based in two interfacial defectous layers, located at the junctions, acting as "gettering" centers to tailor the defects. The role of the interlayer and its thickness on device performances will be also discussed. © 1993.

Vieira, M., Martins Fortunato Soares Guimarães R. E. F. "A-Si:H ambipolar diffusion length and effective lifetime measured by flying spot (FST) and spectral photovoltage (SPT) techniques." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 137-138 (1991): 479-482. AbstractWebsite

On this paper we report the physical model that supports the theory of the Flying Spot Technique (FST). Through this technique it is possible to determine separately the ambipolar diffusion length (L*) and the effective lifetime (τ*) of the generated carriers, using either Schottky diodes or quasi-ohmic sandwich structures. We also report a new static method based on the Spectral Photovoltage (SPT) that allows to infer the ambipolar diffusion length and to estimate the surface recombination velocity. © 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.

Martins, R., Ferreira Carvalho Guimarães I. N. L. "Engineering of plasma deposition systems used for producing large area a-Si:H devices." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 137-138 (1991): 757-760. AbstractWebsite

One of the main problems in producing large area amorphous silicon devices concerns films uniformity. In this paper we present data concerning the role of reactor geometry and design and on the film performances as well as the problems related to mechanical mismatches in scaling up the reactor size. © 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.

Willeke, G.a c, Martins R. b. "On the structural, optical and electronic properties of microcrystalline Si:O:C:H thin films prepared in a two-consecutive-decomposition-deposition-chamber system." Philosophical Magazine B: Physics of Condensed Matter; Statistical Mechanics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Properties. 63 (1991): 79-86. AbstractWebsite

P- and n-type weakly absorbing highly conductive (σ>0·1Ω-1 cm-1) SiC thin films with similar structural and optoelectronic properties have been prepared in a two-consecutive-decomposition-deposition-chamber reactor. These films are composed of Si microcrystals (δ = 50-100 Å) embedded in an amorphous Si:0:C:H matrix, with concentrations up to 25at.%O and 20at.%C. From diffraction studies there is no evidence for the presence of SiC crystallites. Electrical conduction appears to be in extended states via percolation channels through Si crystallites of sufficient volume fraction. © 1991 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

de Nijs, J.M.M.a, Carvalho Santos Martins C. b M. b. "A thin SiO layer as a remedy for the indium reduction at the In2O3/μc-Si:C:H interface." Applied Surface Science. 52 (1991): 339-342. AbstractWebsite

The reduction of the In2O3 caused by the deposition of μc-Si:C:H by means of plasma-enhanced CVD, is considerably diminished if a thin (50 Å) silicon monoxide layer is applied as a diffusion barrier. The amount of reduced indium diminishes by a factor three while the amount of silicon oxide is also less, although SiO was added on purpose. First results on an amorphous silicon In2O3/pi junction show that the SiO layer benefits the opto-electrical characteristics. © 1991.

Dirani, E.A.T., Pereyra Andrade Soler Martins I. A. M. "Effect of the deposition parameters on the electro optical properties and morphology of microcrystalline hydrogenated silicon alloys." Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Vol. 2. 1990. 1588-1590. Abstract

Microcrystalline phosphorus-doped hydrogenated silicon alloy films were deposited in a remote plasma CVD (chemical vapor deposition) system. The film properties were studied as a function of RF power density and hydrogen concentration in the reaction gas mixture. The properties of the deposited films are extremely sensitive to the RF power density in the studied range of 250 mW/cm2 to 625 mW/cm2. Very low values of electrical resistivity were obtained. For an RF power density of 500 mW/cm2, ρ = 3 × 10-2 Ω-cm, while ρ = 1.9 × 103 Ω-cm for 625 mW/cm2, indicating the predominance of the amorphous tissue over the microcrystalline phase. High doping efficiencies which can be correlated to large grain size are indicated by the very low values of the activation energy as low as 30 meV for 500 mW/cm2, that were obtained.

Lavado, M., Martins Ferreira Lavareda Fortunato Vieira Guimarães R. I. G. "Electron paramagnetic resonance of defects in doped microcrystalline silicon." Vacuum. 39 (1989): 791-794. AbstractWebsite

Experimental results on structure defects in microcrystalline (μc) n- and p-doped μc-S1-x:Cx:H films deposited on alkali-free glass substrates by spatial plasma separation1 and obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) are presented. The technique used for subtracting the substrate effect on recorded spectra is also discussed as well as its quantification. The microscopic structure of intrinsic defects and impurity states and their role in transport mechanisms are studied and correlated with the composition of their films. These results are also related to transport properties of deposited films in order to observe the role of dopant centres, located at conduction band tails, in controlling the electrical properties. © 1989.

Guimarães, L., Martins Santos Maçarico Carvalho Fortunato Vieira R. M. A. "Hydrogenated thin film silicon semiconductors produced by a two consecutive decomposition and deposition chamber system." Vacuum. 39 (1989): 789-790. AbstractWebsite

Undoped and doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon semiconductors (a-Si:H) have been produced by a two consecutive decomposition deposition chamber (TCDDC) system assisted by electromagnetic static fields. Through this technique, a spatial separation is achieved between the plasma chemistry and that of the deposition to avoid ion and electron (with high energies) bombardment on the growing surface. Besides this, the use of a static magnetic field perpendicular to the substrate will promote plasma confinement, so avoiding its contamination by residual gases adsorbed on the reactor walls. On the other hand, the use of two grids dc biased in the deposition chamber, will allow control of the main film precursors, responsible for the electro-optical and structural properties of deposited films. In this paper we shall discuss the deposition method used as well as the transport, structural and morphological properties presented by deposited films and its dependence on deposition parameters used. © 1989.

Bregman, J.a, Gordon Shapira Fortunato Martins Guimaraes J. a Y. a. "Substrate effect on the electrical properties of a-Si:H thin films and its modification by diffusion-blocking interlayers." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films. 7 (1989): 2628-2631. AbstractWebsite

Electrical dark conductivity (σd) and surface composition of undoped and doped a-Si:H thin films have been investigated, using coplanar I−V as a function of temperature and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The films were prepared by rf glow discharge deposition on standard soda-lime glass and on alkali-free glass substrates. Comparing these two sets of substrates for undoped films, we find that σd of the films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates at room temperature is higher by more than two orders of magnitude, their activation energy is lower by about a factor of 3, and their photosensitivity (σph/σd) is lower by two orders of magnitude than that of the films deposited on alkali-free glass substrates. We suggest that Na ions, leached from the glass into the a-Si:H overlayer play a significant role in determining the film conductivity by creating electrically active donorlike states. This conclusion is supported by similar measurements on p- and n-type a-Si:H films on the same substrates and by AES results. Films of a-Si:H, grown on thin a-Si:C:H interlayers on soda-lime glass, showed very low Na concentrations and low dark conductivities as found by AES and electrical measurements, respectively. The role of the a-Si:C:H interlayers as diffusion barriers is discussed. © 1989, American Vacuum Society. All rights reserved.

Martins, R.a, Willeke Fortunato Ferreira Vieira Santos Maçarico Guimarães G. b E. a. "Transport in μc-Six:Cy:Oz:H films prepared by a TCDDC system." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 114 (1989): 486-488. AbstractWebsite

N- and p-type weakly absorbing and highly conductive microcrystalline thin μc-Six:Cy:Oz:H films, have been produced by a TCDDC (Two Consecutive Decomposition and Deposition Chamber) system1. The optoelectronic and structural results show that we are in the presence of a mixed phase of Si microcrystals (c-islands) embedded in a-Six:Cy:Oz:H (a-tissue). Based on that, we propose a model where transport mechanisms are explained by the potential fluctuations related to films heterogeneities. Thus, conduction is due to carriers that by tunneling or percolation "pass" or "go" trough the barriers and/or percolate randomly by the formed channels. © 1989.

Fortunato, E., Martins Ferreira Santos Maçarico Guimarães R. I. M. "Tunneling in vertical μcSi/aSixCyOz:H/μcSi heterostructures." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 115 (1989): 120-122. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we report by the first time tunneling tranport on vertical μcSi/aSixCyOz:H/μcSi (μcaμc) heterostructures produced in a Two consecutive Decomposition and Deposition Chamber system where a Negative Differential Conductance is observed even at room temperature. Giant bias anomalies are observed, that decrease with temperature. Tunneling spectroscopy data are also reported for samples measured at low temperatures. A qualitative information of the recorded data is obtained and related with main features of the heterostructure. Nevertheless in this stage is hard to take quantitative information. © 1989.

Willeke, G., Martins R. "Structural properties of weakly absorbing highly conductive SiC thin films prepared in a TCDDC system." Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Vol. 1. 1988. 320-323. Abstract

Diffraction and other structural measurements on n-type SiC thin films prepared in a TCDDC (two consecutive decomposition and deposition chamber) system indicate the presence of Si microcrystals (without evidence for SiC crystallites). Weakly absorbing, highly conductive layers (σ ≥ 10-1 (Ω-cm)-1) contain up to 20 at.% C and 25 at.% O. The optoelectronic properties of these films can be explained in terms of a sufficient volume fraction (above the percolation threshold) of Si microcrystals surrounded by an a-Si:C:O:H matrix.

b b b b b b b Martins, R.a b, Carvalho Fortunato Maçarico Santos Baia Viera Guimarães N. a E. a. "Effects of U.V. light on the transport properties of a-Si : H films during their growth." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 97-98 (1987): 1399-1402. AbstractWebsite

The influence of U.V. light on the transport properties of a-Si : H films during its growth in a r.f. double chamber system was investigated by conductivity, optical absorption, I.R. absorption, spectral photoconductivity and X-ray diffraction measurements. It was concluded that the presence of U.V. light during the deposition process controls the way how hydrogen is incorporated in the structure as well as the impurity atoms. The microcrystalline films investigated present sharp peaks in the I.R. spectra. Both boron and phosphorus doped films show conductivities higher than 10 S cm-1 and estimated crystalline sizes of the order of 80 Å. © 1987.


Doped and undoped a-Si:H and a-SiC:H films were deposited by R. F. decomposition of silane and silane/methane mixtures respectively, in a two consecutive (decomposition and deposition) chambers glow discharge capacitively coupled system. Their electro-optical properties were extensively investigated through dark conductivity, photoconductivity, spectral response, optical absorption, R. F. transmission spectra, electron spin ressonance and CxV MOS measurements.

Sanematsu, M.S.a, Pereyra Andrade Martins I. a A. M. "Highly uniform large-area a-Si:H films." Solar Cells. 14 (1985): 281-287. AbstractWebsite

A double-chamber system was used to deposit large-area hydrogenated amorphous silicon films for photovoltaic applications. The electro-optical characterisation of films of area 400 cm2 deposited on glass substrates is described in this paper. The deposition rate of the films is dependent on the r.f. power delivered, the substrate bias and the partial pressure of the reactive gas. The film thickness was observed to have a uniformity of better than 0.5%. The best film quality was obtained for a deposition rate of about 1.5 Å s-1. The optical gap, activation energy, photosensitivity, density of gap states and hydrogen content were determined. © 1985.


Amorphous Silicon solar cells have been produced by a two consecutive decomposition and deposition chamber system, using polished S. S. substrates. Through a systematic investigation of the electrical and optical properties of doped and undoped amorphous silicon layers (1) we observe that the deposition conditions (gas partial pressure, density of r. f. power, substrate temperature, electromagnetic static fields applied to the substrate, and gas flow rate) influence films properties. In the course of this investigation we have been studying the role of the sheet resistance, R//s, of the I. T. O. layer on the short circuit current, I//s//c, and on the open circuit voltage, V//o//c, of p. i. n. structures of 16cm**2 in area. The obtained results indicate that V//o//c is almost independent on R//s, while I//s//c variation approaches a square root dependence on R//s.

Martins, R., Guimaraes Carvalho Andrade Corgnier Sanematsu L. N. A. "ANALYSIS OF A NEW PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS." Commission of the European Communities, (Report) EUR. 1984. 778-782. Abstract

This new production technique is based on the growth of a-Si films on a reactor where gas decomposition promoted by a capacitively coupled r. f. power system takes place in a chamber separated from that where amorphous films are deposited under the action of an electromagnetic static field. Using this method, we shall reduce films contamination caused by the residual gas desorbed from reactor walls. At the same time, there is a reduction plasma ion and electron damages on the deposited films. The main species impinging upon our substrates will be mainly composed of long life radicals with high mobilities and high diffusion rates, which will give origin to a random silicon network free of long poly-silane chains.

Martins, R., Guimaraes L. "CURRENT TRANSPORT IN METAL-AMORPHOUS SEMICONDUCTOR RECTIFYING DEVICES. ITS APPLICATIONS TO SOLAR CELLS." Commission of the European Communities, (Report) EUR. 1984. 146-150. Abstract

The current transport in metal-amorphous semiconductor barriers is examined by solving the proper Poisson's equation and transport equations within the semiconductor's space charge region taking into account the role of trap shallow states distribution function. The effect of metal is also included through appropriate boundary conditions of the above solutions. Generalized transport equations will be derived either when thermionic drift-diffusion emission process dominates or when the conduction mechanism is mainly due to drift-diffusion emission. Both situations will be analysed with or without neglecting carriers losses during their collision free path, from which a tractable expression for the current-voltage characteristic will be determined.

Martins, R., Dias Guimarães A. G. L. "The interpretation of the electric and optical properties of a-Si:H films produced by rf glow discharge through dark conductivity, photoconductivity and pulse controlled capacitance-voltage measurements." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 57 (1983): 9-22. AbstractWebsite

This paper deals with the interpretation of transport properties of amorphous silicon hydrogenated films (a-Si:H) through dark conductivity, photoconductivity and pulse controlled capacitance-voltage measurements. a-Si:H films were produced by rf glow discharge coupled either inductively or capacitively to a 3% SiH4/Ar mixture at different crossed electromagnetic static fields. The data concerned with the dark activation energy, photoactivation energy, variation of the density of localized states and photosensitivity, (σph/σd)25°C, of a-Si:H films can account for their optoelectronic properties which are strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. We also observed that crossed electromagnetic static fields applied during film formation influences hydrogen incorporation in a different manner than previously proposed. © 1983.

Dias, A.G., Guimarães Martins L. R. "The effect of static electric and magnetic fields on the optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon films produced by r.f. glow discharge." Thin Solid Films. 89 (1982): 307-313. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the present work was to study the optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon films produced by capacitive and inductive r.f. glow discharge in a 3%SiH4-Ar gas mixture. The effect of the application of static electric and magnetic fields during the film formation on the photoconductivity, photoactivation energy, recombination mechanisms and optical gap was thoroughly investigated. Films prepared in a capacitively or inductively coupled discharge show bias-dependent photoconductivities, which reach about 10-4 Ω-1 cm-1 for an inductive discharge with a negative bias and about 10-5 Ω-1 cm-1 for a capacitive discharge with a positive bias. The optical gap is of the order of 1.55 eV for capacitive films and is bias dependent for inductive films (1.45-1.85 eV). A superimposed magnetic field (of about 1 kG) increases the photoconductivity by one order of magnitude for both deposition methods. The optical gap is field dependent for inductive films (1.6-1.8 eV) and is about 1.6 eV for capacitive films. The main recombination mechanism at a moderate photon flux (less than 1014 cm-2 s-1) is monomolecular for all deposition conditions. The photoactivation energy lies between 0.1 and 0.2 eV for capacitive films and is about 0.1 eV for inductive films. It was also found that, by using suitable crossed electric and magnetic fields, it was possible to control the density and nature of the defect states in the films. These are correlated with the type of hydrogenated silicon species and with the amount of hydrogen incorporated into the films, which markedly influence the film properties. © 1982.

Guimaraes, L., Martins Dias Barradas R. A. G. "MODEL FOR ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS CARRIED ON a-Si:H FILMS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS." Commission of the European Communities, (Report) EUR. 1982. 546-555. Abstract
b Jones, D.I.a, Spear Le Comber Li Martins W. E. a P. "Electronic transport and photoconductivity in phosphorus-doped amorphous germanium." Philosophical Magazine B: Physics of Condensed Matter; Statistical Mechanics, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Properties. 39 (1979): 147-158. AbstractWebsite

It is shown that the electronic properties of amorphous germanium (a-Ge) prepared by the glow-discharge decomposition of germane can be controlled systematically by substitutional phosphorus doping from the gas phase. Specimens with different doping levels have' been investigated by conductivity, thermoelectric power and Hall effect measurements in a temperature range between 160 and 450 K. The dependence of conductivity on doping level is qualitatively similar to that in a-Si, but the range of control is limited in a-Ge by the smaller mobility gap. Also the larger overall density of gap states in this material reduces the doping sensitivity. The above transport measurements and their temperature dependence can be interpreted in a quantitatively consistent manner- by a two-path model in which conduction takes place in the extended states and in another path through the localized states. As 111 a-Si, the photoconductivity of glow-discharge Ge can be appreciably sensitized by phosphorus doping. The μτ product deduced from such experiments on a-Ge and a-Si are compared for different preparation techniques. The data show that irrespective of the presence of hydrogen the method of deposition remains an important factor in determining the density of gap states. © 1979 Taylor & Francis Ltd.