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Grey, P., Pereira Pereira Barquinha Cunha Martins Fortunato L. S. P. "Solid State Electrochemical WO3 Transistors with High Current Modulation." Advanced Electronic Materials. 2 (2016). AbstractWebsite

In this paper, the role of electrode architecture (conventional and interdigital), device structure (vertical or planar), and tungsten oxide (WO3) channel thickness on the electro-optical performances of room temperature sputtered electrochromic transistors (EC-Ts) is reported. A larger number of electro-reducible tungsten sites in thicker WO3 films provide improved optical density and coloration efficiency. However, overall transistor performance is found to suffer in planar EC-Ts with the conventional electrode architecture, where the step to planar interdigital electrodes leaves the devices to be almost insensitive to WO3 thickness. Vertical structures result in improved device properties and stability, given to the shorter distance between gate electrode and semiconductor and to the encapsulation effect provided by such structures. These devices show an On–Off ratio of 5 × 106 and a transconductance (g m) of 3.59 mS, for gate voltages (V G) between −2 and 2 V, which to the authors' knowledge are the best values ever reported for electrochemical transistors. The simple and low-cost processing together with the electrical/optical performances well supported into a comprehensive analysis of device physics opens doors for a wide range of new applications in display technologies, biosensors, fuel cells, or electrochemical logic circuits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

b c b c b c b c Liu, A.a b c, Liu Zhu Zhu Fortunato Martins Shan G. a C. a. "Solution-Processed Alkaline Lithium Oxide Dielectrics for Applications in n- and p-Type Thin-Film Transistors." Advanced Electronic Materials. 2 (2016). AbstractWebsite

High-k alkaline lithium oxide (LiOx) thin films are fabricated by spin-coating method. The LiOx thin films are annealed at different temperatures and characterized by various techniques. An optimized LiOx dielectric is achieved at an annealing temperature of 300 °C and exhibits wide bandgap of ≈5.5 eV, smooth surface, relatively permittivity of ≈6.7, and low leakage current density. The as-fabricated LiOx thin films are integrated, as gate dielectrics, in both n-channel indium oxide (In2O3) and p-channel cupric oxide (CuO) transistors. The optimized In2O3/LiOx thin-film transistor (TFT) exhibits high performance and high stability, such as Ion/Ioff of 107, electron mobility of 5.69 cm2 V−1 s−1, subthreshold swing of 70 mV dec−1, negligible hysteresis, and threshold voltage shift of 0.1 V under bias stress for 1.5 h. Meanwhile, the p-channel CuO TFT based on LiOx dielectric shows high Ion/Ioff of 105 and hole mobility of 1.72 cm2 V−1 s−1. All the electrical performances are achieved at an ultra-low operating voltage of 2 V. Considering the simple procedure, the moderate annealing temperature, and the low power consumption merits, these outstanding characteristics represent a significant advance toward the development of battery compatible and portable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

b c b c b c b c b c Jiang, G.a b c, Liu Liu Zhu Meng Shin Fortunato Martins Shan A. a G. a. "Solution-processed high-k magnesium oxide dielectrics for low-voltage oxide thin-film transistors." Applied Physics Letters. 109 (2016). AbstractWebsite

Solution-processed metal-oxide thin films with high dielectric constants (k) have been extensively studied for low-cost and high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs). In this report, MgO dielectric films were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The MgO dielectric films annealed at various temperatures (300, 400, 500, and 600 °C) were characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis, optical spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy. The electrical measurements indicate that the insulating properties of MgO thin films are improved with an increase in annealing temperature. In order to clarify the potential application of MgO thin films as gate dielectrics in TFTs, solution-derived In2O3 channel layers were separately fabricated on various MgO dielectric layers. The optimized In2O3/MgO TFT exhibited an electron mobility of 5.48 cm2/V s, an on/off current ratio of 107, and a subthreshold swing of 0.33 V/dec at a low operation voltage of 6 V. This work represents a great step toward the development of portable and low-power consumption electronics. © 2016 Author(s).

d Deuermeier, J.a b, Bayer Yanagi Kiazadeh Martins Klein Fortunato T. J. M. b. "Substrate reactivity as the origin of Fermi level pinning at the Cu2O/ALD-Al2O3 interface." Materials Research Express. 3 (2016). AbstractWebsite

The reduction of aCu2O layer on copper by exposure toTMAduring the atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 has recently been reported. (Gharachorlou et al 2015 ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 16428-16439). The study presented here analyzes a similar process, leading to the reduction of a homogeneous Cu2O thin film, which allows for additional observations. Angle-resolved in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the localization of metallic copper at the interface. The evaluation of binding energy shifts reveals the formation of aCu2O/Cu Schottky barrier, which gives rise to Fermi level pinning in Cu2O. An initial enhancement of the ALD growth per cycle (GPC) is only observed for bulk Cu2O samples and is thus related to lattice oxygen, originating from regions lying deeper than just the first few layers of the surface. The oxygen out-take from the substrate is limited to the first few cycles, which is found to be due to a saturated copper reduction, rather than the oxygen diffusion barrier of Al2O3. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Grey, P., Pereira Pereira Barquinha Cunha Martins Fortunato L. S. P. "Transistors: Solid State Electrochemical WO3 Transistors with High Current Modulation (Adv. Electron. Mater. 9/2016)." Advanced Electronic Materials. 2 (2016). AbstractWebsite
Besleaga, C.a, Stan Pintilie Barquinha Fortunato Martins G. E. a I. "Transparent field-effect transistors based on AlN-gate dielectric and IGZO-channel semiconductor." Applied Surface Science. 379 (2016): 270-276. AbstractWebsite

The degradation of thin-film transistors (TFTs) caused by the self-heating effect constitutes a problem to be solved for the next generation of displays. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a viable alternative for gate dielectric of TFTs due to its good thermal conductivity, matching coefficient of thermal expansion to indium-gallium-zinc-oxide, and excellent stability at high temperatures. Here, AlN thin films of different thicknesses were fabricated by a low temperature reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering process, using a low cost, metallic Al target. Their electrical properties have been thoroughly assessed. Furthermore, the 200 nm and 500 nm thick AlN layers have been integrated as gate-dielectric in transparent TFTs with indium-gallium-zinc-oxide as channel semiconductor. Our study emphasizes the potential of AlN thin films for transparent electronics, whilst the functionality of the fabricated field-effect transistors is explored and discussed. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a, Tavares Barquinha Duarte Cardoso De Oliveira Martins Fortunato V. G. a P. "A-GIZO TFT neural modeling, circuit simulation and validation." Solid-State Electronics. 105 (2015): 30-36. AbstractWebsite

Development time and accuracy are measures that need to be taken into account when devising device models for a new technology. If complex circuits need to be designed immediately, then it is very important to reduce the time taken to realize the model. Solely based on data measurements, artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methodologies are capable of capturing small and large signal behavior of the transistor, with good accuracy, thus becoming excellent alternatives to more strenuous modeling approaches, such as physical and semi-empirical. This paper then addresses a static modeling methodology for amorphous Gallium-Indium-Zinc-Oxide - Thin Film Transistor (a-GIZO TFT), with different ANNs, namely: multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis functions (RBF) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). The modeling performance is validated by comparing the model outcome with measured data extracted from a real device. In case of a single transistor modeling and under the same training conditions, all the ANN approaches revealed a very good level of accuracy for large- and small-signal parameters (gm and gd), both in linear and saturation regions. However, in comparison to RBF and LS-SVM, the MLP achieves a very acceptable degree of accuracy with lesser complexity. The impact on simulation time is strongly related with model complexity, revealing that MLP is the most suitable approach for circuit simulations among the three ANNs. Accordingly, MLP is then extended for multiple TFTs with different aspect ratios and the network implemented in Verilog-A to be used with electric simulators. Further, a simple circuit (inverter) is simulated from the developed model and then the simulation outcome is validated with the fabricated circuit response. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a, Silva Tavares Barquinha Cardoso Guedes De Oliveira Martins Fortunato B. a V. G. "Analog circuits with high-gain topologies using a-GIZO TFTs on glass." IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology. 11 (2015): 547-553. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents analog building blocks that find potential applications in display panels. A buffer (source-follower), subtractor, adder, and high-gain amplifier, employing only n-type enhancement amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (a-GIZO TFTs), were designed, simulated, fabricated, and characterized. Circuit simulations were carried out using a neural model developed in-house from the measured characteristics of the transistors. The adder-subtractor circuit presents a power consumption of 0.26 mW, and the amplifier presents a gain of 34 dB and a power consumption of 0.576 mW, with a load of 10 MΩ16 pF. To the authors' knowledge, this is the highest gain reported so far for a single-stage amplifier with a-GIZO TFT technology. © 2015 IEEE.

c c d Mendes, M.J.a b, Morawiec Mateus Lyubchyk Águas Ferreira Fortunato Martins Priolo Crupi S. b T. a. "Broadband light trapping in thin film solar cells with self-organized plasmonic nanocolloids." Nanotechnology. 26 (2015). AbstractWebsite

The intense light scattered from metal nanoparticles sustaining surface plasmons makes them attractive for light trapping in photovoltaic applications. However, a strong resonant response from nanoparticle ensembles can only be obtained if the particles have monodisperse physical properties. Presently, the chemical synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles is the method that produces the highest monodispersion in geometry and material quality, with the added benefits of being low-temperature, low-cost, easily scalable and of allowing control of the surface coverage of the deposited particles. In this paper, novel plasmonic back-reflector structures were developed using spherical gold colloids with appropriate dimensions for pronounced far-field scattering. The plasmonic back reflectors are incorporated in the rear contact of thin film n-i-p nanocrystalline silicon solar cells to boost their photocurrent generation via optical path length enhancement inside the silicon layer. The quantum efficiency spectra of the devices revealed a remarkable broadband enhancement, resulting from both light scattering from the metal nanoparticles and improved light incoupling caused by the hemispherical corrugations at the cells' front surface formed from the deposition of material over the spherically shaped colloids. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Ullaha, S.a, De Matteis Branquinho Fortunato Martins Davoli F. a R. b. "A combination of solution synthesis & solution combustion synthesis for highly conducting and transparent Aluminum Zinc Oxide thin films." IEEE-NANO 2015 - 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology. 2015. 144-147. Abstract

Aluminum Zinc Oxide has been extensively investigated as a cheap alternative to transparent conducting tin oxide films for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Thin films of Aluminum Zinc Oxide have been developed successfully through a combination of solution combustion synthesis and solution synthesis. Zn(NO3)3·6H2O as metal source was dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol as solvent through combustion synthesis with Urea as fuel while dopant source of AlCl3·6H2O was mixed separately in solvent to avoid aluminum oxide formation in the films. Precursor solutions were obtained mixing Zn & Al separate solutions in 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3 ratios respectively with oxide, fuel and dopant concentrations of 0.5, 0.25, 0.1, and 0.05 M. The film stacks have been prepared through spin-coating with heating at 400°C for 10 minutes after each deposition to remove residuals and evaporate solvents. Thermal annealing in oven at 600°C for 1 hour followed by rapid thermal annealing at 500°C & 600°C first in vacuum and then in N2-5%H2 environment respectively for 10 minutes each reduced the resistivity of film stacks. Film stack with 10 layers for an average thickness of 0.5μm gave the best Hall Effect resistivity of 3.2 × 10-2 -cm in the case of 0.5M solution with Zn:Al mixing ratio of 9:1 for RTA annealings at 600°C with an average total transparency of 80 % in the wavelength range of 400-1200 nm. The results show a clear trend that increasing the amount of ingredients resistivity could further be decreased. © 2015 IEEE.

G-Berasategui, E.a, Bayón Zubizarreta Barriga Barros Martins Fortunato R. a C. a. "Corrosion resistance analysis of aluminium-doped zinc oxide layers deposited by pulsed magnetron sputtering." Thin Solid Films. 594 (2015): 256-260. AbstractWebsite

In this paper an exhaustive analysis is performed on the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers deposited on silicon wafers by a DC pulsed magnetron sputtering deposition technique to test layer durability. Pulse frequency of the sputtering source was varied and a detailed study of the electrochemical corrosion response of samples in the presence of a corrosive chloride media (NaCl 0.06 M) was carried out. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed after reaching a stable value of the open circuit at 2 h, 192 h and 480 h intervals. Correlation of the corrosion resistance properties with the morphology, and the optical and electrical properties was tested. AZO layers with transmission values higher than 84% and resistivity of 6.54 × 10- 4 â. cm for a deposition process pressure of 3 × 10- 1 Pa, a sputtering power of 2 kW, a pulse frequency of 100 kHz, with optimum corrosion resistance properties, were obtained. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Correia, A.a b, Martins Fortunato Barquinha Goes R. a E. a. "Design of a robust general-purpose low-offset comparator based on IGZO thin-film transistors." Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. Vol. 2015-July. 2015. 261-264. Abstract

This paper presents a low-offset comparator based on n-type amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). An a-Si:H TFT model was adapted to fit the electrical characterization data obtained for these devices. The proposed comparator comprises three pre-amplification stages, a positive-feedback analog latch and a fully dynamic digital latch. Simulation results show that the proposed circuit can work at several tens of kHz, with an accuracy of the order of 10 mV, considering a supply voltage of 10 V and a current consumption of 380 μA. Monte-Carlo simulations exhibit a 1-sigma random offset voltage smaller than 10 mV and 40 mV, respectively, with and without using autozeroing techniques. © 2015 IEEE.

Baptista, A.C.a, Botas Almeida Nicolau Falcão Soares Leitão Martins Borges Ferreira A. M. b A. "Down conversion photoluminescence on PVP/Ag-nanoparticles electrospun composite fibers." Optical Materials. 39 (2015): 278-281. AbstractWebsite

The influence of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the luminescence of electrospun nonwoven mats made of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been studied in this work. The PVP fibers incorporating 2.1-4.3 nm size Ag NPs show a significant photoluminescence (PL) band between 580 and 640 nm under 325 nm laser excitation. The down conversion luminescence emission is present even after several hours of laser excitation, which denotes the durability and stability of fibers to consecutive excitations. As so these one-dimensional photonic fibers made using cheap methods is of great importance for organic optoelectronic applications, fluorescent clothing or counterfeiting labels. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pimentel, A.a, Rodrigues Duarte Nunes Costa Monteiro Martins Fortunato J. b P. a. "Effect of solvents on ZnO nanostructures synthesized by solvothermal method assisted by microwave radiation: a photocatalytic study." Journal of Materials Science. 50 (2015). AbstractWebsite

Abstract: The present work reports the synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles with hexagonal wurtzite structure considering a solvothermal method assisted by microwave radiation and using different solvents: water (H2O), 2-ethoxyethanol (ET) and ethylene glycol (EG). The structural characterization of the produced ZnO nanoparticles has been accessed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, room-temperature photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopies. Different morphologies have been obtained with the solvents tested. Both H2O and ET resulted in rods with high aspect ratio, while EG leads to flower-like structure. The UV absorption spectra showed peaks with an orange shift for synthesis with H2O and ET and blue shift for synthesis with EG. The different synthesized nanostructures were tested for photocatalyst applications, revealing that the ZnO nanoparticles produced with ET degrade faster the molecule used as model dye pollutant, i.e. methylene blue. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Gaspar, D.a, Pereira Delattre Guerin Fortunato Martins L. a A. b. "Engineered cellulose fibers as dielectric for oxide field effect transistors." Physica Status Solidi (C) Current Topics in Solid State Physics. 12 (2015): 1421-1426. AbstractWebsite

When thinking on low cost and sustainable electronic systems, paper can be considered as an interesting option to be used as substrate but also as a component of such systems. In this work we have tailored paper samples that were used simultaneously as physical support and dielectric in oxide based paper field effect transistors (FETs). It was observed that the gate leakage current in these devices depends directly from fibril's dimension and arrangement, being lower for micro/nano fibrillated cellulose paper. Moreover, extra ionic charge added to the paper during its production results in the improvement of FETs' electrical properties, with saturation mobility of 16 cm 2V -1s -1 and on/off current ratio close to 105. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Barquinha, P., Pereira Pereira Wojcik Grey Martins Fortunato S. L. P. "Flexible and Transparent WO3 Transistor with Electrical and Optical Modulation." Advanced Electronic Materials. 1 (2015). AbstractWebsite
Fortunato, E., Martins R. "How materials innovations will lead to device revolution?" 2015 Transducers - 2015 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS 2015. 2015. 884-887. Abstract

Transparent electronics has gained special attention during the last few years and is today established as one of the most promising technologies for leading the next generation of flat panel display due to its excellent electronic performance. The key components are wide band gap semiconductors, where oxides of different origin play an important role, not only as passive component but also as active component, similar to what we observe in conventional semiconductors like silicon. In this paper we present the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin film transistors (TFT) produced by rf magnetron sputtering and we will summarize the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology. © 2015 IEEE.

Liu, G.a, Liu Zhu Shin Fortunato Martins Wang Shan A. a H. a. "Low-Temperature, Nontoxic Water-Induced Metal-Oxide Thin Films and Their Application in Thin-Film Transistors." Advanced Functional Materials (2015). AbstractWebsite

Here, a simple, nontoxic, and inexpensive "water-inducement" technique for the fabrication of oxide thin films at low annealing temperatures is reported. For water-induced (WI) precursor solution, the solvent is composed of water without additional organic additives and catalysts. The thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the annealing temperature can be lowered by prolonging the annealing time. A systematic study is carried out to reveal the annealing condition dependence on the performance of the thin-film transistors (TFTs). The WI indium-zinc oxide (IZO) TFT integrated on SiO2 dielectric, annealed at 300 °C for 2 h, exhibits a saturation mobility of 3.35 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on-to-off current ratio of ≈108. Interestingly, through prolonging the annealing time to 4 h, the electrical parameters of IZO TFTs annealed at 230 °C are comparable with the TFTs annealed at 300 °C. Finally, fully WI IZO TFT based on YOx dielectric is integrated and investigated. This TFT device can be regarded as "green electronics" in a true sense, because no organic-related additives are used during the whole device fabrication process. The as-fabricated IZO/YOx TFT exhibits excellent electron transport characteristics with low operating voltage (≈1.5 V), small subthreshold swing voltage of 65 mV dec-1 and the mobility in excess of 25 cm2 V-1 s-1. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

c c Shan, F.a, Liu Liu Meng Fortunato Martins A. a G. a. "Low-voltage high-stability InZnO thin-film transistor using ultra-thin solution-processed ZrOx dielectric." IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology. 11 (2015): 541-546. AbstractWebsite

This paper deals with the evaluation of the performances of InZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) using as dielectric an ultra-thin solution-processed ZrOx layer. The ZrOx thin film was formed using ultraviolet (UV) photo-annealing method and shows a low leakage-current density of 4 nA/cm2 at 3.8 MV/cm and a large areal-capacitance of 775 nF/cm2 at 50 Hz. The InZnO TFT incorporating the UV-treated ZrOx dielectric exhibits high stable and enhanced characteristics, an on/off current ratio of 10

Alexa, A.a, Tigau Alexandru Pimentel Branquinho Salgueiro Calmeiro Martins Fortunato Musat N. b P. a. "Morphological and optical characterization of transparent thin films obtained at low temperature using ZnO nanoparticles." Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials. 17 (2015): 1288-1295. AbstractWebsite

Transparent metal oxides thin films are a class of inorganic conductors and semiconductors with significant importance for use in portable electronics, displays, flexible electronics, multi-functional windows and solar cells. Due to the recent development of transparent and flexible electronics, there is a growing interest in depositing metal-oxide thin-film on plastic substrates that can offer flexibility, lighter weight, and potentially lead to cheaper manufacturing by allowing printing and rollto- roll processing. The plastic substrates, however, limit device processing to below 200oC. In this context, the deposition of high-performance semiconductor thin films from dispersions of pre-prepared oxide nanoparticles at temperatures below 200oC represents a potential key route. This paper reports on the preparation of ZnO transparent thin films using solutionprocessed nanoparticles (NPs) precipitated from zinc acetate alcoholic solution with potassium hydroxide. The nanoparticles size distribution, microstructure and crystallinity were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The thin films were deposited by spin-coating onto soda lima glass substrate, using a dispersion of 1wt% ZnO NPs. The morphology of the films annealed at 120 and 180oC, observed by atomic force microscopy and cross-section scanning electron microscopy, shows columnar grains with diameter ranging between 20 and 70 nm, depending on the conditions of depositions. Optical measurements indicated high transparency, between 85 and 94 %, in the visible range, a direct nature of band-to-band transitions and band gap values between 3,22 and 3,32 eV. The refractive index and extinction coefficient have been calculated from optical transmittance and reflectance spectra.

Lyubchyk, A.a, Filonovich Mateus Mendes Vicente Leitão Falcão Fortunato Águas Martins S. A. a T. "Nanocrystalline thin film silicon solar cells: A deeper look into p/i interface formation." Thin Solid Films. 591 (2015): 25-31. AbstractWebsite

The p/i interface plays a major role in the conversion efficiency of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells. Under plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of the intrinsic (i) nc-Si:H layer, ion bombardment can severely affect the underlying p-doped layer and degrade the solar cell performance. The core of the present work is to investigate the effect of light and heavy ion bombardment on the structural modifications of the p-layer during the p/i interface formation. The properties of the nc-Si:H materials deposited under distinct conditions are analyzed and correlated to the deposition rate and the resulting cell efficiency. To recreate the ion bombardment during the initial stages of the i-layer deposition on the p-layer, hydrogen plasma treatment was performed for 30 s (light ion bombardment), after which a flux of silane was introduced into the deposition chamber in order to initiate the heavy ion bombardment and growth of an ultra-thin (5 nm) i-layer. The structural changes of the p-type nc-Si:H layers were observed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The obtained results confirm that detrimental structural modifications (e.g. partial amorphization of the sub-surface region and bulk) occur in the p-layer, caused by the ion bombardment. To minimize this effect, a protective buffer layer is investigated able to improve the performance of the solar cells fabricated under increased growth rate conditions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

b Marques, A.C.a c, Santos Costa Dantas Duarte Gonçalves Martins Salgueiro Fortunato L. a M. N. "Office paper platform for bioelectrochromic detection of electrochemically active bacteria using tungsten trioxide nanoprobes." Scientific Reports. 5 (2015). AbstractWebsite

Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) have the capability to transfer electrons to cell exterior, a feature that is currently explored for important applications in bioremediation and biotechnology fields. However, the number of isolated and characterized EAB species is still very limited regarding their abundance in nature. Colorimetric detection has emerged recently as an attractive mean for fast identification and characterization of analytes based on the use of electrochromic materials. In this work, WO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis and used to impregnate non-treated regular office paper substrates. This allowed the production of a paper-based colorimetric sensor able to detect EAB in a simple, rapid, reliable, inexpensive and eco-friendly method. The developed platform was then tested with Geobacter sulfurreducens, as a proof of concept. G. sulfurreducens cells were detected at latent phase with an RGB ratio of 1.10 ± 0.04, and a response time of two hours.

Rodrigues, J.a, Mata Pimentel Nunes Martins Fortunato Neves Monteiro Costa D. a A. b. "One-step synthesis of ZnO decorated CNT buckypaper composites and their optical and electrical properties." Materials Science and Engineering B: Solid-State Materials for Advanced Technology. 195 (2015): 38-44. AbstractWebsite

ZnO/CNT composites were prepared using ZnO nanoparticles and tetrapods synthesized by the Laser Assisted Flow Deposition method. The co-operative behaviour between these two materials may give rise to the production of advanced functional materials with a wide range of applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Despite some degree of aggregation in the case of the nanoparticles, scanning electron microscopy images evidence that the produced ZnO structures are well dispersed in the CNT buckypapers. Independent of the ZnO morphology the samples resistivity was shown to be of the order of ∼10-1 Ω cm while in the case of the electron mobility, the composite with tetrapods reveals a lower value than the ones obtained for the remaining samples. Well-structured ZnO luminescence was observed mainly in ultraviolet highlighting the high optical quality of the produced structures. The temperature dependence of the luminescence reveals a distinct trend for the composites with ZnO tetrapods and ZnO nanoparticles. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

c Kiazadeh, A.a b, Salgueiro Branquinho Pinto Gomes Barquinha Martins Fortunato D. a R. a. "Operational stability of solution based zinc tin oxide/SiO2 thin film transistors under gate bias stress." APL Materials. 3 (2015). AbstractWebsite

In this study, we report solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide transistors exhibiting high operational stability under positive gate bias stress, translated by a recoverable threshold voltage shift of about 20% of total applied stress voltage. Under vacuum condition, the threshold voltage shift saturates showing that the gate-bias stress is limited by trap exhaustion or balance between trap filling and emptying mechanism. In ambient atmosphere, the threshold voltage shift no longer saturates, stability is degraded and the recovering process is impeded. We suggest that the trapping time during the stress and detrapping time in recovering are affected by oxygen adsorption/desorption processes. The time constants extracted from stretched exponential fitting curves are ∼106 s and 105 s in vacuum and air, respectively. © 2015 Author(s).

Contreras, J.a, Tornero Ferreira Martins Gomes Fortunato J. a I. b. "Simulated and real sheet-of-light 3D object scanning using a-Si: H thin film PSD arrays." Sensors (Switzerland). 15 (2015): 29938-29949. AbstractWebsite

AMATLAB/SIMULINK software simulation model (structure and component blocks) has been constructed in order to view and analyze the potential of the PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) array concept technology before it is further expanded or developed. This simulation allows changing most of its parameters, such as the number of elements in the PSD array, the direction of vision, the viewing/scanning angle, the object rotation, translation, sample/scan/simulation time, etc. In addition, results show for the first time the possibility of scanning an object in 3D when using an a-Si:H thin film 128 PSD array sensor and hardware/software system. Moreover, this sensor technology is able to perform these scans and render 3D objects at high speeds and high resolutions when using a sheet-of-light laser within a triangulation platform. As shown by the simulation, a substantial enhancement in 3D object profile image quality and realism can be achieved by increasing the number of elements of the PSD array sensor as well as by achieving an optimal position response from the sensor since clearly the definition of the 3D object profile depends on the correct and accurate position response of each detector as well as on the size of the PSD array. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.