Coauthored Publications with: Chastre

Conference Paper

Chastre, C, Monteiro A, Biscaia H, Franco N.  2016.  Novo sistema de reforço estrutural de vigas de betão armado com compósitos de FRP ancorados internamente por aderência, 27-29 September. II Encontro Luso-Brasileiro de Degradação de Estruturas de Betão. :12p.., LNEC, Lisbon, Portugal Abstractdegrada_2016_-_carlos_chastre_-_ext-abstract.pdf

A reabilitação de estruturas de betão armado com compósitos de FRP tem tido uma grande aceitação em especial devido às excelentes características de durabilidade dos materiais compósitos, ao seu baixo peso e às suas elevadas prestações mecânicas. Contudo, o comportamento elástico-linear dos compósitos de FRP e a sua forma de aplicação pode originar roturas prematuras, quer na técnica de reforço EBR (Externally Bonded Reinforcement), em que o compósito é colado externamente, quer na técnica NSM (Near Surface Mounted) em que o compósito é inserido na zona do recobrimento. No sentido de minimizar o risco de roturas prematuras e ao mesmo tempo aumentar a ductilidade dos elementos reforçados, desenvolveu-se um novo sistema de reforço estrutural em que as armaduras são ancoradas internamente por aderência. A fim de validar o novo sistema de reforço estrutural com compósitos de FRP foi realizado um programa experimental que incluiu o ensaio de vigas de betão armado (BA) reforçadas com as seguintes técnicas de reforço: EBR, NSM e pela nova técnica CREatE (continuous reinforcement embedded at ends). Neste artigo descrevem-se os ensaios experimentais realizados e analisam-se os resultados obtidos. As vigas de BA ensaiadas tinham seção em T, com um vão de 3,0 m e uma altura de 0,3 m e foram solicitadas em flexão em 4 pontos e testadas até a rotura. A técnica CREatE provou ser a mais eficaz das três alternativas testadas mobilizando a totalidade do CFRP e apresentando a maior capacidade resistente e a ductilidade mais elevada.

Pacheco, J, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2019.  Reliability of the bond strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete, May, 27-29, 2019. Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures. :913-920., Kraków, Poland Abstract

An analysis on the effect of the incorporation of coarse recycled concrete aggregates on the bond strength between concrete and embedded steel reinforcement is presented. The model’s uncertainty of the Level I provision of the anchorage length of fib Bulletin 72 on ribbed steel/recycled aggregate concrete bond is quantified. Afterwards, reliability analyses on the bond strength are made and a partial safety factor for the anchorage length of recycled concrete elements is proposed. The model’s uncertainty is evaluated through data from pullout tests, the only type of bond test that has been so far performed extensively on recycled aggregate concrete specimens. The limitations of this test in reproducing the bond of actual structural elements is discussed, and the model’s uncertainty is converted to that of lap splice tests. The bond strength of recycled aggregate concrete design was found to be less reliable than that of natural aggregate concrete, especially in the absence of confining reinforcement. For concrete with full recycled aggregate incorporation, a 25% increase in the anchorage length is proposed. Additional testing on the bond strength of lapped splices or beam-end specimens is recommended.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C.  2014.  Conservation of sandstone monuments: a new approach in consolidation treatments, 16-19 December. 40th IAHS Word Congress of Housing. Sustainable Housing Construction.. :ID211(10p)., Funchal, Portugal Abstract40_iahs_ludovico-marques_-_ext.abstract.pdf

Sandstones are very important in the building elements of world’s historical and cultural heritage. The façades of St. Leonard’s church in Atouguia da Baleia village in western region of Portugal are an outstanding example of the effect of alveolization on going for several centuries. In Middle ages there was an harbour and a sodium chloride rich environment near this church was responsible for this significant stone degradation pattern.
A new approach of consolidating products application on stone walls façades based on Karsten pipe using total head to allow full absorption of stone was followed.
Experimental research, based on physical and mechanical tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of a variety of sandstones on monuments treated with ethyl silicates in order to assess the effectiveness and harmfulness of these treatments.
The comparison of results between traditional immersion applications and Karsten pipe’s based procedure on stone monument indicate the potential viability of this new approach when difficult conditions of consolidating products’ absorption occurs on stone monuments.

Biscaia, H, Chastre C, Cruz D, Franco N, Nunes R.  2016.  Reforço à flexão de pavimentos antigos de madeira com recurso a laminados de fibras de carbono, 4-6 July 2016. TEST&E 2016 - 1º Congresso de Ensaios e Experimentação em Engenharia Civil. :8., IST, Lisbon, Portugal Abstractteste2016_-_01049_-_biscaia.pdf

O dimensionamento de vigas de madeira aos Estados Limites de Utilização (ELUt) tem limites muito apertados tanto para ações de curto prazo como para ações de longo prazo. Uma solução eficiente para este problema passa por aumentar as seções transversais das vigas. Porém, este tipo de solução não só acarreta um aumento de custos como também altera profundamente arquitetura original do edifício abrindo, por conseguinte, uma oportunidade para encontrar outras soluções mais eficientes. Neste sentido, o uso de armaduras de reforço em vigas de madeira pode ser considerado como uma solução promissora uma vez que as estruturas, novas ou velhas, manteriam o aspeto estético original sem introduzir nos elementos reforçados, um aumento significativo do seu peso próprio, melhorando o seu desempenho face a ações de curto e longo prazo. O presente estudo é dedicado à análise de vigas de madeira antigas reforçadas à flexão com materiais compósitos de fibras de carbono, vulgarmente designados na literatura internacional por Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). Neste trabalho, foram reforçados e ensaiados à flexão pavimentos antigos de madeira tendo-se analisado os respetivos desempenhos aquando da utilização de uma técnica de reforço por colagem tradicional (Externally Bonded Reinforcement - EBR) e aquando da utilização de uma técnica de reforço por colagem inovadora (Continous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends - CREatE). Os ensaios experimentais permitiram verificar que a técnica de colagem inovadora CREatE confere aos pavimentos de madeira uma maior rigidez e resistência face à técnica tradicional conseguindo se mobilizar a totalidade do compósito de CFRP.

Pacheco, J, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2017.  Model uncertainty of recycled aggregate concrete beams subjected to bending, 21-22-23 June 20. HISER International Conference on Advances in Recycling and Management of Construction and Demolition Waste. , Delft, The Netherlands Abstract

This paper investigates whether the model uncertainty of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams subjected to bending differs from that of reinforced natural aggregate concrete (NAC) beams. An introductory remark concerning the importance of the codification of RAC structural design is made and notions concerning model uncertainties and their role on structural codification are given. Afterwards, the criteria used in the construction of a database of RAC and NAC beams are referred before presenting the key findings of an analysis on the model uncertainty of the cracking, yielding and ultimate moments of beams subjected to four-point bending tests. The analytical moments were calculated following Eurocode 2 provisions. Probabilistic models for model uncertainties are proposed. Negligible differences in the model uncertainty of NAC and RAC beams are reported.

Conference Proceedings

Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2012.  Seismic Strengthening of RC Beam-Column Connections. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. , Lisbon Abstractgiao_lucio_and_chastre.__in_15th_world_conference_on_earthquake_engineering._2012._lisbon..pdf

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Biscaia, H, Silva MG, Chastre C.  2009.  Bond GFRP-Concrete under environmental exposure. 15th International Conference on Composite Structures ICCS 15. , Porto: FEUP Abstractbiscaia2009sich_-_iccs15.pdf

Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are often used to strengthen RC structures.
Despite intense research, durability of reinforced concrete (RC) retrofitted with FRP remains insufficiently known. Long time behavior of the bond laminate-concrete, in flexural strengthening, under environmental action is not well known, conditioning Codes and engineers. An experimental program that subjected RC beams, externally reinforced with Glass FRP (GFRP) strips, to temperature and salt water cycles, for up to 10000h is reported.
At selected intermediate times, the RC beams were loaded to failure in bending. Rupture took place, normally, by tensile failure of concrete at a short distance from the interface with GFRP. The results showed that freeze-thaw cycles were the most severe of the environmental
conditions. The study also generated also non-linear bond-slip relationships from the experimental data. Numerical modeling has been undertaken, based on a commercial code.
The model is based on smeared cracking. Parameters needed for the characterization, namely cohesion and friction angle, were obtained from shear tests conceived for the effect.

Biscaia, H, Silva MG, Chastre C.  2008.  Caracterização Experimental e Modelação Numérica da Ligação GFRP/Betão. 7º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental. , Vila Real: UTAD Abstract
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Faria, G, Lúcio V, Chastre C, Nunes A.  2010.  Estudo do comportamento à compressão de compósitos de madeira e cimento. Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2010. , Lisboa: LNEC Abstract
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Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C, Bras A.  2012.  UFRG – Unidirectional fibre reinforced grout as strengthening material for reinforced concrete structures. BEFIB2012 – Fibre reinforced concrete. , Guimarães: UMinho Abstractgiao2012vlchbr.pdf

The present study is part of an extensive research project, where the main objective is to evaluate a strengthening solution for reinforced concrete structures using a small thickness jacketing in the compression side of the RC element with unidirectional fiber reinforced grout - UFRG.
For this purpose a high performance cementitious grout reinforced with continuous and unidirectional non woven fibermat has been developed. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. Besides, for continuous fibers (with an aspect ratio, defined as the length-to-diameter ratio, l/d=∞), the composite should attain higher tensile strength since the fiber embedment length is enough to prevent fiber pullout.
The experimental campaign included a set of preliminary tests that allowed the design of the fiber reinforced grout, sustained with rheological parameters [7] and mechanical characterization tests of the materials.
Finally, an experimental campaign was carried out in order to proceed to the mechanical characterization of the unidirectional fiber reinforced grout. Compressive tests were conducted in small thickness tubular specimens that enable the determination of the compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity of the material. The tensile strength of the material was obtained using splitting tests of cubic specimens (according the standard DIN 1048-5). The experimental results are presented and analyzed.

Chastre, C, Silva MG.  2008.  Reinforced Concrete Columns Jacketed with FRP Composites and Subjected to Cyclic Horizontal Loads. International Conference CCC2008 - Challenges for Civil Construction. , Porto: FEUP Abstract
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Silva, M. A. G., Biscaia HC, Chastre C.  2012.  Degradação da aderência entre compósitos de GFRP e betão devido a condições ambientais severas. Betão Estrutural 2012. , Porto: FEUP Abstractsilva2012bich_-_be2012_-_feup.pdf

A degradação da ligação entre compósitos de matriz polimérica reforçada por fibras (FRP) e o betão é uma das principais causas de possível rotura das vigas e lajes de betão armado reforçadas
externamente por compósitos de FRP. Desde há mais de 10 anos que se estuda, por isso, na UNL o
comportamento dessa ligação, integrado em programa mais alargado de estudo da durabilidade deste tipo de reforço, especialmente quando sujeito a condições ambientais severas que se simulam por processos artificialmente acelerados no laboratório. Em particular a degradação da aderência e o possível descolamento precoce do reforço têm sido modelados física e computacionalmente com principal incidência no uso de fibras de vidro (GFRP) e resina epoxídica. Nesta comunicação mostram-se resultados obtidos em termos de capacidade de carga, força transmitida ao reforço e tensões de aderência após envelhecimentos de pequenas vigas de betão armado (BA) por ciclos de nevoeiro salino, ciclos seco/molhado em solução salina, ciclos de temperatura entre +7,5ºC e +47,5ºC e gelo-degelo de -10ºC a +30ºC. Faz-se recomendação quanto à extensão máxima para diferentes envelhecimentos. Apresenta-se comparação entre resultados de modelação numérica e experimental.

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C, Vasconcelos G.  2010.  Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares. 8º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental. , Guimarâes: UMinho Abstract
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Lucas, D., Biscaia HC, Silva MAG, Chastre C.  2012.  Factores que influenciam o desempenho da ligação GFRP/betão. Betão Estrutural 2012. , Porto: FEUP Abstractlucas2012bisich_-_be2012.pdf

Os compósitos de FRP podem descolar prematuramente da superfíce de betão, isto é, antes de esgotada a sua resistência elástica. Esta situação é mais provável se não forem tidos em conta factores como o tipo de preparação da superfície, a exposição a acção ambiental severa, e a resistência do próprio betão. Com o objectivo de analisar a influência de parte destes factores no desempenho da ligação compósito de fibra de vidro (GFRP) e betão, empreendeu-se uma campanha experimental baseada em ensaios de corte duplo. Os resultados permitiram determinar e comparar as forças máximas transmitidas ao GFRP e tensões de aderência máxima para diferentes tratamentos de superfície e condições de envelhecimento. Foram também determinadas aproximações para curvas de tensão de aderência vs. deslizamento (bond-slip). Os resultados obtidos são contrastados com resultados obtidos por modelação numérica.

Reguengo, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2008.  Ligação Pilar - Fundação com Armaduras Salientes do Pilar, em Estruturas Pré-Fabricadas. 2º Congresso Nacional de Pré-Fabricação em Betão. , Lisboa: ANIPB Abstractreguengo2008luch_-_2_cnp_-_lnec.pdf

A ligação pilar-fundação tem um papel fundamental no comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas, em particular, na presença de acções horizontais, como a acção dos sismos e do vento, que introduzem esforços elevados na base dos pilares. Um dos sistemas de ligação pilar-fundação usados em estruturas pré-fabricadas consiste em deixar na extremidade inferior dos pilares armaduras salientes que são introduzidas em negativos executados nas fundações. Estes negativos são posteriormente injectados com grout para garantir a ligação. No presente trabalho foram estudadas diferentes soluções de negativos para ligação das armaduras do pilar à fundação, tendo sido realizados ensaios monotónicos para analisar o seu comportamento. Nesta comunicação apresentam-se e discutem-se os resultados obtidos da análise experimental efectuada.

Almeida, G, Biscaia H, Chastre C, Fonseca J, Melício F.  2010.  Displacement Estimation of a RC beam test based on TSS algorithm. CISTI'2010 - 5ª Conferencia Ibérica de Sistemas y Tecnologías de Información. , Santiago de Compostela Abstract

The traditional methodology used in civil engineering measurements requires a lot of equipment and a very complex procedure especially if the number of target points increase. Since the beginning of the current century, several studies have been conducted in the area of photogrametry using digital image
correlation associated with block motion algorithms to estimate displacements in reinforced concrete (RC) beams during a load test. Using image processing techniques it is possible to measure the whole area of interest and not only a few points of the tests materials. In this paper, block-matching algorithms are used in order to compare the results from photogrametry techniques and the data obtained with linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT) sensors during the load tests of RC beams, which are very common to find in civil engineering laboratories.

Reguengo, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2008.  Ligação Pilar - Fundação em Estruturas Pré-Fabricadas. Estudo experimental. Seminário SILE’08. , Lisboa: Fundação FCTUNL Abstract
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Carvalho, T, Chastre C, Biscaia H, Paula R.  2010.  Flexural Behaviour of RC T-Beams Strengthened with Different FRP Materials. The Third International fib Congress and Exhibition "Think Globally, Build Locally", . , Washington DC: fib Abstract

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with FRP materials has received a
considerable increment in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight
ratios of FRP compared to other materials.
An experimental programme was conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of different
structural solutions to strengthen reinforced concrete beams with FRP composites (EBR
GFRP, EBR CFRP, NSRM-CFRP) and is described. The RC T beams had a 3m span by 0.3m
height and were tested until rupture in a 4-point bending test system.
The NSMR technique has proved to be the most effective of the three alternatives tested, as it
obtained high strength, combined with high ductility. Nevertheless, all the systems show
great strength increment in relation to the non retrofitted T-beams, proving to be effective
approaches to the flexural strengthening of RC beams.

Reguengo, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2008.  Ligação pilar – fundação com armaduras salientes do pilar, em estruturas pré-fabricadas – Ensaios monotónicos e ensaios cíclicos. Betão Estrutural 2008. , Guimarães: UMinho Abstractreguengo2008luch_-_be2008.pdf

A ligação pilar-fundação tem um papel fundamental no comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas,
em particular, na presença de acções horizontais, como a acção dos sismos e do vento. Um dos sistemas de ligação pilar-fundação usados em estruturas pré-fabricadas consiste em deixar na extremidade inferior dos pilares armaduras salientes que são introduzidas em negativos executados nas fundações, sejam elas sapatas ou maciços de encabeçamento de estacas. Estes negativos são posteriormente injectados com “grout” para garantir a ligação. Foram estudados diferentes soluções de negativos para ligação das armaduras do pilar na fundação. Foram realizados ensaios monotónicos e cíclicos, para analisar não só o comportamento às acções estáticas mas também para a acção sísmica. No presente trabalho apresentam-se os resultados obtidos com a análise experimental efectuada. O estudo realizado permite apresentar recomendações para projecto e quais os tipos de ligações com melhor desempenho.

Journal Article

Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C, Vasconcelos G.  2012.  Modelling the compressive mechanical behaviour of granite and sandstone historical building stones. Construction and Building Materials. 28:372-381., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

Building stones, particularly sandstone and granite, are very important in the building elements of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage. Experimental research, based on uniaxial compressive tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of lithotypes of rocks used in historic built heritage, with a view to evaluating the compressive mechanical behaviour of different building stones. The results showed that porosity plays a central role in the compressive behaviour of granites and sandstones. As porosity can be evaluated in field conditions with non-destructive tests it was decided to derive an analytical model to predict compressive behaviour based on the knowledge of porosity of the building stones. A cubic polynomial function was adopted to describe the pre-peak regime under compression to implement the model. Furthermore, a statistical correlation between mechanical and porosity data had to be defined. Good agreement between experimental and analytical compressive stress–strain diagrams, from which the mechanical properties like compressive strength and modulus of elasticity can be derived, was achieved.

Chastre, C, Silva MAG.  2010.  Monotonic axial behavior and modelling of RC circular columns confined with CFRP, Aug. Engineering Structures. 32:2268-2277., Number 8 AbstractWebsite

The retrofit of reinforced concrete columns with FRP jackets has received considerable attention in recent years. The advantages of this technique compared to other similar techniques include the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight ratios of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastics), the strength and ductility increase of RC columns confined with FRP jackets as well as the fact that FRP external shells prevent or mitigate environmental degradation of the concrete and consequent corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Furthermore, this method also reduces the column transversal deformation and prevents the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. Twenty five experimental tests were carried out on reinforced concrete columns confined with CFRP composites, and subjected to axial monotonic compression. In order to evaluate the influence of several parameters on the mechanical behavior of the columns, the height of the columns was maintained, while changing other parameters: the diameter of the columns, the type of material (plain or reinforced concrete), the steel hoop spacing of the RC columns and the number of CFRP layers. Predictive equations, based on the experimental analysis, are proposed to estimate the compressive strength of the confined concrete, the maximum axial load and the axial or the lateral failure strain of circular RC columns jacketed with CFRP. A stress-strain model for CFRP confined concrete in compression, which considers the effect of the CFRP and the transversal reinforcement on the confined compressive strength of the column is also proposed. The curves, axial load versus axial or lateral strain of the RC column, are simulated based on the stress-strain model and include the longitudinal reinforcement effect. The results demonstrate that the model and the predictive equations represent very well the axial compression behavior of RC circular columns confined with CFRP. The applicability of this model to a large spectrum of RC column dimensions is its main advantage.

Larrinaga, P, Chastre C, Biscaia HC, San-José JT.  2014.  Experimental and Numerical Modelling of Basalt Textile Reinforced Mortar Behavior Under Uniaxial Tensile Stress. Materials & Design. 55(March):66-74. AbstractWebsite

During the last years several projects and studies have improved the knowledge about Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) technology. TRM has already been used in strengthening masonry and reinforced concrete structural elements such as walls, arches, columns and beams. This material is presented as a real alternative to the use of fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) in situations where these composites have presented some drawbacks or their use is banned. Textile Reinforced Mortar show a complex mechanical behaviour derived from the heterogeneity of the constituent materials. This paper aims to deepen the knowledge of this composite material in terms of tensile behaviour. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on thirty one TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analysed and contrasted with two distinct models. i) the Aveston-Cooper-Kelly theory (ACK) which is based on a tri-linear analytical approach; and ii) a nonlinear numerical simulation with a 3D Finite Element code. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the TRM tensile tests also showed no significant dependence on the basalt-to-mortar interface, i.e., the choice of a bond-slip curve in order to reproduce the bond stresses and slippages along the interface is irrelevant and it can be simply considered as rigid interface.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Cruz D, Viegas A.  2017.  Prediction of the interfacial performance of CFRP laminates and old timber bonded joints with different strengthening techniques, 1/1/. Composites Part B: Engineering. 108:1-17. AbstractWebsite

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a recent technique to strengthen timber structures and the studies available discussing the debonding between these materials are limited. Therefore, the bond assessment between FRP composites and timber substrates is a topic that needs clarification. The present work analyses the debonding process between Carbon (C) FRP laminates and timber with rupture modes consistent with Mode II interfacial fracture, i.e. with the sliding mode where the bond stresses act parallel to the plane of the bonding surface. Several single-lap shear tests were performed and the experiments showed a nonlinear local behaviour of the CFRP-to-timber interface. An interfacial bond-slip model and its calibration procedure were also presented. Furthermore, the calibrated nonlinear bond-slip model was implemented in a numerical approach where the FRP composite and the adhesive are simulated by linear and nonlinear springs and the substrate is assumed rigid. The following influences on the debonding process of the CFRP-to-timber interface were also analysed: (i) the bonding technique (Externally Bonded Reinforcement - EBR; and Near Surface Mounted - NSM); and (ii) the use of an additional device to mechanically anchor the CFRP laminate. Besides the determination of the effective bond length for each bonding technique, a new concept defining the length beyond which the force at the anchorage device does not decrease with the bonded length and a proposal to estimate its value for any bonded length was also presented and discussed. The experimental tests have shown that the NSM technique has a better performance compared to the EBR technique, independently of the installation of mechanical anchorage devices. In the case of the EBR technique, the strains in the CFRP laminate increased at its vicinities due to the clamping force applied to the anchors, which affected the final strength of the interface.

Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2017.  Characterisation of unidirectional fibre reinforced grout as a strengthening material for RC structures. Construction and Building Materials. 137:272-287. Abstract

The main goal of the present research work is to characterise a unidirectional fibre reinforced grout (UFRG), developed as an alternative material to strengthen RC structures using small thickness jacketing. A high performance cementitious grout reinforced with continuous and unidirectional non-woven steel fibre mat has been developed for this purpose. It was expected that the optimization of the percentage and alignment of the steel fibres would yield a more efficient fibre grout. In fact, the composite should attain higher tensile strength with continuous fibres since the fibre embedment length is enough to prevent fibre pull-out. An experimental programme was carried out to characterise the UFRG’s mechanical properties. Compressive tests were conducted on small thickness tubular specimens to enable the determination of the compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity. The tensile strength was obtained from splitting tests performed on cubic specimens (DIN 1048-5). Semi-empirical equations, based on the experimental results, are proposed to estimate UFRG’s modulus of elasticity, compressive strength and tensile strength. Two strengthening solutions for RC structures using small thickness CFRP jacketing are presented.

Pacheco, JN, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2019.  Probabilistic Conversion of the Compressive Strength of Cubes to Cylinders of Natural and Recycled Aggregate Concrete Specimens. Materials. 12:280., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

This paper investigates the effect of recycled coarse aggregate incorporation on the relationship between 150 mm cubic and Փ 150 mm cylindrical compressive strength (the reference strength of standards) by comparing data from recycled and natural aggregate concrete compositions in which both cubes and cylinders were tested. A conversion factor from cubic to cylindrical strength is proposed in two versions: A deterministic and a probabilistic one. Such factor has not been studied before and researchers have been converting cubic data as if natural aggregate concrete were tested. The probabilistic factor is intended for reliability analyses on the structural behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete using data from laboratory cube tests. It was found that the incorporation of recycled coarse aggregates sourced from concrete waste significantly decreases the expected value of the factor but the factor’s scatter is relatively unaffected.