Coauthored Publications with: Chastre

Book

Acker, AV, Chastre C, Crisp B, Fernandez D, Lúcio V, Elliott KS, Hughes S, Jones G, Karutz H, Klein-Holte R, Maas S, Menegotto M, Tsoukantas S, van der Zee P.  2014.  fib Bulletin 74. Planning and design handbook on precast building structures, 2014. fib bulletin. :313., Number fib Bulletin 74, Lausanne: International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) AbstractWebsite

In 1994 fib Commission 6: Prefabrication edited a successful Planning and Design Handbook that ran to approximately 45,000 copies and was published in Spanish and German.Nearly 20 years later Bulletin 74 brings that first publication up to date. It offers a synthesis of the latest structural design knowledge about precast building structures against the background of 21st century technological innovations in materials, production and construction. With it, we hope to help architects and engineers achieve a full understanding of precast concrete building structures, the possibilities they offer and their specific design philosophy. It was principally written for non-seismic structures.

The handbook contains eleven chapters, each dealing with a specific aspect of precast building structures.
The first chapter of the handbook highlights best practice opportunities that will enable architects, design engineers and contractors to work together towards finding efficient solutions, which is something unique to precast concrete buildings.
The second chapter offers basic design recommendations that take into account the possibilities, restrictions and advantages of precast concrete, along with its detailing, manufacture, transport, erection and serviceability stages.
Chapter three describes the precast solutions for the most common types of buildings such as offices, sports stadiums, residential buildings, hotels, industrial warehouses and car parks. Different application possibilities are explored to teach us which types of precast units are commonly used in all those situations.
Chapter four covers the basic design principles and systems related to stability. Precast concrete structures should be designed according to a specific stability concept, unlike cast in-situ structures.
Chapter five discusses structural connections.
Chapters six to nine address the four most commonly used systems or subsystems of precast concrete in buildings, namely, portal and skeletal structures, wall-frame structures, floor and roof structures and architectural concrete facades.
In chapter ten the design and detailing of a number of specific construction details in precast elements are discussed, for example, supports, corbels, openings and cutouts in the units, special features related to the detailing of the reinforcement, and so forth.
Chapter eleven gives guidelines for the fire design of precast concrete structures. The handbook concludes with a list of references to good literature on precast concrete construction.

Hughes, S, Acker AV, Chastre C, Gasperi A, Jones G, Karutz H, Krohn J, Laliberté D, Lindstrom G, Ronchetti A, Sennour L, Seshappa V, Sthaladipti S, Suika A, Tillman M, Tsoukantas S.  2017.  fib Bulletin 84. Precast Insulated Sandwich Panels. fib Bulletin 84. , Number fib Bulletin, Lausanne: International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) Abstract

Precast concrete sandwich panels started being used as cladding for buildings, together with the rise of industrial prefabrication, during the mid-20th century. Since then, society and industry have become increasingly aware of energy efficiency in all fields, for both affordability and sustainability consciousness. As such, buildings have been subject to increasingly stringent requirements with the technology of sandwich panels kept continually at the forefront.
Nowadays, sandwich panels have reached the highest standards of functional performance as structural efficiency, flexibility in use, the speed as well as of aesthetic appeal. These combine in building construction with the well-known advantages of prefabrication; such as construction, quality consciousness, durability and sustainability. Sandwich panels have gained more and more important in their field, thus representing quite a significant application within the industry of prefabrication and an important share of the market.
The Commission ‘Prefabrication’ is keen to promote the development of all precast structural concrete products and to transfer the knowledge to practical design and construction. Now filling a strategic gap, by issuing this Guide to Good Practice, which includes design considerations, structural analysis, building physics, use of materials, manufacturing methods, equipment, field performance, and provides a comprehensive overview of the information currently available worldwide. The Commission is particularly proud that this document is a result of close cooperation with PCI and that it will be published by both fib and PCI. This cooperation started six years ago, first with comparing the different approaches to several issues, then progressively integrating up to producing common documents, like this one, that wasn’t yet treated in a specific Guide by either body.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C.  2018.  Theoretical analysis of fracture in double overlap bonded joints with frp composites and thin steel plates, 2018/03/01/. Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 190:435-460. AbstractWebsite

The effective stress transfer between the fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) and the steel substrate is crucial for the successful retrofit of existing steel structures with FRP composites. However, there are no standard tests for FRP-to-steel interfaces, wherefore different test configurations have been used in recent years to assess the bond behaviour in these interfaces. The present study shows that the choice of test configuration is highly important and leads to different transfer stresses between the FRP and steel composites and consequently, has a direct influence on the strength of the bonded joint. Therefore, it is important to understand the debonding process that occurs in each test and avoid misinterpretations, erroneous analyses and dangerous characterizations of the interfacial behaviour of these interfaces. The current study presents a new analytical approach for the prediction of the debonding of FRP-to-steel interfaces when double-lap pull or double-strap tests are used.

Chastre, C, Lúcio V, Acker AV, Crisp B, Gutstein D, Saraiva F, Doniak Í, Krohn J, Viegas JB, Ferreira M, Menegotto M, el Debs M, Hughes S, Tsoukantas S, Pampanin S.  2012.  Estruturas Pré-Moldadas no Mundo. Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, 2012. :320., Brasil: Fundação da Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologias da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa AbstractWebsite

A indústria do betão pré fabricado é, por tradição, inovadora, precursora de novas tecnologias e de novos materiais.O processo produtivo de estruturas com elementos pré-fabricados difere significativamente do das estruturas betonadas em obra pelo facto de uma parte, ou a totalidade, dos elementos da estrutura serem produzidos em fábrica, em condições de produção melhoradas em relação às condições da obra, e serem posteriormente transportados para a obra, onde são, finalmente ligados entre si. A produção em fábrica é efectuada em ambiente protegido do Sol e da chuva, com operários fixos e com formação profissional para desenvolverem tarefas com procedimentos normalizados. Consequentemente, os elementos executados em fábrica possuem melhor qualidade, sob vários aspectos, do que as estruturas executadas em obra.Este livro divide-se em duas grandes áreas, numa primeira abordam-se algumas aplicações de estruturas pré-moldadas no mundo e numa segunda parte descreve-se o seu comportamento estrutural face a diferentes acções. Nos primeiros capítulos relata-se a experiência da pré-fabricação em três países de diferentes continentes: o Brasil, Portugal e a Austrália e revelam-se novas oportunidades que poderão surgir para a indústria da pré-fabricação. Nos capítulos seguintes dá-se um especial enfoque à investigação do comportamento das ligações (rígidas e semi-rígidas). Aborda-se o projecto de estruturas de betão pré-fabricado às acções acidentais. E por fim, dedicam-se os últimos capítulos ao comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas face às acções sísmicas. Nesta área, o bom desempenho das estruturas e grande parte do conhecimento e da tecnologia actual advém da resposta dada pelos engenheiros, investigadores e construtores aos fenómenos naturais que afectam as nossas construções, como comprova o desempenho das ligações dúcteis resistentes a momentos em edifícios pré fabricados de betão no verdadeiro teste sísmico que foram os sismos de Christchurch de 2010 e 2011.

Acker, AV, Chastre C, Cholewicky A, Crisp B, Lúcio V, Elliott KS, Engström B, Gasperi A, Suikka A, Tsoukantas S, Vambersky J, Vantomme J.  2012.  fib Bulletin 63. Design of precast concrete structures against accidental actions. fib bulletin. :78., Number 63, Lausanne: Fédération internacionale du béton (fib) AbstractWebsite

Since the 1980’s, several buildings throughout the world have been subject to gas explosions, impact by cars or airplanes, or car bomb attacks. In many cases the effect of the impact or explosion has been the failure of a critical structural member at the perimeter of the building. After the failure, the load supported by that member could not be redistributed and part or all of the structure has collapsed in a progressive manner. The phenomenon that occurs when local failure is not confined to the area of initial distress, and spreads horizontally and/or vertically through the structure, is termed progressive collapse.

Progressive collapse is a relatively rare event, as it requires both an accidental action to cause local damage and a structure that lacks adequate continuity, ductility, and redundancy to prevent the spread of damage. It is technically very difficult and economically prohibitive to design buildings for absolute safety. However it is possible to construct precast concrete buildings that afford an acceptable degree of safety with regard to accidental actions.

A structure is normally designed to respond properly, without damage, under normal load conditions, but local and/or global damages cannot be avoided under the effect of an unexpected, but moderate degree of accidental overload. Properly designed and constructed structures usually possess reasonable probability not to collapse catastrophically under such loads, depending on different factors, for example: the type of loading; the degree and the location of accidental loading in regard to the structure and its structural members; the type of structural system, the construction technology, and the spans between structural vertical members, etc.

No structure can be expected to be totally resistant to actions arising from an unexpected and extreme cause, but it should not be damaged to an extent that is disproportionate to the original cause.

The aim of fib Bulletin 63 is to summarize the present knowledge on the subject and to provide guidance for the design of precast structures against progressive collapse. This is addressed in terms of (a) the classification of the actions, (b) their effect on the structural types, (c) the strategies to cope with such actions, (d) the design methods and (e) some typical detailing, all supplemented with illustrations from around the world, and some model calculations.

Tsoukantas, S, Toniolo G, Pampanin S, Ghosh SK, Sennour L, D’Arcy T, Sthaladipti S, Menegotto M, Özden Ş, Lúcio V, Chastre C, Dritsos S, Psycharis I, Topintzis T, Kremmyda G, Fernández-Ordóñez D, de Chefdebien A, Hughes S, Rajala L.  2016.  fib Bulletin 78. Precast-concrete buildings in seismic areas, 2016. fib bulletin. :273., Number fib Bulletin 78, Lausanne: International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) Abstractfib_bulletin78.jpgWebsite

This document has a broad scope and is not focussed on design issues. Precast construction under seismic conditions is treated as a whole. The main principles of seismic design of different structural systems, their behavior and their construction techniques are presented through rules, construction steps and sequences, procedures, and details that should lead to precast structures built in seismic areas complying with the fundamental performance requirements of collapse prevention and life safety in major earthquakes and limited damage in more frequent earthquakes.The content of this document is largely limited to conventional precast construction and, although some information is provided on the well-known “PRESSS technology” (jointed ductile dry connections), this latter solution is not treated in detail in this document.The general overview, contained in this document, of alternative structural systems and connection solutions available to achieve desired performance levels, intends to provide engineers, architects, clients, and end-users (in general) with a better appreciation of the wide range of applications that modern precast concrete technology can have in various types of construction from industrial to commercial as well as residential. Lastly, the emphasis on practical aspects, from conceptual design to connection detailing, aims to help engineers to move away from the habit of blindly following prescriptive codes in their design, but instead go back to basic principles, in order to achieve a more robust understanding, and thus control, of the seismic behaviour of the structural system as a whole, as well as of its components and individual connections.

Book Chapter

Chastre, C.  2019.  Preface. 2nd International Conference on Building Materials and Materials Engineering - ICBMM 2018. 278, Lisbon, Portugal: MATEC Web of Conferences. Abstract

The 2nd International Conference on Building Materials and Materials Engineering (ICBMM 2018) was held at the University of Lisbon, Portugal, from 26 to 28 September, 2018. The objective of the Lisbon conference was to provide a platform for researchers, engineers, academics, as well as industrial professionals from all over the world, to present their research results and development activities in Building Materials and Materials Engineering.ICBMM 2018 was an opportunity for researchers, engineers and academics to further develop Building Materials and Materials Engineering. Attendees benefitted a lot from expert practitioners and researchers who presented the latest trends in theoretical and practical domains of Building Materials and Materials Engineering. Distinguished professors also delivered their keynote speeches on the latest developments in their respective fields. Among the keynote and plenary speakers were Prof. Carlos Chastre from NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal; Prof. Paulo Mendonça from University of Minho, Portugal; Dr. Mascarenhas Mateus from University of Lisbon, Portugal; Prof. Rudolf Hela from Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.The current set of conference proceedings present a selection of papers submitted by researchers from a variety of universities, research institutes and industries. All papers were peer-reviewed by conference committee members and a panel of international reviewers who selected the papers to be published based on their quality and relevance to the topic of the conference. This volume presents recent advances in the field of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Properties, Measuring Methods and Applications, Materials Manufacturing and Processing, Civil and Structural Engineering, Architecture and Urban Planning.We would like to thank all the authors who have contributed to this volume and also the organizing committee, reviewers, speakers, co-chair persons, sponsors and all the conference participantsfor their strong support to ICBMM 2018, making this conference such a great success. We look forward to meeting you in ICBMM 2019!

Chastre, C, Lúcio V.  2012.  Estruturas pré-moldadas no mundo. Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural. :1-6.: Fundação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa Abstract
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Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C.  2018.  Consolidation works on sandstone monuments: A new approach. Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Construction Industries. (Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf, Mahmood Aliofkhazraei, Eds.).:235-254.: Butterworth-Heinemann Abstract

Abstract Sandstones are widely used in the building elements of the world’s stone monuments. Alveolization due to salt crystallization-dissolution is the most important degradation pattern found on the Middle Ages’ sandstone façades of St. Leonardo’s Church in Portugal. An outstanding case of widespread distribution of deep and large alveolization patterns found mainly on portals and vaults of its sandstone façades appeared as a result of the past and present proximity of the seashore. On stonewall façades, a new approach of consolidating products’ treatments using the total head was followed in order to allow full absorption of stone. Physical and mechanical tests were carried out on selected representative specimens of varieties of sandstones on the monument. Treatments with ethyl silicates were assessed by means of its effectiveness, harmfulness, and durability. The comparison of results between the application of this new procedure on this stone monument and the traditional intervention treatments highlighted the potential viability of the former to overcome difficult conditions of absorption of consolidating products.

Chastre, C, Lúcio V.  2012.  Torres pré-fabricadas de betão para suporte de turbinas eólicas. Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural. :91-106.: Fundação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa Abstract
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Chastre, C, Ludovico-Marques M.  2018.  Nondestructive testing methodology to assess the conservation of historic stone buildings and monuments. Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Construction Industries. (Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf, Mahmood Aliofkhazraei, Eds.).:255-294.: Butterworth-Heinemann Abstract

Earthquakes, soil settlements, traffic vibrations, and air pollution are some of the actions that can affect historic old buildings. Besides these, the lack of continuous maintenance puts a large part of this heritage in risk due to structural problems that reduce their own safety and that of their users. The preservation and risk mitigation of built cultural heritage require the use of reliable tools in order to assess its state of conservation and to identify and prevent potential vulnerabilities. Having this in mind, it is not possible to carry out destructive tests in most historic old buildings, so it is preferable to opt for nondestructive tests (NDT) or alternative methodologies that allow the physical and mechanical characterization of materials and structure. In this chapter, a general view of NDT methods used in historic buildings to obtain the geometrical information, the damage mapping, the mechanical and physical characterization, and the petrographic analysis of stones is presented. An alternative methodology to physically and mechanically characterize the stone of historic buildings using NDT tests is also proposed. The chapter ends with a case study carried out in the St. Leonard’s Church, a Portuguese monument built in Atouguia da Baleia village in the 13th century, where the alternative methodology here presented was applied. The final results of this study show that the methodology proposed allows the obtention of stress-strain curves in a completely nondestructive way, based on the water absorption coefficient at low pressure.

Lúcio, V, Chastre C.  2012.  Ligações rígidas em estruturas pré-fabricadas. Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural. :137-166.: Fundação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa Abstract
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Pacheco, J, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2017.  Reliability analysis: the next step towards recycled aggregates concrete affirmation. Construction projects: improvement strategies, quality management and potential challenges. (Kimberly Hall, Ed.).:1-54.: Nova Science Publishers: New York, United States of America Abstract

TThis chapter concerns the need to evaluate the reliability of structural elements produced with recycled aggregates concrete (RAC) in order to address some designers’ scepticism towards the use of this eco-friendly material. The current knowledge on RAC’s behaviour demonstrates its viability for structural purposes. However, of the investigations performed so far very few are related to a fundamental aspect towards RAC world-wide application as a structural material: structural codes have a probabilistic basis.After briefly presenting the state-of-the-art knowledge on the material properties and structural behaviour of RAC, the limitations of the current knowledge are debated. Afterwards, an introduction to structural codification is presented, as well as the fundamentals of reliability analysis. Examples of code verifications are contextualized with their underlying assumptions and the information necessary for code calibration is discussed. The role of reliability in the calibration of structural codes is shown, common techniques for reliability calculations are briefly explained, and relevant references in the area are cited for the readers’ perusal.Having established how structural codes are calibrated, the state-of-the-art on the probabilistic and statistical knowledge of RAC properties is reviewed. The implications of the very reduced number of studies on this area are discussed and the need to conduct further studies is emphasized.Afterwards, investigations that used reliability analysis to calibrate partial safety factors applicable to RAC are reviewed. The methodology of each investigation is presented, the experimental tests that led to the definition of the probabilistic information of the RAC’s parameters are described and the need to have a wide range of data coming from different RAC compositions and aggregate sources is debated.This chapter finishes by contextualizing the current knowledge on RAC properties with the necessary information for code calibration procedures. The relevance of a code proposal towards RAC affirmation as a structural material is highlighted, as well as the requirements of such code. Suggestions for future studies are made.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C.  2016.  Effect of Artificial Accelerated Salt Weathering on Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone Samples from Surface Reservoirs. Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Oil and Gas Industry. (Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf, Mahmood Aliofkhazraei, Eds.).:215-233.: Butterworth Heinemann - Elsevier Abstract

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Chastre, C, Lúcio V, Tsoukantas S.  2012.  Princípios básicos para a conceção de estruturas de edifícios em zonas sísmicas. Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural. :227-248.: Fundação da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa Abstract
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Chastre, C.  2017.  Prólogo. Cáceres-Florencia, patrimonio vivo: Ensayos técnico-arquitectónicos. 3:11-15., Cáceres: Grupo de Investigación de Construcciones Arquitectónicas de la Universidad de Extremadura Abstract

Este livro apresenta diferentes perspetivas sobre o património arquitetónico em Espanha e Itália, debruçando-se sobre temas que estão na ordem do dia, como a reabilitação do património arquitetónico ou as acessibilidades ao mesmo, sejam elas na forma física ou digital, sendo os autores profundos conhecedores desta área. Nas intervenções a realizar no património edificado é fundamental ter um conhecimento aprofundado do projeto, da história e do processo construtivo da obra, bem como do seu comportamento estrutural. De acordo com o ICOMOS estas intervenções devem ser realizadas utilizando as técnicas mais adequadas, baseadas num diagnóstico apropriado e na compreensão dos materiais existentes. De igual forma, os estudos no edificado monumental devem ser realizados com o menor grau de intrusão e o máximo respeito pela sua integridade física, seguindo os princípios de salvaguarda do património arquitetónico definidos na carta internacional de Atenas.O livro divide‐se em duas grandes áreas: numa, abordam‐se os assuntos que se enquadram essencialmente no âmbito da conservação e reabilitação do património arquitetónico e na outra são apresentados os temas mais dedicados à acessibilidade do público ao património arquitetónico e à sua divulgação online. Os trabalhos apresentados no âmbito da conservação e reabilitação do património arquitetónico seguem na essência as recomendações do ICOMOS em relação à necessidade de compreensão da construção existente, ao desenvolvimento de novas técnicas e dos materiais mais adequados aos trabalhos de conservação e reabilitação, assim como na realização de testes em modelos experimentais à escala, tendo por objetivo avaliar o comportamento da estrutura antes e após a reabilitação. O património arquitetónico construído constitui uma parte importante da história da civilização humana e é um fator determinante da nossa identidade coletiva que importa preservar para as gerações futuras. Com a sua intervenção na conservação, reabilitação, valorização e divulgação do património construído, os autores deste livro estão a cumprir um importante papel na nossa sociedade, preservando um legado que nos foi deixado pelos nossos antepassados.

Conference Paper

Souza, LAS, Chastre C, LUCIO VJG, Souza STM.  2015.  Comportamento Dinâmico de Torres Treliçadas em Concreto Armado para Turbinas Eólicas Offshore, 29 de Junho a 2 . Congresso de Métodos Numéricos em Engenharia. :18., Lisboa, Portugal Abstractsouza2015chlusu.pdf

A demanda de energia, faz com que o homem esteja sempre a procura de novas soluções para a sua produção. Uma opção é a energia eólica, por se tratar de uma energia limpa, renovável e inesgotável. Para se evitar a ocupação das terras férteis, é natural a busca de soluções no mar. Portanto, neste trabalho é estudado o comportamento estrutural dinâmico de uma torre treliçada em concreto armado pós-tensionado por tirantes externos idealizada para uso offshore com a finalidade de suporte para turbinas eólicas de eixo horizontal. A torre está sujeita às ações gravitacionais, aerodinâmicas e hidrodinâmicas. Para considerar estas ações desenvolveu-se um código computacional específico usando a linguagem MATLAB. É proposto um modelo simplificado para análise bi-dimensional, utilizando-se elementos de pórtico plano com a finalidade de contornar as dificuldades de uma análise tridimensional. Embora específico para este tipo de torre, o codigo permite variar geometrias, carregamentos e alterações do nível do mar. Nas cargas aerodinâmicas élevado em conta o espectro de Von Karman. As cargas hidrodinâmicas são avaliadas pela equação de Morison. As cargas nodais equivalentes são determinadas por integração ao longo do elemento estrutural de acordo com o proposto por Souza. Os tirantes pós-tensionados são monitorados para não sofrerem esforços de compressão. A análise é realizada no domínio do tempo utilizando-se o algoritmo de integração de Newmark.. Através dos procedimentos adotados foi possível obter resultados para as freqüências, deslocamentose esforços, que se mostraram coerentes com os obtidos por modelos tri dimensionais mais complexos. O código desenvolvido permitiu a análise de forma simples, eficiente e confiável de torres treliçadas de concreto armado.

Silva, MAG, Biscaia HC, Chastre C.  2017.  Aging of some GFRP-concrete joints under external pressure, July 19-21 . AIS2017 - 6th Asia-Pacific Conference on FRP in Structures. , Singapore Abstract

Compressive stresses created by lateral external pressure on laminates are an important factor on success of the use of mechanical anchorage of externally bonded reinforcement (EBR). A program of double shear tests with imposed normal stresses on GFRP plates bonded to a concrete surface and a bond-slip model are described. Results generated numerically are summarized and used as reference values against those obtained after accelerated aging by freeze-thaw cycles, and temperature cycles of the same amplitude but range closer to the glass vitreous temperature. Numerical modelling showed that the bonded length is fully stressed prior to failure. Increasing lateral pressure led to a larger maximum bond stress and strength at the interface. Cohesion, fracture energy and internal friction angle changes are calculated and used to analyze the effects of the aforementioned cycles on the expected behaviour of the GFRP-concrete joints, namely at the interface.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Franco N.  2014.  Modelação de vigas de betão armado reforçadas à flexão com materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica. JPEE2014 – 5ª Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia de Estruturas, Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2014.. , LNEC, Lisboa. Abstractartigo_jpee_biscaia_chastre_franco.pdf

Nas últimas décadas, os estudos sobre o desempenho de vigas de betão armado (BA) reforçadas com materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica têm aumentado. Porém, muitas dúvidas e questões persistem, fazendo realçar algumas lacunas sobre o conhecimento adquirido. Um desses aspetos reside na forma de modelar a ligação entre o compósito e o betão. É também sabido que a modelação da abertura de fendas no betão (discreta ou distribuída numa banda) influência o desempenho da ligação entre os materiais colados.
Nesse sentido, apresentam-se, neste trabalho, os resultados numéricos obtidos da modelação numérica não-linear a 3D de vigas de BA sujeitas a flexão de 4 pontos. Os resultados numéricos são confrontados com os experimentais e os diferentes parâmetros que influenciam a ligação analisados e discutidos.

Chastre, C, Biscaia H, Franco N.  2016.  Reforço de Vigas de Betão Armado com Armaduras Pós-Instaladas de Aço ou de FRP, 12-14 October 20. 10º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental (CNME 2016). :12., LNEC, Lisbon, Portugal Abstractcnme2016_paper_45_chastre.pdf

Apresentam-se e analisam-se um conjunto de ensaios realizados em vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras pós-instaladas de aço ou de FRP, incluindo os referentes a uma nova técnica (CREatE) desenvolvida na FCT NOVA, tendo-se concluído que a técnica CREatE possibilita aumentos de resistência e ductilidade consideráveis face às técnicas tradicionais.

Biscaia, H, Franco N, Chastre C.  2019.  Ligações coladas entre barras de aço inox exteriormente coladas a elementos de betão: Análise teórica vs. experimental, 19-20 February 2. TEST&E 2019 - 2º Congresso de Ensaios e Experimentação em Engenharia Civil. :11., ISEP, Porto, Portugal Abstract

Os sistemas de reforço por colagem exterior têm sido alvo de várias abordagens, não só do ponto de vista do tipo de material a utilizar, como também sob o ponto de vista da técnica mais eficiente a seguir. As fibras reforçadas com polímeros (FRP) têm sido, no último par de décadas, alvo de investigação exaustiva, tendo-se verificado que esses sistemas nutrem de ductilidade algo reduzida devido ao descolamento prematuro do material de reforço da superfície de betão. Por conseguinte, o aço inox devidos às suas boas características anticorrosivas e ductilidade apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável aos compósitos de FRP. Assim, com vista a melhorar a ductilidade dos elementos estruturais reforçados, em vez de se recorrer a técnicas de reforço não tradicionais (e.g., Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) ou Near Surface Mounted (NSM)) que estão sempre associadas a roturas prematuras por colagem do elemento de reforço quando a extensão nele instalada está muito aquém do seu valor de rotura, dever-se-á seguir outras técnicas de reforço por colagem. Com vista a interpretar e perceber o desempenho da ligação aço-inox, desenvolveu-se uma campanha experimental em que os ensaios visam em testar e comparar a técnica EBR com uma técnica inovadora e desenvolvida pelos autores (CREatE – Continuous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends) através da realização de ensaios de arrancamento de ligações aço inox/betão. Estes ensaios consistem em aplicar uma força à barra de aço inox segundo uma direção que permite induzir uma rotura da ligação consistente com o Modo II de fratura. A técnica de correlação de imagem digital (DIC) foi utilizada na monitorização de todos estes ensaios tendo-se desenvolvido ainda diferentes modelos, analíticos e numéricos com recurso a um programa de cálculo automático não linear, que permitiram simular os processos de descolamento da ligação aço inox/betão segundo as técnicas EBR e CREatE.

Biscaia, H, Franco N, Nunes R, Chastre C.  2016.  Old suspended timber floors flexurally-strengthened with different structural materials. 15th International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics. (Jesús Toribio, Vladislav Mantič, Andrés Sáez, M.H. Ferri Aliabadi, Ed.)., Alicante, Spain Abstract

The design of timber beams has strict limits when it comes to the Serviceability Limit States (SLS) either in short-term or in long-term deflections. In order to face this aspect efficiently, the increase of the cross section of the beams might be considered as a solution. However, the prohibitive increase of the costs associated to this solution or the change of the initial architecturedesign of the building, opens the opportunity to find new and more efficient solutions. In that way, the use of additional reinforcements to the timber beams may be seen as a promising solution because either new or old structures would keep always their original aesthetical aspect with no significant self-weight increase and improving their behaviour to short and long-term actions.Therefore, the current study is dedicated to the analysis of composite timber beams where Fiber Reinforcement Polymers (FRP), steel or stainless steel are used to improve the stiffness, strength and deflection behaviour of old suspended timber floors. An experimental program was conducted where old suspended timber floors reinforced with CFRP strips were subjected to 4-point bending tests. A simplify nonlinear numerical model was developed to simulate the bending behaviour of the specimens and several other cases with other reinforcement configurations and different structural materials were assumed. The numerical analysis herein presented also takes into account both Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States of the reinforced specimens.

Souza, S, Lúcio V, Chastre C, Souza L, Martins D.  2016.  Experimental Analysis of Column To Column Connections for Precast Concrete Truss, 21 – 23 November. fib Symposium 2016. Performance-based approaches for concrete structures. :10p., Cape Town, South Africa Abstract

The wind energy production is a growing industry and the energy produced is renewable and environmentally cleaner than most of the other systems. The towers to support the wind energy generators may be built with precast concrete elements that are competitive in comparison to other structural systems. The evolution of the technology for wind energy production shows a clear need for larger wind turbines and longer blades and, consequently, taller towers, where precast concrete solutions are competitive. Truss precast concrete towers is a solution that complies with the demands of the present and future wind energy production. The research on the execution and structural behaviour of the connections between the tower elements is an important issue. This communication presents the experimental analysis of column to column connections for precast concrete towers. The tests included connections with commercial threaded bars welded to the rebars and connections with grouted corrugated steel sleeves. Thick joints (50 mm) filled with fibre reinforced grout and thin joints (3 mm) filled with epoxy resin were tested and analysed.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Cardoso J, Franco N.  2018.  Analyses on the bond transfer between FRP composites and other structural materials, July 17-19. 9th International Conference on Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites in Civil engineering, CICE2018. :8., Paris, France Abstract
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Biscaia, H, Chastre C, Silva M, Franco N.  2016.  Ligações em superfícies curvas entre compósitos de FRP e betão sujeitas a temperaturas elevadas, 2-4 November 201. Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2016. :13., FCTUC, Coimbra, Portugal Abstractbe_2016_paper_109_biscaia.pdf

O reforço estrutural com materiais de matriz polimérica reforçada com fibras (FRP) em diferentes tipos de elementos estruturais, e.g. pilares, vigas, lajes ou arcos, tem sido objecto de vários estudos. No entanto, os estudos sobre a avaliação da aderência entre ligações coladas em superfícies curvas são muito limitados, não se conhecendo trabalhos, quer analíticos ou numéricos, que se debrucem ainda sobre o efeito da temperatura neste tipo de ligações coladas. Todavia, os trabalhos disponíveis na literatura indicam, de forma unânime, que o descolamento do FRP da superfície curva exige a interacção entre os modos de fractura I e II. Neste sentido, o presente estudo propõe o desenvolvimento de uma solução analítica simples para simular ligações CFRP/betão com superfícies curvas de raio constante e que assumem ambas, isoladamente ou simulataneamente, as acções: (i) aplicação de uma força ao FRP; e (ii) uma a variação de temperatura. Dependendo dos coeficientes de dilatação térmica linear dos materiais colados e para níveis de temperatura não muito superiores à temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg) do FRP, o efeito da temperatura pode ser, do ponto de vista da resistência da ligação, prejudicial ou benéfico, ou seja, pode diminir ou aumentar a capacidade resistente da ligação. Diferentes critérios de rotura são adoptados e diferentes situações, e.g. raio da curva ou diferentes níveis de temperaturas, são abordadas. A solução analítica pressupõe que a lei de aderência relativamente ao modo II de fractura depende da temperatura e é representada por um exponencial, enquanto que para o modo I se assume uma lei de aderência do tipo linear com rotura frágil e cuja influência da temperatura é feita de acordo com os mesmos pressupostos da lei exponencial.