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Numerical analysis of FRP anchorage zones with variable width, Biscaia, Hugo C., Micaelo Rui, Teixeira João, and Chastre Carlos , Composites Part B: Engineering, 11//, Volume 67, p.410-426, (2014) AbstractWebsite

The use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has recently become widespread in the construction industry. However, some drawbacks related to premature debonding of the FRP composites from the bonded substrates have been identified. One of the solutions proposed is the implementation of mechanical anchorage systems. Although some design guidelines have been developed, the actual knowledge continues to be rather limited. Thus, designers and researchers have not yet achieved any consensus on the efficiency of any particular anchor device in delaying or preventing the premature debonding failure mode that can occur in Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) systems. This paper studies the debonding phenomenon of FRP anchoring systems with a linear variable width, with a numerical analysis based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM). Combined systems with constant and variable width are also discussed. The FRP-to-parent material interfaces are modelled with a rigid-linear softening bond–slip law. The numerical results showed that it is possible to attain the FRP rupture force with a variable width solution. This solution is particularly attractive when the bonded length is shorter than the effective bonded length because the strength of the interface can be highly incremented.

Análise do desempenho à flexão de vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras de aço inoxidável, Franco, N., Chastre C., and Biscaia H. C. , JPEE2014 – 5ª Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia de Estruturas, Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2014., LNEC, Lisboa., (2014) Abstractartigo_jpee_2014_franco_chastre_biscaia.pdf

Apresentam-se neste artigo os resultados dos ensaios realizados à escala real de um conjunto de vigas de betão armado com secção em T, levados a cabo para avaliar o desempenho das armaduras de aço inoxidável no reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com armaduras pós-instaladas aplicadas com as técnicas de reforço EBR (Externally Bonded Reinforcement), NSM (Near Surface Mounted) e EBR com ancoragens metálicas nas extremidades. Os ensaios realizados demonstraram que as técnicas de reforço utilizadas permitem aumentar a rigidez à flexão em regime elástico. Porém, a viga reforçada através da técnica EBR teve uma rotura prematura antes de atingir o valor da carga de cedência da viga não reforçada. Já as vigas reforçadas com as técnicas NSM e EBR com ancoragens mecânicas superaram o valor da carga de cedência da viga de referência, e as ancoragens mecânicas proporcionaram bastante ductilidade à viga reforçada com esta técnica.

Delamination process analysis of FRP-to-parent material bonded joints with and without anchorage systems using the Distinct Element Method, Biscaia, Hugo C., Micaelo Rui, Teixeira João, and Chastre Carlos , Composite Structures, Volume 116, Issue September–October, p.104–119, (2014) AbstractWebsite

This study looks at the analysis of the interface between Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)-to-parent material bonded interfaces. The performance of FRP-to-parent material bonded joints for the Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) technique is numerically modelled with the PFC2D software which is based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM). It is believed that this represents the first time the DEM has been used to simulate the delamination process of FRP-to-parent material bonded joints. In order to validate the analysis performed with the DEM, a Pull-out test with no slip constrains was modelled and different linear bond-slip laws were assumed. The numerical results revealed that the DEM is capable of estimating with good accuracy the exact solutions of bond stresses, strains or slippages along the bonded length for linear bond-slip laws. The bi-linear law available in PFC2D was then compared to the numerical results obtained from other another code developed by the author. The delamination process of Pull-out tests with slip constrain at one of the free ends of the FRP plate is also described and analyzed. The results obtained from the DEM revealed that the delamination process ends with stiffness equal to the axial stiffness of the FRP plate. This evidence highlights the need to design mechanical anchor devices capable of preventing premature debonding which is known to occur on EBR systems.

Design model for square RC columns under compression confined with CFRP, Faustino, Pedro, Chastre Carlos, and Paula Raquel , Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 57, Issue February, p.187-198, (2014) Abstractfaustino_chastre_et_al._2014.pdfWebsite

The enhancement of the mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with regard to axial compression is an up-to-date concern, namely if the strengthening of existing structures is to be considered. In view of this, external confinement with FRP systems has been tested in order to become a feasible technique, since it seems to have important advantages over other systems such as its high strength and stiffness in relation to weight and its improvement of strength and ductility while confining RC columns. Square columns confined with FRP show a more complex interpretation of their behaviour, when compared to circular columns. Accordingly, the present work includes the analysis of two experimental programs regarding axial compression on CFRP confined RC columns: one on circular and square specimens with different corner radii; the other on square specimens with side lengths ranging from medium to large. Based on this, modelling equations are proposed to predict maximum axial load, axial strain and lateral strain, as well as the entire behaviour until failure with curves of axial load-axial strain and axial load-lateral strain. The modelling results show that the analytical curves are in general agreement with the presented experimental curves for a wide range of dimensions.

Experimental and Numerical Modelling of Basalt Textile Reinforced Mortar Behavior Under Uniaxial Tensile Stress, Larrinaga, Pello, Chastre Carlos, Biscaia Hugo C., and San-José José T. , Materials & Design, Volume 55, Issue March, p.66-74, (2014) AbstractWebsite

During the last years several projects and studies have improved the knowledge about Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) technology. TRM has already been used in strengthening masonry and reinforced concrete structural elements such as walls, arches, columns and beams. This material is presented as a real alternative to the use of fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) in situations where these composites have presented some drawbacks or their use is banned. Textile Reinforced Mortar show a complex mechanical behaviour derived from the heterogeneity of the constituent materials. This paper aims to deepen the knowledge of this composite material in terms of tensile behaviour. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on thirty one TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analysed and contrasted with two distinct models. i) the Aveston-Cooper-Kelly theory (ACK) which is based on a tri-linear analytical approach; and ii) a nonlinear numerical simulation with a 3D Finite Element code. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the TRM tensile tests also showed no significant dependence on the basalt-to-mortar interface, i.e., the choice of a bond-slip curve in order to reproduce the bond stresses and slippages along the interface is irrelevant and it can be simply considered as rigid interface.

Modelação de vigas de betão armado reforçadas à flexão com materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica, Biscaia, H. C., Chastre C., and Franco N. , JPEE2014 – 5ª Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia de Estruturas, Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2014., LNEC, Lisboa., (2014) Abstractartigo_jpee_biscaia_chastre_franco.pdf

Nas últimas décadas, os estudos sobre o desempenho de vigas de betão armado (BA) reforçadas com materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica têm aumentado. Porém, muitas dúvidas e questões persistem, fazendo realçar algumas lacunas sobre o conhecimento adquirido. Um desses aspetos reside na forma de modelar a ligação entre o compósito e o betão. É também sabido que a modelação da abertura de fendas no betão (discreta ou distribuída numa banda) influência o desempenho da ligação entre os materiais colados.
Nesse sentido, apresentam-se, neste trabalho, os resultados numéricos obtidos da modelação numérica não-linear a 3D de vigas de BA sujeitas a flexão de 4 pontos. Os resultados numéricos são confrontados com os experimentais e os diferentes parâmetros que influenciam a ligação analisados e discutidos.

Compression behaviour of short columns made from cement-bonded particle board, Faria, Gonçalo, Chastre Carlos, Lúcio Válter, and Nunes Ângela , Construction and Building Materials, 3//, Volume 40, p.60-69, (2013) AbstractWebsite

Cement bonded particle board (CBPB) is a composite material produced in plates consisting mainly of wood and cement, and may contain additives. This material is currently used in cladding, raised floors, dropped ceilings, prefabricated houses, office containers and various supplies to the building industry such as kitchens, bathrooms and furniture. It is composed of a type of wood Pinus pinaster and/or Pinus pinea, Portland cement type II, sodium silicate and aluminium sulphate. CBPB has been the subject of several studies with the purpose of enabling the use of other types of wood or even vegetable biomass, as the chemical compounds from wood (extractives and sugars) tend to inhibit of cement hydration. A study on the behaviour of short CBPB elements under compression was carried out in the Department of Civil Engineering of Universidade NOVA de Lisboa with the aim of enabling its use in structural elements. The study was supported by VIROC, the company which produces CBPB in Portugal. This paper presents and analyses the most significant results of a campaign of axial compression tests performed on 111 specimens of different heights and cross sections. The behaviour of CBPB specimens of varying slenderness was subjected to a more detailed analysis.

Non-linear analytical model of composites based on basalt textile reinforced mortar under uniaxial tension, Larrinaga, Pello, Chastre Carlos, San-José José T., and Garmendia Leire , Composites Part B: Engineering, 12//, Volume 55, p.518-527, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The recent development of inorganic based composites as low-cost materials in reinforced concrete structural strengthening and precast thin-walled components, requires the creation of models that predict the mechanical behaviour of these materials. Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) shows complex stress–strain behaviour in tension derived from the heterogeneity of its constituent materials. This complexity is mainly caused by the formation of several cracks in the inorganic matrix. The multiple cracking leads to a decrease in structural stiffness. Due to the severe conditions of the serviceability limit state in structural elements, the prediction of the stress–strain curve is essential for design and calculation purposes. After checking other models, an empirical nonlinear approach, which is based on the crack control expression included in the Eurocode 2, is proposed in this paper. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on 31 TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analysed and satisfactorily contrasted with the presented non-linear approach.

A smeared crack analysis of reinforced concrete T-beams strengthened with GFRP composites, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Engineering Structures, 11//, Volume 56, p.1346-1361, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with laminates of fibre reinforced polymeric (FRP) matrix has received considerable attention, although there still is lack of information on the more adequate modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete. An experimental programme is described and was designed to: (i) characterise glass FRP-to-concrete interface by shear tests; (ii) analyse reinforced concrete T-beams with external GFRP plates. Double shear tests were carried out based on 15 cm cubes with GFRP bonded to two opposite faces. The concrete T-beams were 3.0 m long and 0.28 m high and were loaded till rupture in 4-point bending tests. The external reinforcement system showed great strength increment in relation to the non retrofitted T-beam, confirming to be an effective approach to the flexural strengthening of RC beams. The computational analysis was based on a three dimensional smeared crack model. In total, 22 computational analyses were made. Models with and without interface FE associated with Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for the FRP-to-concrete interface were defined and different strength types of concrete were considered. The rigid interface does not predict the rupture of the T-beam with precision; however, the results obtained for low concrete strengths revealed that rigid interfaces can be assumed when conjugated with the fixed crack approach. Consequently, a slightly stiffer response of the beam is obtained. The maximum bond stresses obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) revealed that the models with rigid interfaces developed lower bond stresses due to the lack of relative displacements between both materials. The effects of assuming either fixed or rotated crack approaches were also compared. The rotated crack conjugated to a fine mesh in the vicinity of the GFRP-to-concrete stress led to a very good estimation of the bond stresses along the interface. The prediction of the T-beam rupture was also estimated with better results when the rotated crack was used in the model. In general, the FEA predicted with very good results the de-bonding of the GFRP-to-concrete interface of T-beams externally bonded with GFRP composites.

Modelling GFRP-to-concrete joints with interface finite elements with rupture based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Construction and Building Materials, 10//, Volume 47, p.261-273, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures by means of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) is now routinely considered and applied in the retrofit or strengthening of structures. FRP composites have received a considerable attention from civil engineers in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness/weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when FRP composites are bonded to a concrete surface, there is a persistent potential problem that the FRP plates may debond prematurely from the concrete. This is a very important issue for the engineers who have to focus on the computational modelling of this phenomenon. Some studies can be found in literature on computational modelling. However, there is very little information about the best modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete and this work is intended to help bridge this gap. The computational analysis presented here is based on three-dimensional software which assumes the smeared crack model, and the interface finite elements (FEs) used have a rupture criteria based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. The definition of these FEs was based on double shear tests that were performed specifically for this purpose and they have shown that the debonding phenomenon can be predicted with some accuracy. In total, 10 double shear models were studied and the results were compared with the 21 experimental tests performed. The double shear tests consisted of applying loads to 2 layered GFRP laminates bonded to a 150 mm concrete cube with a bonded area of 150 × 80 mm (length × width). Double shear models with and without a gap interface were considered in order to emphasize the importance of modelling the GFRP-to-concrete interface with interface finite elements. The effect of the concrete strength on the interface performance was also considered. An externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) concrete T-beam strengthened with 2 GFRP layers is presented to illustrate the application of the method. The wet lay-up technique was used for the external reinforcement of a reinforced concrete T-beam and then tested under a four point bending test until rupture. The results are reported and differences between the numerical and the experimental results are discussed.

Carbonation service life modelling of RC structures for concrete with Portland and blended cements, Marques, Pedro Faustino, Chastre Carlos, and Nunes Ângela , Cement and Concrete Composites, Volume 37, p.171-184, (2013) Abstractmarques_chastre_et_al._2013.pdfWebsite

The presented work aims at studying the modelling of long term performance of concrete compositions with different proportions of clinker as regards the diffusion of CO2 in concrete – carbonation. The replacing constituents of clinker that will be part of the binder in each concrete composition are limestone filler and low calcium fly ash (FA). The used percentage of FA by weight of binder was of 50%. Concrete compositions were made following standard prescribed requirements to attain service lives of 50 and 100 years as regards concrete performance against reinforcing steel corrosion. Test results of compressive strength and carbonation depth are reported at different curing ages of 28, 90, 180 and 365 days. Carbonation results were used for the implementation of modelling equations in order to estimate the design service life regarding reinforcing steel corrosion. Two performance-based methods were used: safety factor method and probabilistic method, and their results compared with the traditional prescriptive approach. At the age of 28 days the composition with OPC is the only one that reaches the target periods of 50 or 100 years. For the probabilistic method, different curing age results were analysed. For the tested results at 90, 180 and 365 days of age the reliability of some of the compositions with blended cements is within the minimum required, although still far from the higher performance of concrete with OPC.

Development of an injectable grout for concrete repair and strengthening, Bras, Ana, Gião Rita, Lúcio Válter, and Chastre Carlos , Cement and Concrete Composites, (2013) AbstractWebsite

This paper deals with the coupled effect of temperature and silica fume addition on rheological, mechanical behaviour and porosity of grouts based on CEMI 42.5R, proportioned with a polycarboxylate-based high range water reducer. Preliminary tests were conducted to focus on the grout best able to fill a fibrous network since the goal of this study was to develop an optimized grout able to be injected in a mat of steel fibers for concrete strengthening. The grout composition was developed based on criteria for fresh state and hardened state properties. For a CEMI 42.5R based grout different high range water reducer dosages (0, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.7%) and silica fume (SF) dosages (0, 2%, 4%) were tested (as replacement of cement by mass). Rheological measurements were used to investigate the effect of polycarboxylates (PCE) and SF dosage on grout properties, particularly its workability loss, as the mix was to be injected in a matrix of steel fibers for concrete jacketing. The workability behaviour was characterized by the rheological parameters yield stress and plastic viscosity (for different grout temperatures and resting times), as well as the procedures of mini slump cone and funnel flow time. Then, further development focused only on the best grout compositions. The cement substitution by 2% of SF exhibited the best overall behaviour and was considered as the most promising compared to the others compositions tested. Concerning the fresh state analysis, a significant workability loss was detected if grout temperature increased above 35°C. Below this temperature the grout presented a self-levelling behaviour and a life time equal to 45 minutes. In the hardened state, silica fumes increased not only the grout’s porosity but also the grout’s compressive strength at later ages, since the pozzolanic contribution to the compressive strength does not occur until 28 days and beyond.

Influence of Temperature Cycles on Bond between GFRP and Concrete, Silva, Manuel A. G., Biscaia Hugo, and Chastre Carlos , ACI Structural Journal, Volume 110, Issue 6, p.977-988, (2013) AbstractWebsite

Reinforced concrete (RC) beams externally strengthened with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) strips bonded to the soffit may see their load-carrying capacity reduced due to environmental conditions—especially due to the deterioration of bond between the adhesively bonded laminates and concrete, causing premature failure.
More research has been published on the detachment of the laminate progressing from the anchorage zone than on failure induced by the formation of flexural or shear-flexural cracks in the midspan followed by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) separation and failure designated as intermediate crack (IC) debonding. An experimental program to study degradation of the GFRP laminate beam specimens after accelerated temperature cycles, namely: 1) freezing-and-thawing type; and 2) cycles of the same amplitude (40°C [104°F]) and an upper limit approximately 70% of the glass vitreous transition temperature of the resin, Tg, is described.
Effects on the bond stress and ultimate capacity are reported. Substantial differences between shear and bending-induced failure and a decrease of bond stresses and engagement of the laminates on the structural response are analyzed.

Linear and nonlinear analysis of bond-slip models for interfaces between FRP composites and concrete, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 45, Number 1, p.1554-1568, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The paper analyses different analytical and numerical solutions for the debonding process of the FRP-to-concrete interface on shear tests with the FRP plate submitted to a tensile load in one of its ends. From the point of view of the state of the art, two different ways of finding the bond-slip curve from experiments are discussed and analysed. Essentially, three different linear bond-slip models, one exponential model and another power based function are employed in the numerical process. The results are analysed and compared. The differences found in the stress field along the interface, maximum load, maximum slip, ultimate slip, fracture energy and effective bond length are reported. The load-slip behaviour is also presented for the linear and non-linear models herein studied and the influence of the local bond-slip model on the debonding process is discussed. The numerical integration process used on the present study proved to be coherent with the analytical expressions determined for the linear bond-slip models and allowed to verify that maximum load transmittable to the FRP plate is influenced by the square root of the FRP stiffness and fracture energy even when nonlinear bond-slip models are assumed.

Nonlinear numerical analysis of the debonding failure process of FRP-to-concrete interfaces, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 50, p.210-223, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The paper analyses numerical solutions for the process leading to debonding failure of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP)-to-concrete interfaces in shear tests with the FRP plate subjected to a tensile load at one end. Any realistic local nonlinear bond-slip law can be used in the numerical analysis proposed in the present study. However, only a Popovics’ type expression is employed in the numerical process due to its use in different studies found in the literature. Effective bond length (Leff) is discussed and an expression depending on the Popovics’ constant (nP) is proposed to calculate it. Assuming a fracture in pure Mode II, the debonding process is analyzed in detail and distributions of bond stresses and strains in the FRP plate along the interface are presented. The load-displacement behaviour is also presented and the influence of the local bond-slip law on the debonding process is discussed.

Estruturas Pré-Moldadas no Mundo. Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, Chastre, Carlos, Lúcio Válter, Acker Arnold Van, Crisp Barry, Gutstein Daniela, Saraiva Filipe, Doniak Íria, Krohn Jason, Viegas José Barros, Ferreira Marcelo, Menegotto Marco, el Debs Mounir, Hughes Simon, Tsoukantas Spyros, and Pampanin Stefano , 2012, Brasil, p.320, (2012) AbstractWebsite

A indústria do betão pré fabricado é, por tradição, inovadora, precursora de novas tecnologias e de novos materiais.O processo produtivo de estruturas com elementos pré-fabricados difere significativamente do das estruturas betonadas em obra pelo facto de uma parte, ou a totalidade, dos elementos da estrutura serem produzidos em fábrica, em condições de produção melhoradas em relação às condições da obra, e serem posteriormente transportados para a obra, onde são, finalmente ligados entre si. A produção em fábrica é efectuada em ambiente protegido do Sol e da chuva, com operários fixos e com formação profissional para desenvolverem tarefas com procedimentos normalizados. Consequentemente, os elementos executados em fábrica possuem melhor qualidade, sob vários aspectos, do que as estruturas executadas em obra.Este livro divide-se em duas grandes áreas, numa primeira abordam-se algumas aplicações de estruturas pré-moldadas no mundo e numa segunda parte descreve-se o seu comportamento estrutural face a diferentes acções. Nos primeiros capítulos relata-se a experiência da pré-fabricação em três países de diferentes continentes: o Brasil, Portugal e a Austrália e revelam-se novas oportunidades que poderão surgir para a indústria da pré-fabricação. Nos capítulos seguintes dá-se um especial enfoque à investigação do comportamento das ligações (rígidas e semi-rígidas). Aborda-se o projecto de estruturas de betão pré-fabricado às acções acidentais. E por fim, dedicam-se os últimos capítulos ao comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas face às acções sísmicas. Nesta área, o bom desempenho das estruturas e grande parte do conhecimento e da tecnologia actual advém da resposta dada pelos engenheiros, investigadores e construtores aos fenómenos naturais que afectam as nossas construções, como comprova o desempenho das ligações dúcteis resistentes a momentos em edifícios pré fabricados de betão no verdadeiro teste sísmico que foram os sismos de Christchurch de 2010 e 2011.

Effect of salt crystallization ageing on the compressive behavior of sandstone blocks in historical buildings, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , Engineering Failure Analysis, 12//, Volume 26, p.247-257, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Sandstone building stones are important in the building elements of Portuguese monuments, particularly in the western and southern regions. Alveolization due to salt crystallization was the most important degradation pattern found in the old sandstone façades of buildings in the village of Atouguia da Baleia. Because weathering progressively increases porosity in stones, experimental research was conducted on the most porous variety of sandstone, which is similar to the type of stones found in the façades of ancient buildings in that village. An automatic salt crystallization accelerated ageing chamber was developed. Monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive tests were carried out on samples after sodium chloride crystallization ageing tests had been performed, in order to assess the compressive mechanical behavior of sandstone during accelerated ageing. The results of stress–strain compression diagrams showed a clear decreasing trend in the values of mechanical parameters during the salt crystallization ageing progress. The difference in compressive strength values between monotonic and cyclic compression also decreases with as salt crystallization ageing progresses. A predictive equation that correlates the compressive strength of sandstones with salt crystallization ageing cycles is proposed.

Degradação da aderência entre compósitos de GFRP e betão devido a condições ambientais severas, Silva, M. A. G., Biscaia H. C., and Chastre C. , Betão Estrutural 2012, Porto, (2012) Abstractsilva2012bich_-_be2012_-_feup.pdf

A degradação da ligação entre compósitos de matriz polimérica reforçada por fibras (FRP) e o betão é uma das principais causas de possível rotura das vigas e lajes de betão armado reforçadas
externamente por compósitos de FRP. Desde há mais de 10 anos que se estuda, por isso, na UNL o
comportamento dessa ligação, integrado em programa mais alargado de estudo da durabilidade deste tipo de reforço, especialmente quando sujeito a condições ambientais severas que se simulam por processos artificialmente acelerados no laboratório. Em particular a degradação da aderência e o possível descolamento precoce do reforço têm sido modelados física e computacionalmente com principal incidência no uso de fibras de vidro (GFRP) e resina epoxídica. Nesta comunicação mostram-se resultados obtidos em termos de capacidade de carga, força transmitida ao reforço e tensões de aderência após envelhecimentos de pequenas vigas de betão armado (BA) por ciclos de nevoeiro salino, ciclos seco/molhado em solução salina, ciclos de temperatura entre +7,5ºC e +47,5ºC e gelo-degelo de -10ºC a +30ºC. Faz-se recomendação quanto à extensão máxima para diferentes envelhecimentos. Apresenta-se comparação entre resultados de modelação numérica e experimental.

Double shear tests to evaluate the bond strength between GFRP/concrete elements, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Composite Structures, Volume 94, Number 2, p.681-694, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Externally bonded reinforced systems have been widely used in civil engineering. However, the problems associated with bond between structural elements are not yet fully solved. As a consequence, many researchers have been proposing tests and techniques to standardize procedures and reach better agreement for design purposes. In the present paper, an experimental program is described that was developed to characterize the glass FRP/concrete interface by double shear tests made on 15 cm side cubes with GFRP bonded on two opposite faces. The GFRP wrap had two layers applied by the wet lay-up technique and three classes of concrete were considered. With the support of the experimental program, cohesion and friction angle for GFRP–concrete interfaces were found leading to different envelope failure laws, based on the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for each concrete class, capable of predicting GFRP debonding. Results are discussed.

Factores que influenciam o desempenho da ligação GFRP/betão, Lucas, D., Biscaia H. C., Silva M. A. G., and Chastre C. , Betão Estrutural 2012, Porto, (2012) Abstractlucas2012bisich_-_be2012.pdf

Os compósitos de FRP podem descolar prematuramente da superfíce de betão, isto é, antes de esgotada a sua resistência elástica. Esta situação é mais provável se não forem tidos em conta factores como o tipo de preparação da superfície, a exposição a acção ambiental severa, e a resistência do próprio betão. Com o objectivo de analisar a influência de parte destes factores no desempenho da ligação compósito de fibra de vidro (GFRP) e betão, empreendeu-se uma campanha experimental baseada em ensaios de corte duplo. Os resultados permitiram determinar e comparar as forças máximas transmitidas ao GFRP e tensões de aderência máxima para diferentes tratamentos de superfície e condições de envelhecimento. Foram também determinadas aproximações para curvas de tensão de aderência vs. deslizamento (bond-slip). Os resultados obtidos são contrastados com resultados obtidos por modelação numérica.

fib Bulletin 63. Design of precast concrete structures against accidental actions, Acker, Arnold Van, Chastre Carlos, Cholewicky Andrzej, Crisp Barry, Lúcio Válter, Elliott Kim S., Engström Björn, Gasperi Antonello, Suikka Arto, Tsoukantas Spyros, Vambersky Jan, and Vantomme John , fib bulletin, Number 63, Lausanne, p.78, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Since the 1980’s, several buildings throughout the world have been subject to gas explosions, impact by cars or airplanes, or car bomb attacks. In many cases the effect of the impact or explosion has been the failure of a critical structural member at the perimeter of the building. After the failure, the load supported by that member could not be redistributed and part or all of the structure has collapsed in a progressive manner. The phenomenon that occurs when local failure is not confined to the area of initial distress, and spreads horizontally and/or vertically through the structure, is termed progressive collapse.

Progressive collapse is a relatively rare event, as it requires both an accidental action to cause local damage and a structure that lacks adequate continuity, ductility, and redundancy to prevent the spread of damage. It is technically very difficult and economically prohibitive to design buildings for absolute safety. However it is possible to construct precast concrete buildings that afford an acceptable degree of safety with regard to accidental actions.

A structure is normally designed to respond properly, without damage, under normal load conditions, but local and/or global damages cannot be avoided under the effect of an unexpected, but moderate degree of accidental overload. Properly designed and constructed structures usually possess reasonable probability not to collapse catastrophically under such loads, depending on different factors, for example: the type of loading; the degree and the location of accidental loading in regard to the structure and its structural members; the type of structural system, the construction technology, and the spans between structural vertical members, etc.

No structure can be expected to be totally resistant to actions arising from an unexpected and extreme cause, but it should not be damaged to an extent that is disproportionate to the original cause.

The aim of fib Bulletin 63 is to summarize the present knowledge on the subject and to provide guidance for the design of precast structures against progressive collapse. This is addressed in terms of (a) the classification of the actions, (b) their effect on the structural types, (c) the strategies to cope with such actions, (d) the design methods and (e) some typical detailing, all supplemented with illustrations from around the world, and some model calculations.

Modelling the compressive mechanical behaviour of granite and sandstone historical building stones, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, Chastre Carlos, and Vasconcelos Graça , Construction and Building Materials, Volume 28, Number 1, p.372-381, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Building stones, particularly sandstone and granite, are very important in the building elements of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage. Experimental research, based on uniaxial compressive tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of lithotypes of rocks used in historic built heritage, with a view to evaluating the compressive mechanical behaviour of different building stones. The results showed that porosity plays a central role in the compressive behaviour of granites and sandstones. As porosity can be evaluated in field conditions with non-destructive tests it was decided to derive an analytical model to predict compressive behaviour based on the knowledge of porosity of the building stones. A cubic polynomial function was adopted to describe the pre-peak regime under compression to implement the model. Furthermore, a statistical correlation between mechanical and porosity data had to be defined. Good agreement between experimental and analytical compressive stress–strain diagrams, from which the mechanical properties like compressive strength and modulus of elasticity can be derived, was achieved.

Performance analysis of load–strain models for circular columns confined with FRP composites, Marques, Pedro Faustino, and Chastre Carlos , Composite Structures, Volume 94, Number 11, p.3115-3131, (2012) Abstractmarques__chastre_2012.pdfWebsite

The use of FRP composites for the confinement of concrete has become an important aspect to consider on strengthening of concrete columns. It is important therefore that accurate modelling tools are available for the design of this system considering, not only the peak values of load and strain, but also the complete stress–strain behaviour. A wide group of authors have proposed several models specific for FRP-confined concrete based either on theoretical assumptions (analysis-oriented-models – AOMs) or on mathematical calibration from testing results (design-oriented-models – DOMs). This article carries out the implementation and analysis of nine existing models for circular concrete columns in view of axially tested reinforced concrete columns confined with CFRP with three different diameters: 150; 250 and 400 mm. The global shape of curves, peak compressive load, stress–strain relation, axial-to-lateral relation and dilation response were studied to conclude which models’ curves were closer to tests. Quantification of errors in face of the testing results was carried out for the most important parameters – ultimate load, strain and lateral stress – as well as for other curve parameters. Some models are accurate in predicting the peak load, though only few can accurately predict the load–strain and dilation behaviour.

Seismic Strengthening of RC Beam-Column Connections, Gião, R., Lúcio V., and Chastre C. , 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, (2012) Abstractgiao_lucio_and_chastre.__in_15th_world_conference_on_earthquake_engineering._2012._lisbon..pdf


UFRG – Unidirectional fibre reinforced grout as strengthening material for reinforced concrete structures, Gião, R., Lúcio V., Chastre C., and Bras A. , BEFIB2012 – Fibre reinforced concrete, Guimarães, (2012) Abstractgiao2012vlchbr.pdf

The present study is part of an extensive research project, where the main objective is to evaluate a strengthening solution for reinforced concrete structures using a small thickness jacketing in the compression side of the RC element with unidirectional fiber reinforced grout - UFRG.
For this purpose a high performance cementitious grout reinforced with continuous and unidirectional non woven fibermat has been developed. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. Besides, for continuous fibers (with an aspect ratio, defined as the length-to-diameter ratio, l/d=∞), the composite should attain higher tensile strength since the fiber embedment length is enough to prevent fiber pullout.
The experimental campaign included a set of preliminary tests that allowed the design of the fiber reinforced grout, sustained with rheological parameters [7] and mechanical characterization tests of the materials.
Finally, an experimental campaign was carried out in order to proceed to the mechanical characterization of the unidirectional fiber reinforced grout. Compressive tests were conducted in small thickness tubular specimens that enable the determination of the compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity of the material. The tensile strength of the material was obtained using splitting tests of cubic specimens (according the standard DIN 1048-5). The experimental results are presented and analyzed.

Estruturas pré-moldadas no mundo, Chastre, Carlos, and Lúcio Válter , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.1-6, (2012) Abstract
Ligações rígidas em estruturas pré-fabricadas, Lúcio, Válter, and Chastre Carlos , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.137-166, (2012) Abstract
Princípios básicos para a conceção de estruturas de edifícios em zonas sísmicas, Chastre, Carlos, Lúcio Válter, and Tsoukantas Spyros , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.227-248, (2012) Abstract
Torres pré-fabricadas de betão para suporte de turbinas eólicas, Chastre, Carlos, and Lúcio Válter , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.91-106, (2012) Abstract
Displacement measurements with ARPS in T-beams load tests, Almeida, G., Melicio F., Chastre C., and Fonseca J. , Volume 349 AICT, p.286-293, (2011) Abstract

The measurement of deformations, displacements, strain fields and surface defects in many material tests in Civil Engineering is a very important issue. However, these measurements require complex and expensive equipment and the calibration process is difficult and time consuming. Image processing could be a major improvement, because a simple camera makes the data acquisition and the analysis of the entire area of the material under study without requiring any other equipment like in the traditional method. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a method that examines consecutive images, taken during the deformation period, and detects the movements based on a mathematical correlation algorithm. In this paper, block-matching algorithms are used in order to compare the results from image processing and the data obtained with linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT) sensors during laboratorial load tests of T-beams. © 2011 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares baseada em ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, Chastre Carlos, and Vasconcelos Graça , Mecânica Experimental, Number 19, p.101-110, (2011) Abstractrev_19_a10.pdfWebsite

No património edificado português as rochas granulares assumem importância relevante nos elementos construtivos presentes no património histórico e cultural, nomeadamente as pedras graníticas e areníticas. Tendo por objectivo a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares presentes no património edificado histórico foi realizado um estudo de investigação experimental sobre amostras dos litótipos seleccionados e que são representativos de rochas presentes no próprio edificado, em termos de propriedades petrográficas, físicas e mecânicas. Neste artigo apresenta-se um modelo analítico definido com base em ensaios experimentais que permite efectuar a simulação do comportamento das rochas em compressão uniaxial (diagramas de tensão-deformação), função de propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas através de ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos. Este modelo permite desta forma a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares sem afectar a integridade do património histórico.

Monotonic axial behavior and modelling of RC circular columns confined with CFRP, Chastre, Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Engineering Structures, Aug, Volume 32, Number 8, p.2268-2277, (2010) AbstractWebsite

The retrofit of reinforced concrete columns with FRP jackets has received considerable attention in recent years. The advantages of this technique compared to other similar techniques include the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight ratios of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastics), the strength and ductility increase of RC columns confined with FRP jackets as well as the fact that FRP external shells prevent or mitigate environmental degradation of the concrete and consequent corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Furthermore, this method also reduces the column transversal deformation and prevents the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. Twenty five experimental tests were carried out on reinforced concrete columns confined with CFRP composites, and subjected to axial monotonic compression. In order to evaluate the influence of several parameters on the mechanical behavior of the columns, the height of the columns was maintained, while changing other parameters: the diameter of the columns, the type of material (plain or reinforced concrete), the steel hoop spacing of the RC columns and the number of CFRP layers. Predictive equations, based on the experimental analysis, are proposed to estimate the compressive strength of the confined concrete, the maximum axial load and the axial or the lateral failure strain of circular RC columns jacketed with CFRP. A stress-strain model for CFRP confined concrete in compression, which considers the effect of the CFRP and the transversal reinforcement on the confined compressive strength of the column is also proposed. The curves, axial load versus axial or lateral strain of the RC column, are simulated based on the stress-strain model and include the longitudinal reinforcement effect. The results demonstrate that the model and the predictive equations represent very well the axial compression behavior of RC circular columns confined with CFRP. The applicability of this model to a large spectrum of RC column dimensions is its main advantage.

Displacement Estimation of a RC beam test based on TSS algorithm, Almeida, G., Biscaia H., Chastre C., Fonseca J., and Melício F. , CISTI'2010 - 5ª Conferencia Ibérica de Sistemas y Tecnologías de Información, Santiago de Compostela, (2010) Abstract

The traditional methodology used in civil engineering measurements requires a lot of equipment and a very complex procedure especially if the number of target points increase. Since the beginning of the current century, several studies have been conducted in the area of photogrametry using digital image
correlation associated with block motion algorithms to estimate displacements in reinforced concrete (RC) beams during a load test. Using image processing techniques it is possible to measure the whole area of interest and not only a few points of the tests materials. In this paper, block-matching algorithms are used in order to compare the results from photogrametry techniques and the data obtained with linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT) sensors during the load tests of RC beams, which are very common to find in civil engineering laboratories.

Flexural Behaviour of RC T-Beams Strengthened with Different FRP Materials, Carvalho, Tiago, Chastre Carlos, Biscaia Hugo, and Paula Raquel , The Third International fib Congress and Exhibition "Think Globally, Build Locally", , Washington DC, (2010) Abstract

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with FRP materials has received a
considerable increment in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight
ratios of FRP compared to other materials.
An experimental programme was conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of different
structural solutions to strengthen reinforced concrete beams with FRP composites (EBR
GFRP, EBR CFRP, NSRM-CFRP) and is described. The RC T beams had a 3m span by 0.3m
height and were tested until rupture in a 4-point bending test system.
The NSMR technique has proved to be the most effective of the three alternatives tested, as it
obtained high strength, combined with high ductility. Nevertheless, all the systems show
great strength increment in relation to the non retrofitted T-beams, proving to be effective
approaches to the flexural strengthening of RC beams.

Estudo do comportamento à compressão de compósitos de madeira e cimento, Faria, G., Lúcio V., Chastre C., and Nunes A. , Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2010, Lisboa, (2010) Abstract
Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares, Ludovico-Marques, M., Chastre C., and Vasconcelos G. , 8º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental, Guimarâes, (2010) Abstract
Bond GFRP-Concrete under environmental exposure, Biscaia, H., Silva M. G., and Chastre C. , 15th International Conference on Composite Structures ICCS 15, Porto, (2009) Abstractbiscaia2009sich_-_iccs15.pdf

Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are often used to strengthen RC structures.
Despite intense research, durability of reinforced concrete (RC) retrofitted with FRP remains insufficiently known. Long time behavior of the bond laminate-concrete, in flexural strengthening, under environmental action is not well known, conditioning Codes and engineers. An experimental program that subjected RC beams, externally reinforced with Glass FRP (GFRP) strips, to temperature and salt water cycles, for up to 10000h is reported.
At selected intermediate times, the RC beams were loaded to failure in bending. Rupture took place, normally, by tensile failure of concrete at a short distance from the interface with GFRP. The results showed that freeze-thaw cycles were the most severe of the environmental
conditions. The study also generated also non-linear bond-slip relationships from the experimental data. Numerical modeling has been undertaken, based on a commercial code.
The model is based on smeared cracking. Parameters needed for the characterization, namely cohesion and friction angle, were obtained from shear tests conceived for the effect.

Caracterização Experimental e Modelação Numérica da Ligação GFRP/BETÃO, Biscaia, H. E. C., Silva M. G., and Chastre C. , Mecânica Experimental, Number 16, p.9-18, (2009) Abstractbiscaia2009sich.pdfWebsite

Analisa-se e caracteriza-se por via experimental a ligação entre elementos de betão armado e materiais compósitos, nomeadamente com base nas fibras de vidro. Fabricaram-se vigas de betão armado que foram exteriormente reforçadas com GFRP. Os resultados obtidos experimentalmente foram comparados com os resultados conseguidos por intermédio de modelação computacional, recorrendo-se ao programa de cálculo ATENA 2D. Para melhor modelação de elementos de interface, foram realizados ensaios de corte tendo-se obtido valores que permitiram caracterizar a lei de rotura de Mohr-Coulomb. Os parâmetros estudados foram a evolução das forças máximas absorvidas pelo reforço; as tensões de aderência máximas; a distribuição das tensões de aderência.

New Methodology For Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Cyclic Test, Gião, Rita, Lúcio Valter, Chastre Carlos, and Proença Jorge , International FIB Conference "Concrete - 21st Century Superhero, London, (2009) Abstractgiao2009luchpr_-_fib-london.pdf

The aim of the present communication is to present an analysis of the gravity load influence on the hysteretic behaviour of a beam-column connection. For this purpose, in the experimental campaign a new procedure for RC cyclic tests is presented in order to reproduce closer demands on the beam critical zone than the traditional procedures. The Experimental campaign included cyclic tests of the specimens according with the ECCS recommendation and an innovate procedure. The test results are presented, compared and analysed. A numerical simulation of the tests is presented where the model for the hysteretic response of the beam was calibrated with the experimental results. Finally, the behaviour of a portal frame system under cyclic displacements up to a drift of 3.5% was analysed, assuming that the non-linearity is concentrated on the plastic hinges, considering different levels of gravity load. Thus it is intended to assess the influence of the gravity load on the behaviour of a structure subjected to cyclic loads.

Ligação Pilar - Fundação com Armaduras Salientes do Pilar, em Estruturas Pré-Fabricadas, Reguengo, R., Lúcio V., and Chastre C. , 2º Congresso Nacional de Pré-Fabricação em Betão, Lisboa, (2008) Abstractreguengo2008luch_-_2_cnp_-_lnec.pdf

A ligação pilar-fundação tem um papel fundamental no comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas, em particular, na presença de acções horizontais, como a acção dos sismos e do vento, que introduzem esforços elevados na base dos pilares. Um dos sistemas de ligação pilar-fundação usados em estruturas pré-fabricadas consiste em deixar na extremidade inferior dos pilares armaduras salientes que são introduzidas em negativos executados nas fundações. Estes negativos são posteriormente injectados com grout para garantir a ligação. No presente trabalho foram estudadas diferentes soluções de negativos para ligação das armaduras do pilar à fundação, tendo sido realizados ensaios monotónicos para analisar o seu comportamento. Nesta comunicação apresentam-se e discutem-se os resultados obtidos da análise experimental efectuada.

Ligação pilar – fundação com armaduras salientes do pilar, em estruturas pré-fabricadas – Ensaios monotónicos e ensaios cíclicos, Reguengo, R., Lúcio V., and Chastre C. , Betão Estrutural 2008, Guimarães, (2008) Abstractreguengo2008luch_-_be2008.pdf

A ligação pilar-fundação tem um papel fundamental no comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas,
em particular, na presença de acções horizontais, como a acção dos sismos e do vento. Um dos sistemas de ligação pilar-fundação usados em estruturas pré-fabricadas consiste em deixar na extremidade inferior dos pilares armaduras salientes que são introduzidas em negativos executados nas fundações, sejam elas sapatas ou maciços de encabeçamento de estacas. Estes negativos são posteriormente injectados com “grout” para garantir a ligação. Foram estudados diferentes soluções de negativos para ligação das armaduras do pilar na fundação. Foram realizados ensaios monotónicos e cíclicos, para analisar não só o comportamento às acções estáticas mas também para a acção sísmica. No presente trabalho apresentam-se os resultados obtidos com a análise experimental efectuada. O estudo realizado permite apresentar recomendações para projecto e quais os tipos de ligações com melhor desempenho.

Caracterização Experimental e Modelação Numérica da Ligação GFRP/Betão, Biscaia, H., Silva M. G., and Chastre C. , 7º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental, Vila Real, (2008) Abstract
Ligação Pilar - Fundação em Estruturas Pré-Fabricadas. Estudo experimental, Reguengo, R., Lúcio V., and Chastre C. , Seminário SILE’08, Lisboa, (2008) Abstract
Reinforced Concrete Columns Jacketed with FRP Composites and Subjected to Cyclic Horizontal Loads, Chastre, C., and Silva M. G. , International Conference CCC2008 - Challenges for Civil Construction, Porto, (2008) Abstract
Cyclic compression behaviour of polymer concrete, Rodrigues, Chastre C., and Silva Manuel A. G. , Journal of Polymer Engineering, Volume 27, Number 6-7, p.525-545, (2007) Abstractrodrigues07si.pdfWebsite

Polymeric mortars or concrete are special building materials which can be used to repair or strengthen localized areas of structural elements. Following research on the behaviour of retrofitting reinforced concrete circular columns with FRP composite materials and bearing in mind the high strength of polymer concretes, it was decided to develop a solution to seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete columns with polymer concrete. The mechanical characteristics of different polymer concretes and especially their performance when subjected to cyclic axial compression, several bending tests, and monotonic and cyclic axial compression tests were studied, namely the compressive strength, the tensile strength on bending and the Young's modulus. Columns were also tested under axial compression and cyclic horizontal loads. The results of these tests are shown and interpreted. It is concluded that the improved behaviour in monotonic compression of polymer concrete is essentially associated with better strength characteristics of resin, whereas its superior behaviour under cyclic loading is linked to a smoother aggregate grading curve.

Size and Relative Stiffness Effects on Compressive Failure of Concrete Columns Wrapped with Glass FRP, Silva, M. A. G., and Rodrigues C. C. , Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 18, Issue 3, p.334-342, (2006) AbstractWebsite

Structural design relies essentially on tests made on cylinders of small size to estimate the probability of failure of prototype members, since full-scale testing of structures to determine their strength is not feasible. The confidence that such scale modeling deserves in terms of representation of actual behavior needs careful examination, due to such factors as material nonlinearities, difficulties of scale representation of particulate materials, and sometimes the impossibility of simultaneously satisfying independent dimensionless parameters. Some failures explained by linear fracture mechanics are associable with strong size effects, as opposed to the cases where small cracks are a material property. Besides research centered on these problems, a number of studies of scale effects have been associated with the increased probability of finding a flaw in larger objects. In fact, geometric similitude may coexist with microscopic randomness of flaws that cause size effects to appear. The type of material of the object under study may also be a decisive factor. For example, scatter of the mechanical properties in unidirectional fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) is much larger than in metals due to a larger density of flaws. Thus the strength of FRP laminates may depend on the volume of material involved. Strengthening reinforced concrete columns with FRP wraps leads to new constitutive laws for the overall response of the columns and requires small-scale testing followed by extrapolation for design use. The present paper focuses on the difficulties of this step, based on the experimental data obtained. The questions mentioned above are addressed, and the relevance of the adequate representation of the lateral stiffness of the FRP jacket in the scaled cylinders is emphasized. The paper also addresses the problem of testing confined cylinders with a given slenderness ratio H/D=height/diameter, within the range usually characteristic of short columns, and extrapolating the results for columns of different H/D. The importance of the parameter (thickness of jacket/diameter of column, representative of stiffness of jacket/stiffness of concrete core) is also examined. The influence of the parameter is shown to be relatively minor, whereas the nonscaling of the relative stiffness of the core and jacket would be a major cause of error. The experimental data, in terms of strain and strength, are also compared with numerical models proposed in the literature, and the quality of the approximations is analyzed.

The behaviour of RC columns retrofitted with FRP or polymeric concrete under axial compression and cyclic horizontal loads, Chastre Rodrigues, C., and Silva M. A. G. , 9th International Conference on Inspection, Appraisal, Repairs and Maintenance of Structures, Oct 20-21, Fuzhou, PEOPLES R CHINA, p.393-400, (2005) Abstract

The seismic retrofit of reinforced concrete columns with FRP jackets has received a considerable increment in recent years due the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight ratios of FRP compared to other materials. The FRP outer shell also contributes to prevent or delay environmental degradation of the concrete and corrosion of the steel reinforcement. An experimental program conducted in order to analyze the behavior of reinforced concrete columns jacketed with FRP composites or repaired with polymeric concrete and subjected to axial compression and cyclic horizontal loads is described. The dimensions of the cylindrical columns were 1500 mm height by 250 mm diameter. The influence of various parameters on the response, including the type of confining material and the number of FRP layers, is reported. The results of the tests are shown and interpreted.

Comportamento às acções cíclicas de pilares de betão armado reforçados com materiais compósitos, Chastre Rodrigues, C. , Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, (2005) Abstract

This thesis deals with the analysis of the behaviour of retrofitting reinforced concrete circular columns with FRP materials which were subjected either to axial cyclic compression or axial compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The choice of this topic derived from the need to investigate the behaviour of the strengthening of reinforced concrete columns to seismic actions, especially with new materials such as carbon and glass fibres or polymeric mortars. Another reason for such choice is linked to the strong seismicity of the Portuguese territory.
It has been verified that confined concrete columns with FRP jackets have their resistance and ductility highly increased as these considerably reduce the columns transversal deformation, thus preventing the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. There has been an increasing use of FRP composites in the strengthening of structures, mainly with GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics) or CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics). This is due to their attractive characteristics such as high resistance to corrosion, lowratio for weight/strength, moldability, easy application and the fact that there is no need of support structures.
Forty-five experimental tests were carried out, dealing with retrofitting reinforced concrete columns with axial monotonic or cyclic compression reinforced with FRP composites. The column height of 750 mm was maintained in order to evaluate the influence of several parameters in its behaviour: the column geometry (change in its diameter), the type of column (plain or reinforced concrete), transversal reinforcement ratio of concrete columns, the type of external confinement with FRP (C or GFRP), the number of FRP layers and the type of axial loading (monotonic or cyclic).
Twelve additional experimental tests were conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of reinforced concrete columns jacketed with FRP composites and subjected to axial cyclic compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The columns’ dimension was maintained (1500 mm height by 250 mm diameter) and the models were subjected to a series of cyclic and alternated loadings. This enabled the study of the various parameters’ influence in their behaviour such as the type of FRP confinement, the number of FRP layers, the level of axial loading, the jacket’s height or the strengthening of the plastic hinge by replacing the cover concrete with polymeric mortar.
Based on the numerical models presented and experimental analysis carried out, models were proposed and developed to simulate the behaviour of columns jacketed with FRP composites.

Comportamento da Ligação CFRP-Resina–Betão Sujeita a Acções Cíclicas, Marques, J. L., Fong P., Macedo P., Chastre Rodrigues C., and Lúcio V. , Betão Estrutural 2004, Porto, (2004) Abstractmarques2004fomachlu_-_be2004.pdf


Potencialidade e Limitações dos Novos Materiais de Reforço de Estruturas, Chastre Rodrigues, C., and Silva M. G. , RILEM – 57th Annual Week 2003 & Seminário NDB, Lisboa, (2003) Abstract
The Behaviour of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Columns Under Monotonic and Cyclic Axial Compression, Chastre Rodrigues, C., and Silva M. G. , CCC2001, Composites in Construction, Porto, p.245-250, (2001) Abstractchastre_rodrigues2001si_-_ccc2001.pdf


Experimental Investigation of CFRP Reinforced Concrete Columns under Uniaxial Cyclic Compression, Chastre Rodrigues, C., and Silva M. G. , FRPRCS-5, 5th International Conference on Fibre Reinforced Plastics for Reinforced Concrete Structures, Cambridge, UK, p.784-792, (2001) Abstractchastre_rodrigues2001si_-_frprcs-5.pdf


Influência do Confinamento nos Modelos de Cálculo de Pilares Reforçados com CFRP ou GFRP, Chastre Rodrigues, C., Paula A. R., and Silva M. G. , Betão Estrutural 2000, Porto, (2000) Abstractchastre_rodrigues2000pasi_-_be2000_-_feup.pdf


Encamisamento de Pilares de Betão Armado com FRP: Efeitos nas Relações Constitutivas e na Ductilidade, Silva, M. G., and Chastre Rodrigues C. , VI Congresso de Mecânica Aplicada e Computacional, Aveiro, (2000) Abstract
Comportamento da Ligação Aço-Resina-Betão em Elementos Estruturais, Chastre Rodrigues, C. , Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1993, Volume MSc, Lisboa, (1993) Abstract1993_-_msc-_ist_-_carlos_chastre_-_comportamento_da_ligacao_aco-resina-betao_em_elementos_estruturais.pdf

The present work studies the behaviour of bonded steel plates to reinforced concrete elements, which can be used in the strengthening of concrete structural elements. Metallic expansion bolts can be added.The objective of this dissertation is to investigate the behaviour to monotonic actions and particularly to cyclic loading of steel-epoxy-concrete connection with expansion bolts. This cyclic action is of particular interest due to the strong seismicity of the Portuguese territory.The research is mainly based in experimental analysis. The caracterization of the materials was carried out. Six models of the steel-epoxy connection were tested with monotonic loading. Twenty six models of steel-epoxy-concrete bond were submitted either to monotonic or to cyclic actions.Besides the type of action, other parameters were studied in the steel-epoxy-concrete connection models.These were the bond geometry area, the type of concrete, the type of epoxy and connection - with or without metallic expansion bolts.A parametric study with a numerical model of finite elements, as well as a global analysis of the experimental tests of the steel-epoxy-concrete connection was carried out.