Ductility

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Assessing the behaviour of RC beams subject to significant gravity loads under cyclic loads, Gião, Rita, Lúcio Válter, and Chastre Carlos , Engineering Structures, 2//, Volume 59, Number 2, p.512-521, (2014) AbstractGiao et al 2014.pdfWebsite

Gravity loads can affect a reinforced concrete structure’s response to seismic actions, however, traditional procedures for testing the beam behaviour do not take this effect into consideration. An experimental campaign was carried out in order to assess the influence of the gravity load on RC beam connection to the column subjected to cyclic loading. The experiments included the imposition of a conventional quasi-static test protocol based on the imposition of a reverse cyclic displacement history and of an alternative cyclic test procedure starting from the gravity load effects. The test results are presented, compared and analysed in this paper. The imposition of a cyclic test procedure that included the gravity loads effects on the RC beam ends reproduces the demands on the beams’ critical zones more realistically than the traditional procedure. The consideration of the vertical load effects in the test procedure led to an accumulation of negative (hogging) deformation. This phenomenon is sustained with the behaviour of a portal frame system under cyclic loads subject to a significant level of the vertical load, leading to the formation of unidirectional plastic hinges. In addition, the hysteretic behaviour of the RC beam ends tested was simulated numerically using the nonlinear structural analysis software – OpenSees. The beam–column model simulates the global element behaviour very well, as there is a reasonable approximation to the hysteretic loops obtained experimentally.

Comportamento às acções cíclicas de pilares de betão armado reforçados com materiais compósitos, Chastre Rodrigues, C. , Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, (2005) Abstract

This thesis deals with the analysis of the behaviour of retrofitting reinforced concrete circular columns with FRP materials which were subjected either to axial cyclic compression or axial compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The choice of this topic derived from the need to investigate the behaviour of the strengthening of reinforced concrete columns to seismic actions, especially with new materials such as carbon and glass fibres or polymeric mortars. Another reason for such choice is linked to the strong seismicity of the Portuguese territory.
It has been verified that confined concrete columns with FRP jackets have their resistance and ductility highly increased as these considerably reduce the columns transversal deformation, thus preventing the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. There has been an increasing use of FRP composites in the strengthening of structures, mainly with GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics) or CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics). This is due to their attractive characteristics such as high resistance to corrosion, lowratio for weight/strength, moldability, easy application and the fact that there is no need of support structures.
Forty-five experimental tests were carried out, dealing with retrofitting reinforced concrete columns with axial monotonic or cyclic compression reinforced with FRP composites. The column height of 750 mm was maintained in order to evaluate the influence of several parameters in its behaviour: the column geometry (change in its diameter), the type of column (plain or reinforced concrete), transversal reinforcement ratio of concrete columns, the type of external confinement with FRP (C or GFRP), the number of FRP layers and the type of axial loading (monotonic or cyclic).
Twelve additional experimental tests were conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of reinforced concrete columns jacketed with FRP composites and subjected to axial cyclic compression and alternated cyclic horizontal loads. The columns’ dimension was maintained (1500 mm height by 250 mm diameter) and the models were subjected to a series of cyclic and alternated loadings. This enabled the study of the various parameters’ influence in their behaviour such as the type of FRP confinement, the number of FRP layers, the level of axial loading, the jacket’s height or the strengthening of the plastic hinge by replacing the cover concrete with polymeric mortar.
Based on the numerical models presented and experimental analysis carried out, models were proposed and developed to simulate the behaviour of columns jacketed with FRP composites.