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c Chandra, S.V.J.a, Fortunato Martins Choi E. a R. a. "Modulations in effective work function of platinum gate electrode in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices." Thin Solid Films. 520 (2012): 4556-4558. AbstractWebsite

Reduction in the accumulation capacitance value was more in Si metal-oxide-semiconductor devices than that of Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor devices after a thermal treatment irrespective of the annealing environment. Relatively, thermal treatment in oxygen environment improves the interface quality of HfO2/Ge stacks considerably, when compared with HfO 2/Si stacks. Whereas, the forming gas annealing at a temperature of 400 °C was not so effective in improving the interface quality at HfO 2/Si stack. The presence of induced negatively charged hydrogen atom in Ge lessens the Fermi level pinning at HfO2 and Ge interface. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pereira, L., Barquinha Gonçalves Fortunato Martins P. G. E. "Multicomponent dielectrics for oxide TFT." Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 8263. 2012. Abstract

In this work we present sputtered multicomponent dielectrics based on mixtures of HfO 2 and SiO 2. This way it is possible to get stable amorphous structure up to 800°C, that does not happen for pure HfO 2, for instance, that present a polycrystalline structure when deposited without any intentional substrate heating. Besides, also the band gap of the resulting films is increased when compared with pure HfO2 that theoretically is an advantage in getting a suitable band offset with the semiconductor layer on oxide TFTs. Concerning the electrical characterization, the leakage current on c-Si MIS structures is low as 10 -9 Acm -2 at 10 V. The amorphous structure of the films also lead to better dielectric/semiconductor interfaces, as suggested by C-V characteristics on GIZO MIS structures, which do not present strong variation with frequency. On other hand, the dielectric constant decreases due to the incorporation of SiO 2 and Al 2O 3. Further improvement on insulating and interface characteristics is achieved using multilayer stacks and substrate bias during deposition. © 2012 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

Bahubalindruni, G.a, Duarte Tavares Barquinha Martins Fortunato De Oliveira C. a V. G. "Multipliers with transparent a-GIZO TFTs using a neural model." 2012 20th Telecommunications Forum, TELFOR 2012 - Proceedings. 2012. 955-958. Abstract

This paper presents the results of a preliminary study to examine the ability of post-silicon devices for analog processing. It is focused on the latest thin-film transistors (TFTs) with amorphous gallium-indium-zinc oxide (a-GIZO) as active layer. Three circuit configurations are presented: a differential pair and two multiplier topologies. Both triode and saturation regions of operation are included in the analysis, with the devices set to remain in strong accumulation. A neural model, which is developed based on the measured data of the TFTs, is used for the circuit simulations in the Cadence Virtuoso environment. The analog multipliers simulation results are compared against the expected functional results. © 2012 IEEE.

Barquinha, P., Martins Fortunato R. E. "N-type oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors." Springer Series in Materials Science. 156 (2012): 435-476. AbstractWebsite

This chapter gives an overview about GIZO TFTs, comprising an introductory section about generic TFT structure and operation, different semiconductor technologies for TFTs - with special emphasis on AOSs and particularly on GIZO - and then some experimental results obtained for GIZO TFTs fabricated in CENIMAT. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) are important electronic devices which are predominantly used as On/Off switches in active matrix backplanes of flat panel displays (FPDs), namely liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and organic light emitting device (OLED) displays. Even if a-Si:H is still dominating the TFT market in terms of semiconductor technology, oxide semiconductors are emerging as one of the most promising alternatives for the next generation of TFTs, bringing the possibility of having fully transparent devices, low processing temperature, low cost, high performance and electrically stable properties [1, 2]. Amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOS) such as Gallium-Indium-Zinc oxide (GIZO) [3, 4], even if fabricated at temperatures below 150°, are currently capable of providing transistors with field-effect mobility (μFE) exceeding 20 cm2V-1 s-1, threshold voltage (VT) close to 0V, On/Off ratios above 108, subthreshold swing (S) around 0:20V dec-1 and fully recoverable VT shift (ΔVT) lower than 0.5V after 24 h stress with constant drain current of 10 μA. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

Fortunato, E., Barquinha Martins P. R. "Oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors: A review of recent advances." Advanced Materials. 24 (2012): 2945-2986. AbstractWebsite

Transparent electronics is today one of the most advanced topics for a wide range of device applications. The key components are wide bandgap semiconductors, where oxides of different origins play an important role, not only as passive component but also as active component, similar to what is observed in conventional semiconductors like silicon. Transparent electronics has gained special attention during the last few years and is today established as one of the most promising technologies for leading the next generation of flat panel display due to its excellent electronic performance. In this paper the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin-film transistors (TFT) is reviewed, with special emphasis on solution-processed and p-type, and the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology are summarizeed. After a short introduction where the main advantages of these semiconductors are presented, as well as the industry expectations, the beautiful history of TFTs is revisited, including the main landmarks in the last 80 years, finishing by referring to some papers that have played an important role in shaping transparent electronics. Then, an overview is presented of state of the art n-type TFTs processed by physical vapour deposition methods, and finally one of the most exciting, promising, and low cost but powerful technologies is discussed: solution-processed oxide TFTs. Moreover, a more detailed focus analysis will be given concerning p-type oxide TFTs, mainly centred on two of the most promising semiconductor candidates: copper oxide and tin oxide. The most recent data related to the production of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices based on n- and p-type oxide TFT is also be presented. The last topic of this review is devoted to some emerging applications, finalizing with the main conclusions. Related work that originated at CENIMAT|I3N during the last six years is included in more detail, which has led to the fabrication of high performance n- and p-type oxide transistors as well as the fabrication of CMOS devices with and on paper. Transparent electronics is one of the most advanced science topics for a broad range of device applications. In this article an overview is presented of state-of-the-art n- and p-type oxides for TFTs and their integration, processed by physical vapor deposition and by solution processing techniques. Some of the most relevant emerging applications are also presented, including CMOS devices based on oxide TFTs fabricated on glass and even on paper. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

b Figueiredo, V.a, Elangovan Barros Pinto Busani Martins Fortunato E. a R. a. "P-Type Cu x films deposited at room temperature for thin-film transistors." IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology. 8 (2012): 41-47. AbstractWebsite

Thin-films of copper oxide Cu x were sputtered from a metallic copper (Cu) target and studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure. A metallic Cu film with cubic structure obtained from 0% O PP has been transformed to cubic Cu x phase for the increase in O PP to 9% but then changed to monoclinic CuO phase (for. The variation in crystallite size (calculated from x-ray diffraction data) was further substantiated by the variation in grain size (surface microstructures). The Cu x films produced with O PP ranging between 9% and 75% showed p-type behavior, which were successfully applied to produce thin-film transistors. © 2006 IEEE.

b Martins, R.a, Figueiredo Barros Barquinha Gonçalves Pereira Ferreira Fortunato V. a R. a. "P-type oxide-based thin film transistors produced at low temperatures." Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 8263. 2012. Abstract

P-type thin-film transistors (TFTs) using room temperature sputtered tin and copper oxide as a transparent oxide semiconductor have been produced on rigid and paper substrates. The SnO x films shows p-type conduction presenting a polycrystalline structure composed with a mixture of tetragonal β-Sn and α-SnO x phases, after annealing at 200°C. These films exhibit a hole carrier concentration in the range of ≈ 10 16-10 18 cm -3, electrical resistivity between 101-102 Ωcm, Hall mobility of 4.8 cm 2/Vs, optical band gap of 2.8 eV and average transmittance ≈ 85 % (400 to 2000 nm). Concerning copper oxide Cu xO thin films they exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The Cu xO films produced between an oxygen partial pressure of 9 to 75% showed p-type behavior, as it was measured by Hall effect and Seebeck measurements. The bottom gate p-type SnO x TFTs present field-effect mobility above 1.24 cm 2/Vs (including the paper p-type oxide TFT) and an on/off modulation ratio of 10 3 while the Cu xO TFTs exhibit a field-effect mobility of 1.3×10 -3 cm 2/Vs and an on/off ratio of 2×10 2. © 2012 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

b Neves, N.a b, Barros Antunes Ferreira Calado Fortunato Martins R. a E. a. "Sintering behavior of nano- and micro-sized ZnO powder targets for rf magnetron sputtering applications." Journal of the American Ceramic Society. 95 (2012): 204-210. AbstractWebsite

In this work, the nonisothermal sintering behavior of as-received commercial high purity ZnO micrometric (m-ZnO), submicrometric (sm-ZnO) and nanometric (n-ZnO) powders was studied. The sintering behavior for sputtering target production was evaluated by changing the green density of samples from 62% of theoretical density (TD) to 35%. We observed that for n-ZnO powder, the maximum shrinkage rate (MSR) temperature (T MSR) was not affected by the green density, and that it was reached at lower temperatures (∼710°C) compared with m-ZnO and sm-ZnO powders. For these powders, the temperature of MSR increased from 803°C to 934°C and from 719°C to 803°C as TD changed from 62% to 35% TD, respectively. Small grain size (∼0.560 μm) and high density targets were obtained for n-ZnO when sintered at temperatures below the T MSR. Heating rate from 1°C to 15°C/min led to lower activation energy for n-ZnO (∼201 ± 3 kJ/mol) than for the submicrometric (sm-ZnO) (∼332 ± 20 kJ/mol) and micrometric (m-ZnO) (∼273 ± 9 kJ/mol) powders. Using the model proposed by Bannister and Woolfrey, an n value of 0.75 was found, which was correlated with a combination of viscous flow and volume diffusion mechanisms that should control the initial stage of n-ZnO sintering. No significant differences were observed for n-ZnO powder in terms of density when the size of targets (scale-up effect) was increased, while in the case of m-ZnO and sm-ZnO, a delay in the densification was observed, which was related to the higher sinterability of n-ZnO powder. Two inches ZnO ceramic targets with different particle sizes and final densities were used in an rf magnetron sputtering system to produce ZnO films under the same deposition conditions. Films with thickness around 100 nm and good uniformity were produced using those targets, and no variation was observed in the optical and morphological properties. However, low electrical resistivity (1.4 Omega;·cm) films were obtained with n-ZnO targets, which could be explained in terms of a nonstoichiometric Zn:O composition of the started powders. © 2011 The American Ceramic Society.

c Gonçalves, A.a, Costa Pereira Correia Silva Barbosa Rodrigues Henriques Martins Fortunato C. a S. a. "Study of electrochromic devices with nanocomposites polymethacrylate hydroxyethylene resin based electrolyte." Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 23 (2012): 791-795. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports the application of a polymethacrylate hydroxyethylene resin based electrolyte in electrochromic (EC) devices. The electrolyte is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, visible spectroscopy, TGA, DSC, and DRX and tested as an ionic conductor in an EC device with the following configuration: Substrate/IZO/WO 3/Polymer Electrolyte/(CeO 2)TiO 2/IZO/Substrate. The electrolyte presents an ionic conductivity of 10 -7S/cm at room temperature and TGA analysis show that electrolyte is thermally degraded at 200°C. The EC device based on this polymethacrylate hydroxyethylene resin electrolyte system shows memory effect and exhibits an excellent optical density. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Barquinha, P., Martins Pereira Fortunato R. L. E. Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices. Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices., 2012. AbstractWebsite

Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at low-cost, disposable and lightweight devices for the next generation of ergonomic and functional discrete devices. Chapters cover: Properties and applications of n-type oxide semiconductors P-type conductors and semiconductors, including copper oxide and tin monoxide Low-temperature processed dielectrics n and p-type thin film transistors (TFTs) - structure, physics and brief history Paper electronics - Paper transistors, paper memories and paper batteries Applications of oxide TFTs - transparent circuits, active matrices for displays and biosensors Written by a team of renowned world experts, Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices gives an overview of the world of transparent electronics, and showcases groundbreaking work on paper transistors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Martins, R., Brás Ferreira Pereira Barquinha Correia Costa Busani Gonçalves Pimentel Fortunato B. I. L. "Away from silicon era: The paper electronics." Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Vol. 7940. 2011. Abstract

Today there is a strong interest in the scientific and industrial community concerning the use of biopolymers for electronic applications, mainly driven by low-cost and disposable applications. Adding to this interest, we must recognize the importance of the wireless auto sustained and low energy consumption electronics dream. This dream can be fulfilled by cellulose paper, the lightest and the cheapest known substrate material, as well as the Earth's major biopolymer and of tremendous global economic importance. The recent developments of oxide thin film transistors and in particular the production of paper transistors at room temperature had contributed, as a first step, for the development of disposable, low cost and flexible electronic devices. To fulfil the wireless demand, it is necessary to prove the concept of self powered devices. In the case of paper electronics, this implies demonstrating the idea of self regenerated thin film paper batteries and its integration with other electronic components. Here we demonstrate this possibility by actuating the gate of paper transistors by paper batteries. We found that when a sheet of cellulose paper is covered in both faces with thin layers of opposite electrochemical potential materials, a voltage appears between both electrodes - paper battery, which is also self-regenerated. The value of the potential depends upon the materials used for anode and cathode. An open circuit voltage of 0.5V and a short-circuit current density of 1μA/cm2 were obtained in the simplest structure produced (Cu/paper/Al). For actuating the gate of the paper transistor, seven paper batteries were integrated in the same substrate in series, supplying a voltage of 3.4V. This allows proper ON/OFF control of the paper transistor. Apart from that transparent conductive oxides can be also used as cathode/anode materials allowing so the production of thin film batteries with transparent electrodes compatible with flexible, invisible, self powered and wireless electronics. © 2011 SPIE.

Nolan, M.G.a, Hamilton Obrien Bruno Pereira Fortunato Martins Povey Pemble J. A. a S. "The characterisation of aerosol assisted CVD conducting, photocatalytic indium doped zinc oxide films." Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 219 (2011): 10-15. AbstractWebsite

Indium doped, and undoped, zinc oxide films were deposited using aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) at atmospheric pressure on glass substrates. Electrical measurements (I-V) showed a reduction in resistivity following the addition of indium, and XRD analysis revealed an associated switch to c-axis preferred crystal orientation. The ability of the films to oxidise organic material on their surface was analysed using stearic acid as the model contaminant under ultra-violet (UV, 365 nm) irradiation. The In-doped films displayed a greater rate of organic decomposition, which we attribute to the formation of a platelet surface structure having a larger surface area than the undoped films, on which the UV generated electrons and holes may react to form active photocatalytic species. In addition we suggest that the switch to c-axis crystal orientation may reduce the electron-hole pair recombination rate at the grain boundaries, due to an improvement in crystallinity and related reduction in carrier scattering losses, leading to an increase in photocatalytic organic decomposition rate. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Martins, R.a, Nathan Barros Pereira Barquinha Correia Costa Ahnood Ferreira Fortunato A. b R. a. "Complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology with and on paper." Advanced Materials. 23 (2011): 4491-4496. AbstractWebsite

A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device is described. The device is based on n-(In-Ga-Zn-O) and p-type (SnO x) active oxide semiconductors and uses a transparent conductive oxide (In-Zn-O) as gate electrode that sits on a flexible, recyclable paper substrate that is simultaneously the substrate and the dielectric. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

O'Brien, S.a, Çopuroglu Tassie Nolan Hamilton Povey Pereira Martins Fortunato Pemble M. a P. b. "The effect of dopants on the morphology, microstructure and electrical properties of transparent zinc oxide films prepared by the sol-gel method." Thin Solid Films. 520 (2011): 1174-1177. AbstractWebsite

The influence of doping on the morphology, physical and electrical properties of zinc oxide produced by the sol-gel method was examined. Undoped zinc oxide was observed to form relatively porous films. Addition of an Al dopant influenced the sheet resistance, but did not result in a change in morphology, examined by atomic force microscopy when compared to undoped films. In the case of electrical measurements, undoped ZnO films were extremely resistive. A minimum dopant concentration of 2 at.%. Al was required to produce materials which were more conductive, as observed by sheet resistance measurements, which were shown to vary with annealing temperature. The versatile nature of sol-gel processing was demonstrated by selective ink-jet deposition of sol-gel droplets which were annealed to form oxide materials. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Parthiban, S.a b, Elangovan Ramamurthi Kanjilal Asokan Martins Fortunato E. b K. a. "Effect of Li3+ heavy ion irradiation on the Mo doped In2O3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 44 (2011). AbstractWebsite

The high visible-near infrared transparent and high carrier mobility (μ) Mo doped (0.5 at%) indium oxide (IMO) films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique. The deposited films were irradiated by 50MeV Li 3+ ions with different fluences of 1×1011, 1×1012 and 1×1013 ions cm-2. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the cubic bixbyite structure of indium oxide. A fascinating feature is that the ion irradiation process has introduced a fraction of the molybdenum oxide phase. The μ of as-deposited IMO films is decreased from ̃122.4 to 93.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, following the ion irradiation. The theoretically calculated μ and carrier density values were correlated with those measured experimentally. The transport mechanism has been analysed based on the ionized and neutral impurity scattering centres. The average transmittance (400-2500 nm) of the as-deposited IMO films is decreased from 83% to 60% following irradiation. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

c Gokulakrishnan, V.a, Parthiban Elangovan Ramamurthi Jeganathan Kanjilal Asokan Martins Fortunato S. a E. c. "Effects of O7+ swift heavy ion irradiation on indium oxide thin films." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 269 (2011): 1836-1840. AbstractWebsite

Indium oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis were irradiated by 100 MeV O7+ ions with different fluences of 5 × 1011, 1 × 1012 and 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the structure of indium oxide with cubic bixbyite. The strongest (2 2 2) orientation observed from the as-deposited films was shifted to (4 0 0) after irradiation. Furthermore, the intensity of the (4 0 0) orientation was decreased with increasing fluence together with an increase in (2 2 2) intensity. Films irradiated with maximum fluence exhibited an amorphous component. The mobility of the as-deposited indium oxide films was decreased from ∼78.9 to 43.0 cm2/V s, following irradiation. Films irradiated with a fluence of 5 × 1011 ions/cm2 showed a better combination of electrical properties, with a resistivity of 4.57 × 10-3 Ω cm, carrier concentration of 2.2 × 1019 cm-3 and mobility of 61.0 cm2/V s. The average transmittance obtained from the as-deposited films decreased from ∼81% to 72%, when irradiated with a fluence of 5 × 1011 ions/cm2. The surface microstructures confirmed that the irregularly shaped grains seen on the surface of the as-deposited films is modified as "radish-like" morphology when irradiated with a fluence of 5 × 1011 ions/cm2. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Martins, R., Ferreira Fortunato I. E. "Electronics with and on paper." Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters. 5 (2011): 332-335. AbstractWebsite

Today there is a strong interest in the scientific and industrial community concerning the use of biopolymers for electronic applications, driven mainly by low-cost and disposable applications. Adding to this interest, we must recognise the importance of the dream of wireless auto-sustained and low-energy-consumption electronics. This dream can be fulfilled by cellulose paper, the lightest and the cheapest known substrate material, as well as the Earth's major biopolymer and of tremendous global economic importance. Most of the paper used up to now is optimised in terms of the required mechanical and physical properties to be used as the support of inks of different origins. In the future, specific electronic heterogeneous paper sheets should be fabricated aiming to get paper fibers with required bulk and surface functionalities, proper water/vapour barrier, size and diameter/thickness of the fibrils and full paper thickness. This will be the function of components/devices to be incorporated/integrated such as thin-film transistors, complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices, passive electronic components (resistances, inductors and capacitors), memory transistors, electrochromics and thin-film paper batteries. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Nayak, P.K., Pinto Gonçalves Martins Fortunato J. V. G. "Environmental, optical, and electrical stability study of solution-processed zinc-tin-oxide thin-film transistors." IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology. 7 (2011): 640-643. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we report the environmental, optical, and gate bias stress stability of amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated by sol-gel spin-coating method. The ZTO TFTs showed excellent environmental and optical stability. The threshold voltage stability of ZTO TFTs was sensitive to both positive and negative gate bias stress. Maximum threshold voltage shifting of +1.9 and -3.2 V was observed under a gate bias stress of +10 and -10 V, respectively, with no significant change to subthreshold swing value. © 2006 IEEE.

Fortunato, E., Barquinha Martins P. R. "New developments on oxide electronics." Proceedings of the International Display Workshops. Vol. 3. 2011. 1681-1684. Abstract

In this article we review the recent progress in n- and p-type oxide based thin film transistors (TFT), with special emphasis to solution-processed and p-type, and we will summarize the major milestones already achieved with this emerging and very promising technology.

Silva, L.B.a, Veigas Doria Costa Inácio Martins Fortunato Baptista B. b G. b. "Portable optoelectronic biosensing platform for identification of mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex." Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 26 (2011): 2012-2017. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we report on the fabrication and performance of a portable and low cost optoelectronic platform integrating a double color tuned light emitting diode as light source, an amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon photodetector with a flat spectral response in the wavelength range from 520. nm to 630. nm and integrated electronic for signal acquisition and conditioning constituted by current to voltage converter, a filter and an amplification stage, followed by an analog to digital converter, with appropriate software for full automation to minimize human error. Incorporation of the double color tuned light emitting diode provides for a simple yet innovative solution to signal acquisition independently from the light intensity and/or solution concentration, while considerably decreasing production costs. Detection based on Au-nanoprobes constitutes the biorecognition step and allowed identification of specific sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, namely Mycobacterium bovis and M. tuberculosis in biological samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Wang, J.a b, Li Sallet Rego Martins Fortunato M. a V. c. "Properties of P-doped ZnO films RF-sputtered at different substrate temperature." Hongwai yu Jiguang Gongcheng/Infrared and Laser Engineering. 40 (2011): 1490-1494. AbstractWebsite

In order to study the properties of P-doped ZnO films deposited at low temperature substrates, P-doped ZnO films were RF-sputtered on sapphire substrates in the range from RT to 350°C. XRD spectra indicated the growth of the crystallites along the strongest <001> orientation. Further ZnO (002) peak became the weakest when the film was sputtered at 250°C. AFM pictures showed that the surface morphology varied with the deposition temperature. The sample RMS increased with the increase of substrate temperature. XPS spectra showed a clear broad P 2p peak at about 134 eV. Further the film composition varied with the substrate temperature. The average visible transmittance calculated in the wavelength ranging 400-600 nm was more than 60%. The optical band gap calculated from the absorption coefficient was about 3.2 eV. The Hall measurements confirm the n-type conductivity of the films. The carrier concentration in the films decreases with the increase of substrate temperature. The study is helpful for understanding the properties of P-doped ZnO films sputtered at lower substrate temperature and achieving p type ZnO films at lower temperature.

Branquinho, R.a b, Veigas Pinto Martins Fortunato Baptista B. c J. V. "Real-time monitoring of PCR amplification of proto-oncogene c-MYC using a Ta2O5 electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor sensor." Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 28 (2011): 44-49. AbstractWebsite

We present a new approach for real-time monitoring of PCR amplification of a specific sequence from the human c-MYC proto-oncogene using a Ta 2O 5 electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) sensor. The response of the fabricated EIS sensor to cycle DNA amplification was evaluated and compared to standard SYBR-green fluorescence incorporation, showing it was possible to detect DNA concentration variations with 30mV/μM sensitivity. The sensor's response was then optimized to follow in real-time the PCR amplification of c-MYC sequence from a genomic DNA sample attaining an amplification profile comparable to that of a standard real-time PCR. Owing to the small size, ease of fabrication and low-cost, the developed Ta 2O 5 sensor may be incorporated onto a microfluidic device and then used for real-time PCR. Our approach may circumvent the practical and economical obstacles posed by current platforms that require an external fluorescence detector difficult to miniaturize and incorporate into a lab-on-chip system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

c Chitanu, E.a, Barros Ionita Martins Fortunato R. b G. d. "RF magnetron sputtering deposition of AZO thin films." Metalurgia International. 16 (2011): 32-34. AbstractWebsite

Doped zinc oxide with aluminium are attractive alternative material as transparent conducting electrode because they are nontoxic and inexpensive compared with indium tin oxide (ITO) for diffrent applications: solar cells, tft. Transparent aluminumdoped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature and 100W from ceramic target ZnO-Al2O3 (98:2 weight percent). The structural, electrical and optical properties of these films were characterized as a function of deposition pressure. AZO films with low resistivity 2.02×10-3 Ωcm and high transmittance (over 80% in vizible range) were thus prepared with a deposition pressure of 3 mTorr.

c Olziersky, A.a, Barquinha Vilà Magana Fortunato Morante Martins P. b A. a. "Role of Ga 2O 3-In 2O 3-ZnO channel composition on the electrical performance of thin-film transistors." Materials Chemistry and Physics. 131 (2011): 512-518. AbstractWebsite

In this work we present a study aiming to determine the role of Ga2O3-In2O3-ZnO (GIZO) channel layer composition on the electrical performance and stability exhibited by thin-film transistors (TFTs). The GIZO films were obtained by magnetron sputtering using ceramic targets of different compositions (Ga:In:Zn = 2:2:1, 2:2:2, 2:4:1 and 2:4:2 at.). Structural analysis corroborates the fully amorphous character of the GIZO deposited layers. For the target compositional range used we observe a Zn deficiency on the produced films, which affects the In/Ga atomic concentration ratios. Resistivity and mobility are found to show a general trend against the measured In/Ga ratio that reveals the role played by In and Ga cations on the transport mechanisms. Targets with increased In concentrations (2:4:1 and 2:4:2) allow to obtain the best TFT performances with field effect mobilities reaching values of 53.0 and 51.7cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. In addition, the In-richer GIZO compositions result in considerably more stable TFTs, especially under positive gate bias stress conditions. Finally, it is verified that by using a target with a slightly lower In atomic composition (2:4:2 in comparison to 2:4:1), good stability and mobility can be achieved with potentially lower material costs.© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gonçalves, G.a, Grasso Barquinha Pereira Elamurugu Brignone Martins Lambertini Fortunato V. b P. a. "Role of room temperature sputtered high conductive and high transparent indium zinc oxide film contacts on the performance of orange, green, and blue organic light emitting diodes." Plasma Processes and Polymers. 8 (2011): 340-345. AbstractWebsite

The core of this paper concerns the use of an amorphous transparent conductive oxide (a-TCO), whose performance is on par with the classical indium tin oxide (ITO) films as a transparent contact in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The main advantage of indium zinc oxide (IZO) films relies on their amorphous structure and high mobility that turns them likely to be used with high conductivity and high transmittance even at the infrared region. The mobility of IZO films (47.8 cm2 · V-1 · s-1) surpasses the one exhibited by ITO films (26.4 cm2 · V-1 · s-1), which along with its smoother surface and better current distribution plays an important role on OLEDs performance. Besides their similar turn-on voltage, the devices using IZO anodes exhibit higher power efficiency than the ITO ones, which is 66, 18, and 62% for orange, green, and blue OLEDs, respectively. These results suggest that IZO can potentially be applied as an anode in full color displays based on OLEDs. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.