Coauthored Publications with: Chastre

Journal Article

Biscaia, HC, Silva MAG, Chastre C.  2014.  An experimental study of GFRP-to-concrete interfaces submitted to humidity cycles, 4//. Composite Structures. 110(April):354-368. AbstractWebsite

Systems externally reinforced by bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) are widely used in the retrofitting and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. A drawback of the usage of this technique lies on the uncertainty of the long term behaviour of those reinforcements. Researchers have paid heed to this aspect and a number of tests and alternative techniques have recently been described. An experimental programme developed to supplement work of the authors recently published and which focused on specimens not submitted to aggressive environments is described. The specimens used have the same geometry as in the previous paper, but they were exposed to salt fog cycles and dry/wet cycles with salt water for periods of 3000 h, 5000 h and 10,000 h. The interface of the glass fiber polymeric composite (GFRP)-to-concrete was characterized after the systems underwent such aggressive conditions. The GFRP wrap comprised of two layers and wet lay-up technique was used on its preparation and application. The cohesion and friction angle for GFRP-to-concrete interfaces were measured tat selected stages of ageing process and envelope failure laws were obtained based on the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion. Changes of 27% in cohesion and 8% in the friction angle were found due to the attack of the interface and consequences of the changes are examined.

Biscaia, H, Silva MAG, Chastre C.  2016.  Influence of external compressive stresses on the performance of GFRP-to-concrete interfaces subjected to aggressive environments: An experimental analysis. Journal of Composites for Construction . 20(2):04015044. AbstractWebsite

Despite the fact that FRP composites are a reliable structural material with reasonable durability performance, the environment to which the strengthened structure is exposed can make the strengthening system vulnerable. In this study, the effectiveness of Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) systems when external compressive stresses are applied to glass (G) FRP-to-concrete interfaces in several aggressive environments is analysed. The compressive stress imposed on the GFRP-to-concrete interface intends to simulate, for instance, the effect produced by a mechanical anchorage system applied to the EBR system. The design and the region to set those mechanical anchorage systems are not yet well understood and are mostly applied without really knowing how they will behave. This work shows an exhaustive experimental programme based on several double shear tests subjected to salt fog cycles, dry/wet cycles and two distinct temperature cycles: from -10ºC to +30ºC and +7.5ºC to +47.5ºC. The Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion was found to provide a good representation of the performance of the GFRP-to-concrete interface, and changes of cohesion and internal friction angle of those interfaces during the hours of exposure to the aggressive environments are reported.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C.  2018.  Design method and verification of steel plate anchorages for FRP-to-concrete bonded interfaces, 5/15/. Composite Structures. 192:52-66. AbstractWebsite

Concrete structures Externally Bonded Reinforced (EBR) with Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) have been studied and used since the end of the last century. However, several issues need to be better studied in order to improve performance. The influence of size of anchorage plates used on Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with EBR FRP composites, the external compressive stress to be applied on the anchorage plate and the numerical simulation of this region are some of the topics that need to be more carefully studied in order to clarify the performance of the FRP-to-concrete interface within the anchorage plate region. This study proposes a design methodology to estimate the amount of external compressive stress necessary to be applied on the anchorage plate of EBR systems with FRP composites, in order to avoid premature debonding. The external compressive stress imposed on the FRP composite is intended to simulate the effect produced by a mechanical anchorage system tightened to the EBR system. The results from the design proposal, when compared with the numerical ones, were efficient enough on the prediction of the bond strength improvement of FRP-to-concrete interfaces.

Monteiro, A, Chastre C, Biscaia H, Franco N.  2017.  Reforço de vigas em betão armado com armaduras exteriores de FRP, Jan. 2017. Revista Internacional TechITT. 15:48-60., Number 40 AbstractWebsite

A utilização de Polímeros Reforçados com Fibras (FRP) no reforço de estruturas de Betão Armado (BA) tem tido cada vez mais aceitação devido à sua elevada resistência e rigidez, baixo peso específico e excelente resistência aos efeitos dos agentes ambientais. No entanto, actualmente, é comum utilizarem-se técnicas de reforço que dificilmente permitem tirar partido da resistência total destes materiais. Com o objectivo de explorar a capacidade total de Polímeros Reforçados com Fibras de Carbono (CFRP), foram estudadas e desenvolvidas duas novas técnicas de reforço de vigas à flexão designadas por Continuous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends (CREatE) e Horizontal Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (HNSMR). Posteriormente realizou-se um estudo comparativo entre o desempenho destes sistemas de reforço e o de duas outras técnicas já estudadas e usuais, nomeadamente os sistemas Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) e Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR). A técnica CREatE provou ser a mais eficaz de todas as alternativas testadas mobilizando a totalidade do compósito de CFRP e dotando as vigas de BA com uma maior capacidade resistente e com uma ductilidade mais elevada.Como complemento deste trabalho experimental, desenvolveu-se também um programa de cálculo em MATLAB, capaz de simular o problema em estudo através de um modelo numérico de análise não linear através do equilíbrio de secções. A representatividade dos dados obtidos foi verificada através de uma análise comparativa entre os valores numéricos e os obtidos experimentalmente.The use of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) in order to strengthen Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures has been increasingly accepted due to their strength and stiffness, low weight and excellent resistance to the effects of environmental aggressive agents. However, the bonding techniques available and described in the literature can not allow the full use of the mechanical properties of these materials and premature failures are often observed and described by several researchers. In order to explore the full capacity of CFRP composites, two new bonding strengthening techniques of RC beams when subjected to 4-point bending tests were studied and developed. For these new techniques, the designation of Continuous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends (CREatE) and Horizontal Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (HNSMR) has been assigned. Posteriorly, a comparative study has been carried out between those strengthening systems performance and two traditional techniques, namely, the Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) and Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR). The CREatE technique has proved to be the most effective of all alternatives tested, with the full utilization of the CFRP composite and the highest strength, combined with the highest ductility. A code using MATLAB software was developed as a complement of this experimental work, which is able to simulate the problem under study through a nonlinear numerical model based on the equilibrium of sections. The representativeness of the numerical data has been verified afterwards through a comparative analysis between those and the experimental results.

Biscaia, HC, Micaelo R, Teixeira J, Chastre C.  2014.  Numerical analysis of FRP anchorage zones with variable width, 11//. Composites Part B: Engineering. 67:410-426. AbstractWebsite

The use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has recently become widespread in the construction industry. However, some drawbacks related to premature debonding of the FRP composites from the bonded substrates have been identified. One of the solutions proposed is the implementation of mechanical anchorage systems. Although some design guidelines have been developed, the actual knowledge continues to be rather limited. Thus, designers and researchers have not yet achieved any consensus on the efficiency of any particular anchor device in delaying or preventing the premature debonding failure mode that can occur in Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) systems. This paper studies the debonding phenomenon of FRP anchoring systems with a linear variable width, with a numerical analysis based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM). Combined systems with constant and variable width are also discussed. The FRP-to-parent material interfaces are modelled with a rigid-linear softening bond–slip law. The numerical results showed that it is possible to attain the FRP rupture force with a variable width solution. This solution is particularly attractive when the bonded length is shorter than the effective bonded length because the strength of the interface can be highly incremented.

Biscaia, H, Franco N, Nunes R, Chastre C.  2016.  Old suspended timber floors flexurally-strengthened with different structural materials. Key Engineering Materials. 713:78-81. Abstract

The design of timber beams has strict limits when it comes to the Serviceability Limit States (SLS) either in short-term or in long-term deflections. In order to face this aspect efficiently, the increase of the cross section of the beams might be considered as a solution. However, the prohibitive increase of the costs associated to this solution or the change of the initial architecturedesign of the building, opens the opportunity to find new and more efficient solutions. In that way, the use of additional reinforcements to the timber beams may be seen as a promising solution because either new or old structures would keep always their original aesthetical aspect with no significant self-weight increase and improving their behaviour to short and long-term actions.Therefore, the current study is dedicated to the analysis of composite timber beams where Fiber Reinforcement Polymers (FRP), steel or stainless steel are used to improve the stiffness, strength and deflection behaviour of old suspended timber floors. An experimental program was conducted where old suspended timber floors reinforced with CFRP strips were subjected to 4-point bending tests. A simplify nonlinear numerical model was developed to simulate the bending behaviour of the specimens and several other cases with other reinforcement configurations and different structural materials were assumed. The numerical analysis herein presented also takes into account both Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States of the reinforced specimens.

Yang, Y, Biscaia H, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2017.  Bond characteristics of CFRP-to-steel joints. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 138:401-419. Abstract

Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites have a large potential for strengthening and retrofitting steel parts but due to their premature debonding from steel, further data and research are still required for wider application in such situations. In the present paper, the bond characteristics of CFRP-to-steel joints in pull-pull loaded conditions were studied. Monotonic loading of the double strap joints with different bond lengths was applied and the failure modes and interfacial bond-slip curves were obtained. A tri-linear bondslip model is proposed and it was derived from the experimental data. A closed-form solution approach is also proposed based on the tri-linear bond-slip model. The strength of the CFRP-to-steel interface, the distribution of the relative displacements between bonded materials, the strains developed in the CFRP laminate and the bond stresses along the interface are reported and the closed-form solution is compared with the experimental results. Two cases are selected for presentation: (i) one with the bond length greater than the effective bond length; and, inversely, (ii) one with bond length which is shorter than the effective bond length. The results predicted by the closed-form solutions are shown to be accurate enough when compared to the experiments.

Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2019.  Gravity load effects on the behaviour of reinforced concrete beam critical zones subjected to cyclic loads, 2019/02/15/. Engineering Structures. 181:503-518. AbstractWebsite

The aim of the present study was to proceed to a numerical analysis of the gravity load effects on the behaviour of reinforced concrete beam critical zones when subjected to cyclic loads. A parametric study to assess the influence of different levels of gravity load on RC beam critical zones subjected to cyclic loading was carried out. For this purpose, assuming the level of gravity load as a variable parameter, a nonlinear numerical model of a beam-column connection, previously calibrated with experimental data, was used. In order to evaluate the gravity load effects in the global response, a numerical study of a RC frame system is also presented. The numerical results are analysed in terms of global hysteretic response, accumulated energy dissipation and equivalent viscous damping ratio. In this numerical study, it was observed that the hysteretic response depends on the load path. In the presence of higher gravity load levels, the structure hysteretic behaviour exhibits higher damage levels, associated to a failure mechanism corresponding to the formation of four span plastic hinges. Thus, the proper test procedure should involve the imposition of a reverse cyclic displacement history starting each cycle from the gravity load effects.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2013.  Linear and nonlinear analysis of bond-slip models for interfaces between FRP composites and concrete. Composites Part B: Engineering. 45:1554-1568., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

The paper analyses different analytical and numerical solutions for the debonding process of the FRP-to-concrete interface on shear tests with the FRP plate submitted to a tensile load in one of its ends. From the point of view of the state of the art, two different ways of finding the bond-slip curve from experiments are discussed and analysed. Essentially, three different linear bond-slip models, one exponential model and another power based function are employed in the numerical process. The results are analysed and compared. The differences found in the stress field along the interface, maximum load, maximum slip, ultimate slip, fracture energy and effective bond length are reported. The load-slip behaviour is also presented for the linear and non-linear models herein studied and the influence of the local bond-slip model on the debonding process is discussed. The numerical integration process used on the present study proved to be coherent with the analytical expressions determined for the linear bond-slip models and allowed to verify that maximum load transmittable to the FRP plate is influenced by the square root of the FRP stiffness and fracture energy even when nonlinear bond-slip models are assumed.

Silva, MAG, Biscaia H, Chastre C.  2013.  Influence of Temperature Cycles on Bond between GFRP and Concrete. ACI Structural Journal. 110(6):977-988. AbstractWebsite

Reinforced concrete (RC) beams externally strengthened with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) strips bonded to the soffit may see their load-carrying capacity reduced due to environmental conditions—especially due to the deterioration of bond between the adhesively bonded laminates and concrete, causing premature failure.
More research has been published on the detachment of the laminate progressing from the anchorage zone than on failure induced by the formation of flexural or shear-flexural cracks in the midspan followed by fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) separation and failure designated as intermediate crack (IC) debonding. An experimental program to study degradation of the GFRP laminate beam specimens after accelerated temperature cycles, namely: 1) freezing-and-thawing type; and 2) cycles of the same amplitude (40°C [104°F]) and an upper limit approximately 70% of the glass vitreous transition temperature of the resin, Tg, is described.
Effects on the bond stress and ultimate capacity are reported. Substantial differences between shear and bending-induced failure and a decrease of bond stresses and engagement of the laminates on the structural response are analyzed.

Faustino, P, Chastre C, Nunes Â, Brás A.  2016.  Lifetime modelling of chloride induced corrosion in reinforced concrete structures with concrete with portland and blended cements, 2016. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering. 12:1013-1023., Number 9 AbstractWebsite

This article discusses mathematical modelling of the long-term performance of concrete with different supplementary cementitious materials in a maritime environment. The research was carried out in the light of the national Portuguese application of the CEN standards with mandatory requirements for a performance-based design approach. Laboratory investigations were performed on concrete compositions based on CEM I and CEM II/B-L in which the cement was partially replaced by either 0% (reference composition) or 50% of low calcium fly ash (FA). Concrete compositions were made with the objective to achieve service lives of 50 and 100 years with regard to steel corrosion. Test results of compressive strength, chloride potential diffusion and electrical resistivity are reported for different curing ages of 28, 90, 180 and 365 days. Chloride diffusion results were used for the implementation of modelling equations in order to estimate the design lifetime regarding reinforcing steel corrosion. A performance-based approach using a probabilistic method was carried out and the results obtained are compared with the requirements according to the Portuguese prescriptive approach. The modelling results show that FA blended compositions have better performance compared to those with Portland cements, especially if curing ages beyond 28 days are considered.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Cruz D, Franco N.  2017.  Flexural Strengthening of Old Timber Floors with Laminated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers. Journal of Composites for Construction. 21:04016073., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

A set of three old suspended timber floors were flexurally strengthened with carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips in order to investigate the effectiveness of externally bonding FRP to their soffits. The specimens were from an old building and 740-mm-wide bands were transferred to the laboratory in order to be tested in a four-point bending test. One specimen was tested with no strengthening system and the results obtained were used as reference values for comparison with the specimens that were externally bonded and reinforced (EBR) with CFRP strips. Two similar EBR systems were studied: (1) keeping both ends of the CFRP strips free of any restriction (traditional technique), and (2) embedding both ends of the CFRP strips into the timber, thus providing a bonding anchorage of the strips (new technique). The installation of the new strengthening system comprises the opening of holes in the timber and the creation of a transition curve between the holes and the timber surface. This transition curve allows a smooth transition of the CFRP laminate between the hole and the timber surface, thus avoiding stress concentrations in this area. After the opening of the holes, the resin is applied inside the hole and on the beam surface, and then the CFRP laminate is mounted. The load-carrying capacity of the specimens, the rupture modes, and the strains and bond stress distributions within the CFRP-to-timber interface are presented. A nonlinear numerical simulation of the specimens based on the midspan cross-sectional equilibrium is also presented. The results showed that the use of the new strengthening system enhances the performance of the specimens when compared with the traditional strengthening system.

Pacheco, JN, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2019.  Scatter of constitutive models of the mechanical properties of concrete: comparison of major international codes, March 19, 2019. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology. 17:102-125., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

An investigation on the scatter of code-type constitutive models that relate compressive strength (fc) with tensile strength (fct) and Young’s modulus (Ec) of standard concrete specimens is presented. The influence of the mix design on the accuracy of the fc vs. fct and fc vs. Ecrelationships is discussed, with emphasis on the lithological type and morphology of the coarse aggregates. The uncertainty of the constitutive models is analysed in probabilistic terms and random variables that model the uncertainty of the fc vs. fct and fc vs. Ec relationships are proposed for reliability analyses of serviceability limit states. The suitability of the models proposed is assessed through preliminary conservative estimates of their design values.

Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2014.  Assessing the behaviour of RC beams subject to significant gravity loads under cyclic loads, 2//. Engineering Structures. 59:512-521., Number 2 AbstractGiao et al 2014.pdfWebsite

Gravity loads can affect a reinforced concrete structure’s response to seismic actions, however, traditional procedures for testing the beam behaviour do not take this effect into consideration. An experimental campaign was carried out in order to assess the influence of the gravity load on RC beam connection to the column subjected to cyclic loading. The experiments included the imposition of a conventional quasi-static test protocol based on the imposition of a reverse cyclic displacement history and of an alternative cyclic test procedure starting from the gravity load effects. The test results are presented, compared and analysed in this paper. The imposition of a cyclic test procedure that included the gravity loads effects on the RC beam ends reproduces the demands on the beams’ critical zones more realistically than the traditional procedure. The consideration of the vertical load effects in the test procedure led to an accumulation of negative (hogging) deformation. This phenomenon is sustained with the behaviour of a portal frame system under cyclic loads subject to a significant level of the vertical load, leading to the formation of unidirectional plastic hinges. In addition, the hysteretic behaviour of the RC beam ends tested was simulated numerically using the nonlinear structural analysis software – OpenSees. The beam–column model simulates the global element behaviour very well, as there is a reasonable approximation to the hysteretic loops obtained experimentally.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2015.  Bond-slip model for FRP-to-concrete bonded joints under external compression, 10//. Composites Part B: Engineering. 80:246-259. AbstractWebsite

The influence of compressive stresses exerted on FRP-concrete joints created by external strengthening of structural members on the performance of the system requires better understanding especially when mechanical devices are used to anchor the externally bonded reinforcement (EBR). The numerical modelling of those systems is a tool that permits insight into the performance of the corresponding interfaces and was used in the present study, essentially directed to analyse the effectiveness of EBR systems under compressive stresses normal to the composite surface applied to GFRP-to-concrete interfaces. The compressive stresses imposed on the GFRP-to-concrete interface model the effect produced by a mechanical anchorage system applied to the EBR system. An experimental program is described on which double-lap shear tests were performed that created normal stresses externally applied on the GFRP plates. A corresponding bond-slip model is proposed and the results of its introduction in the numerical analysis based in an available 3D finite element code are displayed, showing satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The results also showed that lateral compressive stresses tend to increase the maximum bond stress of the interface and also originate a residual bond stress which has significant influence on the interface strength. Also, the strength of the interface increases with the increase of the bonded length which have consequences on the definition of the effective bond length.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva C, Franco N.  2018.  Mechanical response of anchored FRP bonded joints: A nonlinear analytical approach, 2018/02/17. Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures. 25:238-252., Number 3: Taylor & Francis AbstractWebsite

This article presents a nonlinear analytical solution for the prediction of the full-range debonding response of mechanically anchored, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites from the substrate. The nonlinear analytical approach predicts, for any monotonic loading history or bonded length, the relative displacements (or slips) between materials, the strains in the FRP composite, the bond stresses within the interface, and the stresses developed in the substrate. The load-slip responses of FRP-to-substrate interfaces with short and long bonded lengths are motives of analysis and discussion. The solutions obtained from the proposed approach are also compared with other experimental results found in the literature.

Chastre, C, Ludovico-Marques M.  2017.  Avaliação dos Portais de Pedra Arenítica da Igreja de São Leonardo Utilizando Testes Não Destrutivos. Mecânica Experimental. 28:47-54. AbstractWebsite

Neste artigo é apresentado um resumo das intervenções de conservação realizadas no século passado e dos estudos e testes não destrutivos realizados na última década na Igreja de São Leonardo na Atouguia da Baleia. Em seguida mostra-se o padrão de degradação que ocorre nos portais de arenito da igreja e é analisada a evolução da alveolização que ocorreu nos portais de arenito ao longo dos últimos sessenta a setenta anos. No final, a inspeção visual dos portais de arenito é comparada com um levantamento realizado através de varrimento por laser 3D.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C.  2014.  Effect of consolidation treatments on mechanical behaviour of sandstone, 11/15/. Construction and Building Materials. 70:473-482. AbstractWebsite

Experimental research was carried out about into ethyl silicate applications on sandstone samples. Consolidation was assessed by drilling strength, impregnation depth and also monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive tests in order to evaluate the compressive mechanical behaviour of treated sandstone. The stress–strain compression diagrams showed a significant increase in the values of mechanical parameters after consolidation treatments. The difference in compressive strength values between monotonic and cyclic compression disappears after the consolidation treatments. An equation of consolidation effect was obtained from an analytical model by means of compressive behaviour assessed by stress–strain diagrams. These sandstone samples have values of porosity similar to the more weathered variety of sandstone found in facades of monuments in the village of Atouguia da Baleia, in the western region of Portugal. The most important degradation pattern found on sandstone building stones is alveolization caused by salt crystallization since the Middle Ages.

Biscaia, H, Chastre C, Cruz D, Franco N.  2016.  Flexural Strengthening of Old Timber Floors with Laminated Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers. Journal of Composites for Construction. :04016073. AbstractWebsite

A set of three old suspended timber floors were flexurally-strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) strips in order to investigate the effectiveness of externally bonding FRP to their soffits. The specimens were from an old building and 740 mm-wide bands were transferred to the laboratory in order to be tested in a 4-point bending test. One specimen was tested with no strengthening system and the results obtained were used as reference values for comparison with the specimens those were externally bonded and reinforced (EBR) with CFRP strips. Two similar EBR systems were studied: (i) keeping both ends of the CFRP strips free of any restriction (traditional technique); and (ii) embedding both ends of the CFRP strips into the timber, thus providing a bonding anchorage of the strips (new technique). The installation of the new strengthening system comprises the opening of holes in the timber and the creation of a transition curve between the holes and the timber surface. This transition curve allows a smooth transition of the CFRP laminate between the hole and the timber surface, thus avoiding stress concentrations in this area. After the opening of the holes, the resin is applied inside the hole and on the beam surface, and then the CFRP laminate is mounted. The load-carrying capacity of the specimens, the rupture modes, the strains and bond stress distributions within the CFRP-to-timber interface are presented. A nonlinear numerical simulation of the specimens based on the mid-span cross-sectional equilibrium is also presented. The results showed that the use of the new strengthening system enhances the performance of the specimens when compared with the traditional strengthening system.

Biscaia, H, Chastre C.  2018.  A simple analytical approach for creep analysis of EB-FRP systems. Key Engineering Materials . Abstract

Based on a few experimental results available in the literature, this work presents a simple analytical approach that allows the study of the long-term behaviour of CFRP-to-concrete interfaces under an initial sustaining load. Only the elastic regime is studied, which means that the interfacial maximum bond stress and maximum slip are never exceeded. Therefore, the maximum initial load to be sustained by the joints is limited by its corresponding elastic value. The analytical results provided by the proposed model are compared with some experimental results found in the literature. The results showed strain redistribution throughout the bonded length over the time.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2019.  A Simple Method for the Determination of the Bond-Slip Model of Artificially Aged Joints. Journal of Composites for Construction. 23:04019028., Number 4 AbstractWebsite

The durability of adhesively bonded fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) and concrete substrates has been the subject of recent studies. The degradation of bonded interfaces conjugated with other factors that affect the interface strength may compromise the potentialities of using FRP in externally bonded reinforced (EBR) concrete structures. However, the estimation of the effects of degradation on these bonded interfaces and the analytical methodologies to quantify them are not fully understood. The present work focuses on a local bond-slip model characterized by two parameters for which the values are obtained experimentally. Then, the determination of the local bond-slip relationship of a glass (G) FRP-to-concrete interface can be estimated. The assessment of the degradation of the bonded interface when subjected to cycles of (1) salt fog; (2) wet-dry environments with salt water; (3) temperatures between −10°C and +30°C; and (4) temperatures between +7.5°C and +47.5°C is presented. The results obtained using the proposed bond-slip model led to the conclusion that after 10,000 h of exposure to temperature cycles between −10°C and +30°C, there was a small change in the GFRP-to-concrete interface performance, whereas the effects on the bonded interface for the specimens subjected to temperature cycles between +7.5°C and +47.5°C were far more most severe.

Bras, A, Gião R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2013.  Development of an injectable grout for concrete repair and strengthening. Cement and Concrete Composites. AbstractWebsite

This paper deals with the coupled effect of temperature and silica fume addition on rheological, mechanical behaviour and porosity of grouts based on CEMI 42.5R, proportioned with a polycarboxylate-based high range water reducer. Preliminary tests were conducted to focus on the grout best able to fill a fibrous network since the goal of this study was to develop an optimized grout able to be injected in a mat of steel fibers for concrete strengthening. The grout composition was developed based on criteria for fresh state and hardened state properties. For a CEMI 42.5R based grout different high range water reducer dosages (0, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.5%, 0.7%) and silica fume (SF) dosages (0, 2%, 4%) were tested (as replacement of cement by mass). Rheological measurements were used to investigate the effect of polycarboxylates (PCE) and SF dosage on grout properties, particularly its workability loss, as the mix was to be injected in a matrix of steel fibers for concrete jacketing. The workability behaviour was characterized by the rheological parameters yield stress and plastic viscosity (for different grout temperatures and resting times), as well as the procedures of mini slump cone and funnel flow time. Then, further development focused only on the best grout compositions. The cement substitution by 2% of SF exhibited the best overall behaviour and was considered as the most promising compared to the others compositions tested. Concerning the fresh state analysis, a significant workability loss was detected if grout temperature increased above 35°C. Below this temperature the grout presented a self-levelling behaviour and a life time equal to 45 minutes. In the hardened state, silica fumes increased not only the grout’s porosity but also the grout’s compressive strength at later ages, since the pozzolanic contribution to the compressive strength does not occur until 28 days and beyond.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C, Vasconcelos G.  2011.  Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares baseada em ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos. Mecânica Experimental. :101-110., Number 19 Abstractrev_19_a10.pdfWebsite

No património edificado português as rochas granulares assumem importância relevante nos elementos construtivos presentes no património histórico e cultural, nomeadamente as pedras graníticas e areníticas. Tendo por objectivo a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares presentes no património edificado histórico foi realizado um estudo de investigação experimental sobre amostras dos litótipos seleccionados e que são representativos de rochas presentes no próprio edificado, em termos de propriedades petrográficas, físicas e mecânicas. Neste artigo apresenta-se um modelo analítico definido com base em ensaios experimentais que permite efectuar a simulação do comportamento das rochas em compressão uniaxial (diagramas de tensão-deformação), função de propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas através de ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos. Este modelo permite desta forma a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares sem afectar a integridade do património histórico.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2013.  Modelling GFRP-to-concrete joints with interface finite elements with rupture based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, 10//. Construction and Building Materials. 47:261-273. AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures by means of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) is now routinely considered and applied in the retrofit or strengthening of structures. FRP composites have received a considerable attention from civil engineers in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness/weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when FRP composites are bonded to a concrete surface, there is a persistent potential problem that the FRP plates may debond prematurely from the concrete. This is a very important issue for the engineers who have to focus on the computational modelling of this phenomenon. Some studies can be found in literature on computational modelling. However, there is very little information about the best modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete and this work is intended to help bridge this gap. The computational analysis presented here is based on three-dimensional software which assumes the smeared crack model, and the interface finite elements (FEs) used have a rupture criteria based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. The definition of these FEs was based on double shear tests that were performed specifically for this purpose and they have shown that the debonding phenomenon can be predicted with some accuracy. In total, 10 double shear models were studied and the results were compared with the 21 experimental tests performed. The double shear tests consisted of applying loads to 2 layered GFRP laminates bonded to a 150 mm concrete cube with a bonded area of 150 × 80 mm (length × width). Double shear models with and without a gap interface were considered in order to emphasize the importance of modelling the GFRP-to-concrete interface with interface finite elements. The effect of the concrete strength on the interface performance was also considered. An externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) concrete T-beam strengthened with 2 GFRP layers is presented to illustrate the application of the method. The wet lay-up technique was used for the external reinforcement of a reinforced concrete T-beam and then tested under a four point bending test until rupture. The results are reported and differences between the numerical and the experimental results are discussed.

Faustino, P, Chastre C.  2016.  Flexural strengthening of columns with CFRP composites and stainless steel: Cyclic behavior, 21 September 201. Journal of Structural Engineering. 142:04015136., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

This study presents the testing, completion, and analysis of different external strengthening systems applied to rectangular reinforced concrete columns with rounded corners. The experimental study included confinement strengthening with carbon-fiberreinforcedpolymer (CFRP) sheets, longitudinal strengthening with CFRP laminates and confining CFRP jacket, longitudinal strengtheningwith stainless steel bars and confining CFRP jacket, tested column until reinforcing steel failure, repair and CFRP confining jacket,and longitudinal strengthening with stainless steel bars. The analysis of the experimental results included lateral load-displacement relationship, energy dissipation, ductility, and curvature damage assessment classifications. It was concluded that the use of externallongitudinal strengthening combined with CFRP confinement is effective for enhancing performance and is viable in terms of execution. The load capacity increase due to strengthening reached 36–46% with good ductile behavior (failure was reached at 4.4% drift ratio). Despite some differences between CFRP laminates and stainless steel, all columns presented moderate degrees of damage between 1 and 2% drift ratio and minor damage degree until 1% drift ratio.