Coauthored Publications with: Chastre

Journal Article

Biscaia, H, Chastre C.  2018.  A simple analytical approach for creep analysis of EB-FRP systems. Key Engineering Materials . Abstract

Based on a few experimental results available in the literature, this work presents a simple analytical approach that allows the study of the long-term behaviour of CFRP-to-concrete interfaces under an initial sustaining load. Only the elastic regime is studied, which means that the interfacial maximum bond stress and maximum slip are never exceeded. Therefore, the maximum initial load to be sustained by the joints is limited by its corresponding elastic value. The analytical results provided by the proposed model are compared with some experimental results found in the literature. The results showed strain redistribution throughout the bonded length over the time.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2019.  A Simple Method for the Determination of the Bond-Slip Model of Artificially Aged Joints. Journal of Composites for Construction. 23:04019028., Number 4 AbstractWebsite

The durability of adhesively bonded fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) and concrete substrates has been the subject of recent studies. The degradation of bonded interfaces conjugated with other factors that affect the interface strength may compromise the potentialities of using FRP in externally bonded reinforced (EBR) concrete structures. However, the estimation of the effects of degradation on these bonded interfaces and the analytical methodologies to quantify them are not fully understood. The present work focuses on a local bond-slip model characterized by two parameters for which the values are obtained experimentally. Then, the determination of the local bond-slip relationship of a glass (G) FRP-to-concrete interface can be estimated. The assessment of the degradation of the bonded interface when subjected to cycles of (1) salt fog; (2) wet-dry environments with salt water; (3) temperatures between −10°C and +30°C; and (4) temperatures between +7.5°C and +47.5°C is presented. The results obtained using the proposed bond-slip model led to the conclusion that after 10,000 h of exposure to temperature cycles between −10°C and +30°C, there was a small change in the GFRP-to-concrete interface performance, whereas the effects on the bonded interface for the specimens subjected to temperature cycles between +7.5°C and +47.5°C were far more most severe.

Bras, A, Gião R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2013.  Development of an injectable grout for concrete repair and strengthening. Cement and Concrete Composites. AbstractWebsite

This paper deals with the coupled effect of temperature and silica fume addition on rheological, mechanical behaviour and porosity of grouts based on CEMI 42.5R, proportioned with a polycarboxylate-based high range water reducer. Preliminary tests were conducted to focus on the grout best able to fill a fibrous network since the goal of this study was to develop an optimized grout able to be injected in a mat of steel fibers for concrete strengthening. The grout composition was developed based on criteria for fresh state and hardened state properties. For a CEMI 42.5R based grout different high range water reducer dosages (0, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.7%) and silica fume (SF) dosages (0, 2%, 4%) were tested (as replacement of cement by mass). Rheological measurements were used to investigate the effect of polycarboxylates (PCE) and SF dosage on grout properties, particularly its workability loss, as the mix was to be injected in a matrix of steel fibers for concrete jacketing. The workability behaviour was characterized by the rheological parameters yield stress and plastic viscosity (for different grout temperatures and resting times), as well as the procedures of mini slump cone and funnel flow time. Then, further development focused only on the best grout compositions. The cement substitution by 2% of SF exhibited the best overall behaviour and was considered as the most promising compared to the others compositions tested. Concerning the fresh state analysis, a significant workability loss was detected if grout temperature increased above 35°C. Below this temperature the grout presented a self-levelling behaviour and a life time equal to 45 minutes. In the hardened state, silica fumes increased not only the grout’s porosity but also the grout’s compressive strength at later ages, since the pozzolanic contribution to the compressive strength does not occur until 28 days and beyond.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C, Vasconcelos G.  2011.  Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares baseada em ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos. Mecânica Experimental. :101-110., Number 19 Abstractrev_19_a10.pdfWebsite

No património edificado português as rochas granulares assumem importância relevante nos elementos construtivos presentes no património histórico e cultural, nomeadamente as pedras graníticas e areníticas. Tendo por objectivo a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares presentes no património edificado histórico foi realizado um estudo de investigação experimental sobre amostras dos litótipos seleccionados e que são representativos de rochas presentes no próprio edificado, em termos de propriedades petrográficas, físicas e mecânicas. Neste artigo apresenta-se um modelo analítico definido com base em ensaios experimentais que permite efectuar a simulação do comportamento das rochas em compressão uniaxial (diagramas de tensão-deformação), função de propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas através de ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos. Este modelo permite desta forma a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares sem afectar a integridade do património histórico.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2013.  Modelling GFRP-to-concrete joints with interface finite elements with rupture based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, 10//. Construction and Building Materials. 47:261-273. AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures by means of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) is now routinely considered and applied in the retrofit or strengthening of structures. FRP composites have received a considerable attention from civil engineers in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness/weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when FRP composites are bonded to a concrete surface, there is a persistent potential problem that the FRP plates may debond prematurely from the concrete. This is a very important issue for the engineers who have to focus on the computational modelling of this phenomenon. Some studies can be found in literature on computational modelling. However, there is very little information about the best modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete and this work is intended to help bridge this gap. The computational analysis presented here is based on three-dimensional software which assumes the smeared crack model, and the interface finite elements (FEs) used have a rupture criteria based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. The definition of these FEs was based on double shear tests that were performed specifically for this purpose and they have shown that the debonding phenomenon can be predicted with some accuracy. In total, 10 double shear models were studied and the results were compared with the 21 experimental tests performed. The double shear tests consisted of applying loads to 2 layered GFRP laminates bonded to a 150 mm concrete cube with a bonded area of 150 × 80 mm (length × width). Double shear models with and without a gap interface were considered in order to emphasize the importance of modelling the GFRP-to-concrete interface with interface finite elements. The effect of the concrete strength on the interface performance was also considered. An externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) concrete T-beam strengthened with 2 GFRP layers is presented to illustrate the application of the method. The wet lay-up technique was used for the external reinforcement of a reinforced concrete T-beam and then tested under a four point bending test until rupture. The results are reported and differences between the numerical and the experimental results are discussed.

Faustino, P, Chastre C.  2016.  Flexural strengthening of columns with CFRP composites and stainless steel: Cyclic behavior, 21 September 201. Journal of Structural Engineering. 142:04015136., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

This study presents the testing, completion, and analysis of different external strengthening systems applied to rectangular reinforced concrete columns with rounded corners. The experimental study included confinement strengthening with carbon-fiberreinforcedpolymer (CFRP) sheets, longitudinal strengthening with CFRP laminates and confining CFRP jacket, longitudinal strengtheningwith stainless steel bars and confining CFRP jacket, tested column until reinforcing steel failure, repair and CFRP confining jacket,and longitudinal strengthening with stainless steel bars. The analysis of the experimental results included lateral load-displacement relationship, energy dissipation, ductility, and curvature damage assessment classifications. It was concluded that the use of externallongitudinal strengthening combined with CFRP confinement is effective for enhancing performance and is viable in terms of execution. The load capacity increase due to strengthening reached 36–46% with good ductile behavior (failure was reached at 4.4% drift ratio). Despite some differences between CFRP laminates and stainless steel, all columns presented moderate degrees of damage between 1 and 2% drift ratio and minor damage degree until 1% drift ratio.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2017.  Analytical model with uncoupled adhesion laws for the bond failure prediction of curved FRP-concrete joints subjected to temperature. Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics. 89:63-78. Abstract

The strengthening of structures such as columns, beams, arches or slabs with Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has been the focus of several studies. However, the studies dedicated to the FRP debonding phenomenon of curved bonded joints affected by elevated temperatures are surprisingly limited and no studies on this topic are known, at present, to use nonlinear analytical or numerical approaches. Still, the available studies found in the literature are unanimous in affirming that the debonding phenomenon on such curved interfaces demands the interaction between Fracture Modes I and II. The present work aims to develop an analytical solution capable of simulating the debonding process of curved CFRP-toconcrete interfaces with a constant radius subjected to mechanical and/or thermal loads. Some examples are presented in which the influence of the radius of the interface and the temperature level is analysed. The analytical solution proposed here is based on adhesion laws in which, in the case ofMode II, an exponential bond vs. relative displacement law with temperature dependency is assumed, whereas the Mode I adhesive law is based on a linear with fragile rupture law with the same temperature dependency as Mode II.

Pacheco, JN, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2019.  Statistical analysis of Portuguese ready-mixed concrete production, 2019/06/10/. Construction and Building Materials. 209:283-294. AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates and compares the statistics of compressive strength data from three Portuguese ready-mixed concrete plants. A hierarchical model showed that different groups of concrete strength records are not statistically equivalent, even if they were produced in the same plant and using the same concrete composition. This finding is related to autocorrelation. For the same specified strength class, compositions produced less often result in higher average compressive strength and variability. The statistics of one of the plants were quite different from those of the others, even though the concrete of this plant also complied with the specifications. It was found that the average compressive strength of a mix may be quite dependent on the plant that produced it, even if the compressive strength complies with quality control specifications. Conformity with the target slump and strength class was checked following the conformity criteria of EN 206-1 for continuous production. Nonconformity with slump is more frequent than failure to comply with the strength class. A bias factor for reliability analyses was proposed.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C.  2012.  Effect of salt crystallization ageing on the compressive behavior of sandstone blocks in historical buildings, 12//. Engineering Failure Analysis. 26:247-257. AbstractWebsite

Sandstone building stones are important in the building elements of Portuguese monuments, particularly in the western and southern regions. Alveolization due to salt crystallization was the most important degradation pattern found in the old sandstone façades of buildings in the village of Atouguia da Baleia. Because weathering progressively increases porosity in stones, experimental research was conducted on the most porous variety of sandstone, which is similar to the type of stones found in the façades of ancient buildings in that village. An automatic salt crystallization accelerated ageing chamber was developed. Monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive tests were carried out on samples after sodium chloride crystallization ageing tests had been performed, in order to assess the compressive mechanical behavior of sandstone during accelerated ageing. The results of stress–strain compression diagrams showed a clear decreasing trend in the values of mechanical parameters during the salt crystallization ageing progress. The difference in compressive strength values between monotonic and cyclic compression also decreases with as salt crystallization ageing progresses. A predictive equation that correlates the compressive strength of sandstones with salt crystallization ageing cycles is proposed.

Faustino, P, Chastre C, Paula R.  2014.  Design model for square RC columns under compression confined with CFRP. Composites Part B: Engineering. 57(February):187-198. Abstractfaustino_chastre_et_al._2014.pdfWebsite

The enhancement of the mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with regard to axial compression is an up-to-date concern, namely if the strengthening of existing structures is to be considered. In view of this, external confinement with FRP systems has been tested in order to become a feasible technique, since it seems to have important advantages over other systems such as its high strength and stiffness in relation to weight and its improvement of strength and ductility while confining RC columns. Square columns confined with FRP show a more complex interpretation of their behaviour, when compared to circular columns. Accordingly, the present work includes the analysis of two experimental programs regarding axial compression on CFRP confined RC columns: one on circular and square specimens with different corner radii; the other on square specimens with side lengths ranging from medium to large. Based on this, modelling equations are proposed to predict maximum axial load, axial strain and lateral strain, as well as the entire behaviour until failure with curves of axial load-axial strain and axial load-lateral strain. The modelling results show that the analytical curves are in general agreement with the presented experimental curves for a wide range of dimensions.

Yang, Y, Silva MAG, Biscaia H, Chastre C.  2018.  CFRP-to-steel bonded joints subjected to cyclic loading: An experimental study, 1 August 2018. Composites Part B: Engineering. 146:28–41. AbstractWebsite

Pseudo-cyclic and cyclic loading were applied to CFRP-to-steel bonded joints built with two different CFRP laminates. In this paper, the strength capacity and bond-slip curves are presented and compared. The modes of failure are also described and associated with the types of material used, and the observed performances are correlated. The analysis of the results showed a threshold value for loading and amplitude level, below which the cyclic loading caused no detectable damage. For cycles above that limit, the region of the joints around the loaded end presented degradation reflected on the bond-slip stiffness and on the increase of residual deformation. It was found that the normalized dissipated energies either obtained from the bond-slip relationship or from the load-slip response had the same trend. The experimental data allowed also to establish a relationship between the damage developed within the interface and the normalized slip. A preliminary estimate of fatigue limit based on those data is suggested.

Chastre, C, Biscaia H, Franco N.  2017.  Reforço de Vigas de Betão Armado com Armaduras Pós‑Instaladas de Aço Inox ou de Compósitos de FRP. Mecânica Experimental. 28:39-46. AbstractWebsite

Neste artigo apresentam-se e analisam-se um conjunto de ensaios realizados em vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras pós-instaladas de aço ou de FRP, incluindo os referentes a uma nova técnica (CREatE) desenvolvida na FCT NOVA. Os resultados experimentais permitiram concluir que a técnica CREatE possibilita aumentos de resistência e ductilidade consideráveis face às técnicas tradicionais.

Biscaia, HC, Silva MAG, Chastre C.  2015.  Factors influencing the performance of externally bonded reinforcement systems of GFRP-to-concrete interfaces, 2014/06/29. Materials and Structures. 48(9):2961-2981.: Springer Netherlands AbstractWebsite

Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites may prematurely debond from the surface of concrete, i.e. before its elastic resistance is exhausted. This is a very common situation and can be aggravated if additional factors are not taken into account. These factors include the type of surface preparation, the exposure to aggressive environmental action, the tensile concrete strength or fatigue and creep loading to which the structural element may be subject. An experimental programme based on double shear tests was undertaken to analyse the influence of some of these factors on the performance of the interface between composite glass fibres (GFRP) and concrete. The results allowed the determination and comparison of maximum loads transmitted to the GFRP plates and maximum bond stresses obtained considering various surface treatments and aging conditions. Bond–slip curves were also determined. The experimental results are compared with those obtained from a numerical analysis.

Biscaia, H, Chastre C, Borba I, Silva C, Cruz D.  2016.  Experimental evaluation of bonding between CFRP laminates and different structural materials. Journal of Composites for Construction. 20:04015070., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

This study presents an analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP)-to-parent material interfaces based on 40 single-lap shear tests intended to highlight the strength of the interfaces under fracture mode II. Three different substrates are analyzed: timber;concrete and steel, using the same CFRP laminates and adhesive agent. The Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) technique was used throughout the study. The results show that the CFRP-to-timber interfaces had the highest strength but also showed that these interfaces need a longer bonded length in order to reach maximum strength, i.e., CFRP-to-timber interfaces had the longest effective bond length. The local non-linear bond-slip curve of CFRP-to-concrete can be approximated to exponential curves, whereas the CFRP-to-timber or steel interfaces showed tri-linear and bi-linear bond-slip relations, respectively. Also, the CFRP-to-timber interfaces revealed the highest fracture energy.

Biscaia, H, Franco N, Chastre C.  2018.  Stainless steel bonded to concrete: An experimental assessment using the DIC technique, January 30. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials. 12, Number 1 AbstractWebsite

The durability performance of stainless steel makes it an interesting alternative for the structural strengthening of reinforced concrete. Like external steel plates or fibre reinforced polymers, stainless steel can be applied using externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) or the near surface mounted (NSM) bonding techniques. In the present work, a set of single-lap shear tests were carried out using the EBR and NSM bonding techniques. The evaluation of the performance of the bonding interfaces was done with the help of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The tests showed that the measurements gathered with DIC should be used with caution, since there is noise in the distribution of the slips and only the slips greater than one-tenth of a millimetre were fairly well predicted. For this reason, the slips had to be smoothed out to make it easier to determine the strains in the stainless steel and the bond stress transfer between materials, which helps to determine the bond–slip relationship of the interface. Moreover, the DIC technique allowed to identify all the states developed within the interface through the load–slip responses which were also closely predicted with other monitoring devices. Considering the NSM and the EBR samples with the same bonded lengths, it can be stated that the NSM system has the best performance due to their higher strength, being observed the rupture of the stainless steel in the samples with bond lengths of 200 and 300 mm. Associated with this higher strength, the NSM specimens had an effective bond length of 168 mm which is 71.5% of that obtained for the EBR specimens (235 mm). A trapezoidal and a power functions are the proposed shapes to describe the interfacial bond–slip relationships of the NSM and EBR systems, respectively, where the maximum bond stress in the former system is 1.8 times the maximum bond stress of the latter one.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2019.  Estimations of the debonding process of aged joints through a new analytical method, 2019/03/01/. Composite Structures. 211:577-595. AbstractWebsite

The estimation of the long-term durability of adhesively bonded interfaces between Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) and concrete substrates is crucial because degradation potentiates FRP premature debonding. One of the main reasons for mistrusting the use of FRP composites is the premature debonding phenomenon, which, associated to degradation, has been preventing their widespread use. In this research work, an analytical model is proposed that introduces ageing to estimate the effects of degradation of Glass (G) FRP externally bonded to concrete. Cycles were used to experimentally accelerate ageing of beam specimens, namely, (i) salt fog cycles; (ii) wet-dry cycles with salted water; (iii) temperature cycles between −10 °C and +30 °C; and (iv) temperature cycles between +7.5 °C and +47.5 °C. Based on the experimental results obtained and a corresponding bond-slip curve, the analytical model predicts the complete debonding process between FRP composites and a substrate. Consequently, the temporal evolution of the degradation of the bonded interfaces can be calculated and compared with the initial situation prior to exposure. The effects of the environmental conditions are reported and compared.

Faria, G, Chastre C, Lúcio V, Nunes Â.  2013.  Compression behaviour of short columns made from cement-bonded particle board, 3//. Construction and Building Materials. 40:60-69. AbstractWebsite

Cement bonded particle board (CBPB) is a composite material produced in plates consisting mainly of wood and cement, and may contain additives. This material is currently used in cladding, raised floors, dropped ceilings, prefabricated houses, office containers and various supplies to the building industry such as kitchens, bathrooms and furniture. It is composed of a type of wood Pinus pinaster and/or Pinus pinea, Portland cement type II, sodium silicate and aluminium sulphate. CBPB has been the subject of several studies with the purpose of enabling the use of other types of wood or even vegetable biomass, as the chemical compounds from wood (extractives and sugars) tend to inhibit of cement hydration. A study on the behaviour of short CBPB elements under compression was carried out in the Department of Civil Engineering of Universidade NOVA de Lisboa with the aim of enabling its use in structural elements. The study was supported by VIROC, the company which produces CBPB in Portugal. This paper presents and analyses the most significant results of a campaign of axial compression tests performed on 111 specimens of different heights and cross sections. The behaviour of CBPB specimens of varying slenderness was subjected to a more detailed analysis.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2013.  Nonlinear numerical analysis of the debonding failure process of FRP-to-concrete interfaces. Composites Part B: Engineering. 50:210-223. AbstractWebsite

The paper analyses numerical solutions for the process leading to debonding failure of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP)-to-concrete interfaces in shear tests with the FRP plate subjected to a tensile load at one end. Any realistic local nonlinear bond-slip law can be used in the numerical analysis proposed in the present study. However, only a Popovics’ type expression is employed in the numerical process due to its use in different studies found in the literature. Effective bond length (Leff) is discussed and an expression depending on the Popovics’ constant (nP) is proposed to calculate it. Assuming a fracture in pure Mode II, the debonding process is analyzed in detail and distributions of bond stresses and strains in the FRP plate along the interface are presented. The load-displacement behaviour is also presented and the influence of the local bond-slip law on the debonding process is discussed.

Faustino, P, Chastre C.  2016.  Damage Effect on Concrete Columns Confined with Carbon Composites. ACI Structural Journal. 113, Number 4 AbstractWebsite

Five experimental cyclic tests were carried out on reinforced concrete rectangular columns with rounded corners, different condition (new and damaged) and different strengthening systems: that included confinement through carbon fiber (CFRP) jackets, anchor dowels, high strength repair mortar and external longitudinal stainless steel bars. Lateral load - displacement relationship, energy dissipation, ductility and curvature results were analyzed together with two different damage assessment classifications. The overall evaluation concludes that the use of external confinement with CFRP on RC columns is viable and of effective performance enhancement alone and combined with other techniques. Damaged columns that were retrofitted showed an increased load capacity up to 20% along with good ductile behavior within the limits of the US, European, Canadian and Japanese codes, with minor/moderate degree of damage at 1% drift ratio and moderate degree of damage at 2% drift ratio.

Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2017.  Characterisation of unidirectional fibre reinforced grout as a strengthening material for RC structures. Construction and Building Materials. 137:272-287. Abstract

The main goal of the present research work is to characterise a unidirectional fibre reinforced grout (UFRG), developed as an alternative material to strengthen RC structures using small thickness jacketing. A high performance cementitious grout reinforced with continuous and unidirectional non-woven steel fibre mat has been developed for this purpose. It was expected that the optimization of the percentage and alignment of the steel fibres would yield a more efficient fibre grout. In fact, the composite should attain higher tensile strength with continuous fibres since the fibre embedment length is enough to prevent fibre pull-out. An experimental programme was carried out to characterise the UFRG’s mechanical properties. Compressive tests were conducted on small thickness tubular specimens to enable the determination of the compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity. The tensile strength was obtained from splitting tests performed on cubic specimens (DIN 1048-5). Semi-empirical equations, based on the experimental results, are proposed to estimate UFRG’s modulus of elasticity, compressive strength and tensile strength. Two strengthening solutions for RC structures using small thickness CFRP jacketing are presented.

Pacheco, JN, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2019.  Probabilistic Conversion of the Compressive Strength of Cubes to Cylinders of Natural and Recycled Aggregate Concrete Specimens. Materials. 12:280., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

This paper investigates the effect of recycled coarse aggregate incorporation on the relationship between 150 mm cubic and Փ 150 mm cylindrical compressive strength (the reference strength of standards) by comparing data from recycled and natural aggregate concrete compositions in which both cubes and cylinders were tested. A conversion factor from cubic to cylindrical strength is proposed in two versions: A deterministic and a probabilistic one. Such factor has not been studied before and researchers have been converting cubic data as if natural aggregate concrete were tested. The probabilistic factor is intended for reliability analyses on the structural behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete using data from laboratory cube tests. It was found that the incorporation of recycled coarse aggregates sourced from concrete waste significantly decreases the expected value of the factor but the factor’s scatter is relatively unaffected.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C, Vasconcelos G.  2012.  Modelling the compressive mechanical behaviour of granite and sandstone historical building stones. Construction and Building Materials. 28:372-381., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

Building stones, particularly sandstone and granite, are very important in the building elements of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage. Experimental research, based on uniaxial compressive tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of lithotypes of rocks used in historic built heritage, with a view to evaluating the compressive mechanical behaviour of different building stones. The results showed that porosity plays a central role in the compressive behaviour of granites and sandstones. As porosity can be evaluated in field conditions with non-destructive tests it was decided to derive an analytical model to predict compressive behaviour based on the knowledge of porosity of the building stones. A cubic polynomial function was adopted to describe the pre-peak regime under compression to implement the model. Furthermore, a statistical correlation between mechanical and porosity data had to be defined. Good agreement between experimental and analytical compressive stress–strain diagrams, from which the mechanical properties like compressive strength and modulus of elasticity can be derived, was achieved.

Chastre, C, Silva MAG.  2010.  Monotonic axial behavior and modelling of RC circular columns confined with CFRP, Aug. Engineering Structures. 32:2268-2277., Number 8 AbstractWebsite

The retrofit of reinforced concrete columns with FRP jackets has received considerable attention in recent years. The advantages of this technique compared to other similar techniques include the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight ratios of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastics), the strength and ductility increase of RC columns confined with FRP jackets as well as the fact that FRP external shells prevent or mitigate environmental degradation of the concrete and consequent corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Furthermore, this method also reduces the column transversal deformation and prevents the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. Twenty five experimental tests were carried out on reinforced concrete columns confined with CFRP composites, and subjected to axial monotonic compression. In order to evaluate the influence of several parameters on the mechanical behavior of the columns, the height of the columns was maintained, while changing other parameters: the diameter of the columns, the type of material (plain or reinforced concrete), the steel hoop spacing of the RC columns and the number of CFRP layers. Predictive equations, based on the experimental analysis, are proposed to estimate the compressive strength of the confined concrete, the maximum axial load and the axial or the lateral failure strain of circular RC columns jacketed with CFRP. A stress-strain model for CFRP confined concrete in compression, which considers the effect of the CFRP and the transversal reinforcement on the confined compressive strength of the column is also proposed. The curves, axial load versus axial or lateral strain of the RC column, are simulated based on the stress-strain model and include the longitudinal reinforcement effect. The results demonstrate that the model and the predictive equations represent very well the axial compression behavior of RC circular columns confined with CFRP. The applicability of this model to a large spectrum of RC column dimensions is its main advantage.

Larrinaga, P, Chastre C, Biscaia HC, San-José JT.  2014.  Experimental and Numerical Modelling of Basalt Textile Reinforced Mortar Behavior Under Uniaxial Tensile Stress. Materials & Design. 55(March):66-74. AbstractWebsite

During the last years several projects and studies have improved the knowledge about Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) technology. TRM has already been used in strengthening masonry and reinforced concrete structural elements such as walls, arches, columns and beams. This material is presented as a real alternative to the use of fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) in situations where these composites have presented some drawbacks or their use is banned. Textile Reinforced Mortar show a complex mechanical behaviour derived from the heterogeneity of the constituent materials. This paper aims to deepen the knowledge of this composite material in terms of tensile behaviour. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on thirty one TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analysed and contrasted with two distinct models. i) the Aveston-Cooper-Kelly theory (ACK) which is based on a tri-linear analytical approach; and ii) a nonlinear numerical simulation with a 3D Finite Element code. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the TRM tensile tests also showed no significant dependence on the basalt-to-mortar interface, i.e., the choice of a bond-slip curve in order to reproduce the bond stresses and slippages along the interface is irrelevant and it can be simply considered as rigid interface.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Cruz D, Viegas A.  2017.  Prediction of the interfacial performance of CFRP laminates and old timber bonded joints with different strengthening techniques, 1/1/. Composites Part B: Engineering. 108:1-17. AbstractWebsite

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a recent technique to strengthen timber structures and the studies available discussing the debonding between these materials are limited. Therefore, the bond assessment between FRP composites and timber substrates is a topic that needs clarification. The present work analyses the debonding process between Carbon (C) FRP laminates and timber with rupture modes consistent with Mode II interfacial fracture, i.e. with the sliding mode where the bond stresses act parallel to the plane of the bonding surface. Several single-lap shear tests were performed and the experiments showed a nonlinear local behaviour of the CFRP-to-timber interface. An interfacial bond-slip model and its calibration procedure were also presented. Furthermore, the calibrated nonlinear bond-slip model was implemented in a numerical approach where the FRP composite and the adhesive are simulated by linear and nonlinear springs and the substrate is assumed rigid. The following influences on the debonding process of the CFRP-to-timber interface were also analysed: (i) the bonding technique (Externally Bonded Reinforcement - EBR; and Near Surface Mounted - NSM); and (ii) the use of an additional device to mechanically anchor the CFRP laminate. Besides the determination of the effective bond length for each bonding technique, a new concept defining the length beyond which the force at the anchorage device does not decrease with the bonded length and a proposal to estimate its value for any bonded length was also presented and discussed. The experimental tests have shown that the NSM technique has a better performance compared to the EBR technique, independently of the installation of mechanical anchorage devices. In the case of the EBR technique, the strains in the CFRP laminate increased at its vicinities due to the clamping force applied to the anchors, which affected the final strength of the interface.