CFRP

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Prediction of the interfacial performance of CFRP laminates and old timber bonded joints with different strengthening techniques, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, Cruz David, and Viegas André , Composites Part B: Engineering, 1/1/, Volume 108, p.1-17, (2017) AbstractWebsite

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a recent technique to strengthen timber structures and the studies available discussing the debonding between these materials are limited. Therefore, the bond assessment between FRP composites and timber substrates is a topic that needs clarification. The present work analyses the debonding process between Carbon (C) FRP laminates and timber with rupture modes consistent with Mode II interfacial fracture, i.e. with the sliding mode where the bond stresses act parallel to the plane of the bonding surface. Several single-lap shear tests were performed and the experiments showed a nonlinear local behaviour of the CFRP-to-timber interface. An interfacial bond-slip model and its calibration procedure were also presented. Furthermore, the calibrated nonlinear bond-slip model was implemented in a numerical approach where the FRP composite and the adhesive are simulated by linear and nonlinear springs and the substrate is assumed rigid. The following influences on the debonding process of the CFRP-to-timber interface were also analysed: (i) the bonding technique (Externally Bonded Reinforcement - EBR; and Near Surface Mounted - NSM); and (ii) the use of an additional device to mechanically anchor the CFRP laminate. Besides the determination of the effective bond length for each bonding technique, a new concept defining the length beyond which the force at the anchorage device does not decrease with the bonded length and a proposal to estimate its value for any bonded length was also presented and discussed. The experimental tests have shown that the NSM technique has a better performance compared to the EBR technique, independently of the installation of mechanical anchorage devices. In the case of the EBR technique, the strains in the CFRP laminate increased at its vicinities due to the clamping force applied to the anchors, which affected the final strength of the interface.

Flexural strengthening of columns with CFRP composites and stainless steel: Cyclic behavior, Faustino, Pedro, and Chastre Carlos , Journal of Structural Engineering, 21 September 201, Volume 142, Number 2, p.04015136, (2016) AbstractWebsite

This study presents the testing, completion, and analysis of different external strengthening systems applied to rectangular reinforced concrete columns with rounded corners. The experimental study included confinement strengthening with carbon-fiberreinforcedpolymer (CFRP) sheets, longitudinal strengthening with CFRP laminates and confining CFRP jacket, longitudinal strengtheningwith stainless steel bars and confining CFRP jacket, tested column until reinforcing steel failure, repair and CFRP confining jacket,and longitudinal strengthening with stainless steel bars. The analysis of the experimental results included lateral load-displacement relationship, energy dissipation, ductility, and curvature damage assessment classifications. It was concluded that the use of externallongitudinal strengthening combined with CFRP confinement is effective for enhancing performance and is viable in terms of execution. The load capacity increase due to strengthening reached 36–46% with good ductile behavior (failure was reached at 4.4% drift ratio). Despite some differences between CFRP laminates and stainless steel, all columns presented moderate degrees of damage between 1 and 2% drift ratio and minor damage degree until 1% drift ratio.

Experimental evaluation of bonding between CFRP laminates and different structural materials, Biscaia, Hugo, Chastre Carlos, Borba Isabel, Silva Cinderela, and Cruz David , Journal of Composites for Construction, Volume 20, Number 3, p.04015070, (2016) AbstractWebsite

This study presents an analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP)-to-parent material interfaces based on 40 single-lap shear tests intended to highlight the strength of the interfaces under fracture mode II. Three different substrates are analyzed: timber;concrete and steel, using the same CFRP laminates and adhesive agent. The Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) technique was used throughout the study. The results show that the CFRP-to-timber interfaces had the highest strength but also showed that these interfaces need a longer bonded length in order to reach maximum strength, i.e., CFRP-to-timber interfaces had the longest effective bond length. The local non-linear bond-slip curve of CFRP-to-concrete can be approximated to exponential curves, whereas the CFRP-to-timber or steel interfaces showed tri-linear and bi-linear bond-slip relations, respectively. Also, the CFRP-to-timber interfaces revealed the highest fracture energy.

Flexural Strengthening of Old Timber Floors with Laminated Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers, Biscaia, Hugo, Chastre Carlos, Cruz David, and Franco Noel , Journal of Composites for Construction, p.04016073, (2016) AbstractWebsite

A set of three old suspended timber floors were flexurally-strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) strips in order to investigate the effectiveness of externally bonding FRP to their soffits. The specimens were from an old building and 740 mm-wide bands were transferred to the laboratory in order to be tested in a 4-point bending test. One specimen was tested with no strengthening system and the results obtained were used as reference values for comparison with the specimens those were externally bonded and reinforced (EBR) with CFRP strips. Two similar EBR systems were studied: (i) keeping both ends of the CFRP strips free of any restriction (traditional technique); and (ii) embedding both ends of the CFRP strips into the timber, thus providing a bonding anchorage of the strips (new technique). The installation of the new strengthening system comprises the opening of holes in the timber and the creation of a transition curve between the holes and the timber surface. This transition curve allows a smooth transition of the CFRP laminate between the hole and the timber surface, thus avoiding stress concentrations in this area. After the opening of the holes, the resin is applied inside the hole and on the beam surface, and then the CFRP laminate is mounted. The load-carrying capacity of the specimens, the rupture modes, the strains and bond stress distributions within the CFRP-to-timber interface are presented. A nonlinear numerical simulation of the specimens based on the mid-span cross-sectional equilibrium is also presented. The results showed that the use of the new strengthening system enhances the performance of the specimens when compared with the traditional strengthening system.

Old suspended timber floors flexurally-strengthened with different structural materials, Biscaia, Hugo, Franco Noel, Nunes Ricardo, and Chastre Carlos , Key Engineering Materials, Volume 713, p.78-81, (2016) Abstract

The design of timber beams has strict limits when it comes to the Serviceability Limit States (SLS) either in short-term or in long-term deflections. In order to face this aspect efficiently, the increase of the cross section of the beams might be considered as a solution. However, the prohibitive increase of the costs associated to this solution or the change of the initial architecturedesign of the building, opens the opportunity to find new and more efficient solutions. In that way, the use of additional reinforcements to the timber beams may be seen as a promising solution because either new or old structures would keep always their original aesthetical aspect with no significant self-weight increase and improving their behaviour to short and long-term actions.Therefore, the current study is dedicated to the analysis of composite timber beams where Fiber Reinforcement Polymers (FRP), steel or stainless steel are used to improve the stiffness, strength and deflection behaviour of old suspended timber floors. An experimental program was conducted where old suspended timber floors reinforced with CFRP strips were subjected to 4-point bending tests. A simplify nonlinear numerical model was developed to simulate the bending behaviour of the specimens and several other cases with other reinforcement configurations and different structural materials were assumed. The numerical analysis herein presented also takes into account both Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States of the reinforced specimens.

Analysis of the debonding process of CFRP-to-timber interfaces, Biscaia, Hugo C., Cruz David, and Chastre Carlos , Construction and Building Materials, 6/15/, Volume 113, p.96-112, (2016) AbstractWebsite

The use of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) in the strengthening of timber structures is quite recent and few studies have discussed the debonding between these materials. The analysis of the Mode II debonding process between FRP composites and timber elements may be of great importance because this mode is predominant in the case, for instance, of the bending of beams. Knowing the appropriate bond-slip model to use on the estimation of the performance of FRP-to-timber interfaces is greatly relevant. Under such circumstances, a detailed knowledge of all the states that CFRP-to-timber interfaces are subjected to is important as well. The current work gives answers to these aspects proposing an analytical solution based on a tri-linear bond-slip model that is capable of describing precisely the full-range debonding behavior of FRP-to-timber interfaces. Thus, the purpose of this study is to contribute to existing knowledge with an analytical solution capable of describing the full-range debonding process between a FRP composite and a substrate. The analytical solutions herein proposed are also compared with the results obtained from several experiments based on single-lap shear tests. Comparisons at different load levels and different bonded lengths are presented. The slips, strains in the CFRP composite and bond stress distributions within the bonded interface are emphasized in the text. The complete load-slip response of CFRP-to-timber interface is also analyzed. Each state of the debonding process is described and each one is identified in the load-slip curve.

Damage Effect on Concrete Columns Confined with Carbon Composites, Faustino, Pedro, and Chastre Carlos , ACI Structural Journal, Volume 113, Number 4, (2016) AbstractWebsite

Five experimental cyclic tests were carried out on reinforced concrete rectangular columns with rounded corners, different condition (new and damaged) and different strengthening systems: that included confinement through carbon fiber (CFRP) jackets, anchor dowels, high strength repair mortar and external longitudinal stainless steel bars. Lateral load - displacement relationship, energy dissipation, ductility and curvature results were analyzed together with two different damage assessment classifications. The overall evaluation concludes that the use of external confinement with CFRP on RC columns is viable and of effective performance enhancement alone and combined with other techniques. Damaged columns that were retrofitted showed an increased load capacity up to 20% along with good ductile behavior within the limits of the US, European, Canadian and Japanese codes, with minor/moderate degree of damage at 1% drift ratio and moderate degree of damage at 2% drift ratio.

Monotonic axial behavior and modelling of RC circular columns confined with CFRP, Chastre, Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Engineering Structures, Aug, Volume 32, Number 8, p.2268-2277, (2010) AbstractWebsite

The retrofit of reinforced concrete columns with FRP jackets has received considerable attention in recent years. The advantages of this technique compared to other similar techniques include the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight ratios of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastics), the strength and ductility increase of RC columns confined with FRP jackets as well as the fact that FRP external shells prevent or mitigate environmental degradation of the concrete and consequent corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Furthermore, this method also reduces the column transversal deformation and prevents the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. Twenty five experimental tests were carried out on reinforced concrete columns confined with CFRP composites, and subjected to axial monotonic compression. In order to evaluate the influence of several parameters on the mechanical behavior of the columns, the height of the columns was maintained, while changing other parameters: the diameter of the columns, the type of material (plain or reinforced concrete), the steel hoop spacing of the RC columns and the number of CFRP layers. Predictive equations, based on the experimental analysis, are proposed to estimate the compressive strength of the confined concrete, the maximum axial load and the axial or the lateral failure strain of circular RC columns jacketed with CFRP. A stress-strain model for CFRP confined concrete in compression, which considers the effect of the CFRP and the transversal reinforcement on the confined compressive strength of the column is also proposed. The curves, axial load versus axial or lateral strain of the RC column, are simulated based on the stress-strain model and include the longitudinal reinforcement effect. The results demonstrate that the model and the predictive equations represent very well the axial compression behavior of RC circular columns confined with CFRP. The applicability of this model to a large spectrum of RC column dimensions is its main advantage.

Comportamento às acções cíclicas de pilares de betão armado reforçados com materiais compósitos, Chastre Rodrigues, C. , Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, (2005) Abstract

This thesis deals with the analysis of the behaviour of retrofitting reinforced concrete circular columns with FRP materials which were subjected either to axial cyclic compression or axial compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The choice of this topic derived from the need to investigate the behaviour of the strengthening of reinforced concrete columns to seismic actions, especially with new materials such as carbon and glass fibres or polymeric mortars. Another reason for such choice is linked to the strong seismicity of the Portuguese territory.
It has been verified that confined concrete columns with FRP jackets have their resistance and ductility highly increased as these considerably reduce the columns transversal deformation, thus preventing the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. There has been an increasing use of FRP composites in the strengthening of structures, mainly with GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics) or CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics). This is due to their attractive characteristics such as high resistance to corrosion, lowratio for weight/strength, moldability, easy application and the fact that there is no need of support structures.
Forty-five experimental tests were carried out, dealing with retrofitting reinforced concrete columns with axial monotonic or cyclic compression reinforced with FRP composites. The column height of 750 mm was maintained in order to evaluate the influence of several parameters in its behaviour: the column geometry (change in its diameter), the type of column (plain or reinforced concrete), transversal reinforcement ratio of concrete columns, the type of external confinement with FRP (C or GFRP), the number of FRP layers and the type of axial loading (monotonic or cyclic).
Twelve additional experimental tests were conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of reinforced concrete columns jacketed with FRP composites and subjected to axial cyclic compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The columns’ dimension was maintained (1500 mm height by 250 mm diameter) and the models were subjected to a series of cyclic and alternated loadings. This enabled the study of the various parameters’ influence in their behaviour such as the type of FRP confinement, the number of FRP layers, the level of axial loading, the jacket’s height or the strengthening of the plastic hinge by replacing the cover concrete with polymeric mortar.
Based on the numerical models presented and experimental analysis carried out, models were proposed and developed to simulate the behaviour of columns jacketed with FRP composites.