Coauthored Publications with: Chastre

Conference Paper

Chastre, C, Biscaia H, Monteiro A, Franco N.  2016.  Análise experimental de vigas de betão armado reforçadas à flexão com compósitos de FRP, 4-6 July 2016. TEST&E 2016 - 1º Congresso de Ensaios e Experimentação em Engenharia Civil. :8., IST, Lisbon, Portugal Abstractteste2016_-_01066_-_chastre.pdf

O reforço das estruturas de betão armado com compósitos de FRP tem tido um incremento considerável nos últimos anos devido às características de durabilidade e das elevadas relações resistência-peso e rigidez-peso dos compósitos de FRP comparativamente com outros materiais de reforço. A fim de analisar o comportamento de diferentes soluções de reforço estrutural de vigas de betão armado (BA) com compósitos de FRP foi realizado um programa experimental que incluiu o ensaio de vigas de BA reforçadas com as seguintes técnicas de reforço: EBR (Externally-Bonded Reinforcement), NSM (Near Surface Mounted) e pela técnica CREatE (continuous reinforcement embedded at ends). As vigas de BA ensaiadas tinham seção em T, com um vão de 3,0 m e uma altura de 0,3 m e foram solicitadas em flexão em 4 pontos e testadas até a rotura. A técnica CREatE provou ser a mais eficaz das três alternativas testadas mobilizando a totalidade do CFRP e apresentando a maior capacidade resistente e a ductilidade mais elevada.

Pacheco, J, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2018.  Avaliação dos resultados de resistência à compressão de betão pronto produzido em centrais portuguesas, 7 a 9 de novembr. Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural - BE2018. :10., LNEC, Lisboa, Portugal Abstract

Este artigo avalia se, para especificações de betão correntes, a resistência à compressão de betão pronto é significativamente dependente da central que o produziu, bem como se a variabilidade entre amassaduras de uma determinada composição é dependente da classe de resistência especificada. É apresentado um parâmetro probabilístico que converte a resistência à compressão característica especificada para a resistência à compressão expectável em provetes de betão cúbicos em condições padronizadas.É feita uma análise estatística e probabilística dos resultados de ensaios de resistência à compressão aos 28 dias de betão pronto produzido em três centrais de betão portuguesas durante o ano de 2017. Após a avaliação da representatividade da base de dados analisada, é feito um estudo comparativo dos parâmetros estatísticos dos dados de produção das diferentes centrais e é avaliada a influência da classe de resistência à compressão do betão nestes parâmetros. Define-se e analisa-se um parâmetro probabilístico que converte a resistência à compressão especificada para a resistência potencial de betão, para cubos de 150 mm. Este parâmetro contribui para uma futura proposta de um modelo probabilístico, a ser utilizado em análises de fiabilidade, que converte a resistência à compressão especificada para a resistência à compressão de elementos de betão em obra.Quer a análise estatística dos ensaios de resistência à compressão, quer o parâmetro de conversão são comparados com os resultados de investigações internacionais na área, aferindo-se se a qualidade da produção de betão pronto nacional é semelhante à de outras regiões.

Chastre, C.  2014.  Materiais e tecnologias de reforço de estruturas de betão - potencialidade e limitações, 2014. REHABEND 2014 - Congresso Latinoamericano "Patología de la construcción, Tecnología de la rehabilitacíon y gestión del patrimonio".. , Santander Abstractcarlos_chastre__-_rehabend2014_-_santander.pdf

O desenvolvimento da engenharia de estruturas tem tido grandes avanços nas últimas décadas, baseados em novos meios de cálculo e na investigação em novos materiais e tecnologias a eles associadas. Por sua vez, as atividades de reparação e reforço têm vindo a incrementar devido ao envelhecimento e à degradação das estruturas de betão, o que consequentemente tem dado origem ao aparecimento de novos materiais e tecnologias de reparação e reforço de estruturas. A utilização destes novos materiais na construção tem vindo a substituir outros materiais e técnicas existentes, requerendo, no entanto, mais estudos sobre o seu real comportamento quer em termos de caracteristicas mecânicas quer em termos de durabilidade.

Chastre, C, Biscaia H, Franco N, Monteiro A.  2016.  Experimental Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Innovative Techniques, 13-16 September . 41th IAHS Word Congress of Housing. Sustainability and Innovation for the Future. :10., Albufeira, Portugal Abstract41_iahs_2016_-_carlos_chastre-ext-abstract.pdf

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with FRP materials has received a considerable increment in recent years due to their durability characteristics, high strength-weight and stiffness-weight ratios of FRP compared to other materials.An experimental program was conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of different structural solutions to strengthen reinforced concrete beams with carbon FRP composites: EBR (Externally-Bonded Reinforcement), NSM (Near Surface Mounted) reinforcement and an innovative technique externally-bonded using continuous reinforcement embedded at ends (CREatE). The RC beams had a 3m span by 0.3m height and were tested until rupture in a 4-point bending test system.The CREatE technique has proved to be the most effective of the three alternatives tested, with the full utilisation of the CFRP and the highest strength, combined with the highest ductility.

Pacheco, JN, de Brito J, Chastre C, Evangelista L.  2019.  Towards the structural codification of recycled aggregate concrete, March 5-8, 2019. UKIERI Concrete Congress. Concrete: The Global Builder. , Jalandhar, Punjab, India Abstract

This paper analyses the studies made so far on the variability and reliability of recycled aggregate concrete. Since recycled aggregate concrete is seen by different agents of the construction industry as a variable material and no structural code has specifically been calibrated to its use, its role as a structural material is limited. Such calibration is hindered since specific research on the statistical and probabilistic data of recycled aggregate concrete properties is lacking.Investigations on the probabilistic knowledge of recycled aggregates and recycled aggregate concrete properties are discussed, and the studies made so far on the reliability of recycled aggregate concrete elements are summarised. Final remarks regarding the future prospects towards the consensual acceptance of recycled aggregate concrete structures are provided.

Conference Proceedings

Biscaia, H, Silva MG, Chastre C.  2008.  Caracterização Experimental e Modelação Numérica da Ligação GFRP/Betão. 7º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental. , Vila Real: UTAD Abstract
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Faria, G, Lúcio V, Chastre C, Nunes A.  2010.  Estudo do comportamento à compressão de compósitos de madeira e cimento. Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2010. , Lisboa: LNEC Abstract
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Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C, Bras A.  2012.  UFRG – Unidirectional fibre reinforced grout as strengthening material for reinforced concrete structures. BEFIB2012 – Fibre reinforced concrete. , Guimarães: UMinho Abstract

The present study is part of an extensive research project, where the main objective is to evaluate a strengthening solution for reinforced concrete structures using a small thickness jacketing in the compression side of the RC element with unidirectional fiber reinforced grout - UFRG.
For this purpose a high performance cementitious grout reinforced with continuous and unidirectional non woven fibermat has been developed. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. Besides, for continuous fibers (with an aspect ratio, defined as the length-to-diameter ratio, l/d=∞), the composite should attain higher tensile strength since the fiber embedment length is enough to prevent fiber pullout.
The experimental campaign included a set of preliminary tests that allowed the design of the fiber reinforced grout, sustained with rheological parameters [7] and mechanical characterization tests of the materials.
Finally, an experimental campaign was carried out in order to proceed to the mechanical characterization of the unidirectional fiber reinforced grout. Compressive tests were conducted in small thickness tubular specimens that enable the determination of the compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity of the material. The tensile strength of the material was obtained using splitting tests of cubic specimens (according the standard DIN 1048-5). The experimental results are presented and analyzed.

Chastre, C, Silva MG.  2008.  Reinforced Concrete Columns Jacketed with FRP Composites and Subjected to Cyclic Horizontal Loads. International Conference CCC2008 - Challenges for Civil Construction. , Porto: FEUP Abstract
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Ludovico-Marques, M, Chastre C, Vasconcelos G.  2010.  Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares. 8º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental. , Guimarâes: UMinho Abstract
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Silva, M. A. G., Biscaia HC, Chastre C.  2012.  Degradação da aderência entre compósitos de GFRP e betão devido a condições ambientais severas. Betão Estrutural 2012. , Porto: FEUP Abstractsilva2012bich_-_be2012_-_feup.pdf

A degradação da ligação entre compósitos de matriz polimérica reforçada por fibras (FRP) e o betão é uma das principais causas de possível rotura das vigas e lajes de betão armado reforçadas
externamente por compósitos de FRP. Desde há mais de 10 anos que se estuda, por isso, na UNL o
comportamento dessa ligação, integrado em programa mais alargado de estudo da durabilidade deste tipo de reforço, especialmente quando sujeito a condições ambientais severas que se simulam por processos artificialmente acelerados no laboratório. Em particular a degradação da aderência e o possível descolamento precoce do reforço têm sido modelados física e computacionalmente com principal incidência no uso de fibras de vidro (GFRP) e resina epoxídica. Nesta comunicação mostram-se resultados obtidos em termos de capacidade de carga, força transmitida ao reforço e tensões de aderência após envelhecimentos de pequenas vigas de betão armado (BA) por ciclos de nevoeiro salino, ciclos seco/molhado em solução salina, ciclos de temperatura entre +7,5ºC e +47,5ºC e gelo-degelo de -10ºC a +30ºC. Faz-se recomendação quanto à extensão máxima para diferentes envelhecimentos. Apresenta-se comparação entre resultados de modelação numérica e experimental.

Lucas, D., Biscaia HC, Silva MAG, Chastre C.  2012.  Factores que influenciam o desempenho da ligação GFRP/betão. Betão Estrutural 2012. , Porto: FEUP Abstractlucas2012bisich_-_be2012.pdf

Os compósitos de FRP podem descolar prematuramente da superfíce de betão, isto é, antes de esgotada a sua resistência elástica. Esta situação é mais provável se não forem tidos em conta factores como o tipo de preparação da superfície, a exposição a acção ambiental severa, e a resistência do próprio betão. Com o objectivo de analisar a influência de parte destes factores no desempenho da ligação compósito de fibra de vidro (GFRP) e betão, empreendeu-se uma campanha experimental baseada em ensaios de corte duplo. Os resultados permitiram determinar e comparar as forças máximas transmitidas ao GFRP e tensões de aderência máxima para diferentes tratamentos de superfície e condições de envelhecimento. Foram também determinadas aproximações para curvas de tensão de aderência vs. deslizamento (bond-slip). Os resultados obtidos são contrastados com resultados obtidos por modelação numérica.

Reguengo, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2008.  Ligação Pilar - Fundação com Armaduras Salientes do Pilar, em Estruturas Pré-Fabricadas. 2º Congresso Nacional de Pré-Fabricação em Betão. , Lisboa: ANIPB Abstractreguengo2008luch_-_2_cnp_-_lnec.pdf

A ligação pilar-fundação tem um papel fundamental no comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas, em particular, na presença de acções horizontais, como a acção dos sismos e do vento, que introduzem esforços elevados na base dos pilares. Um dos sistemas de ligação pilar-fundação usados em estruturas pré-fabricadas consiste em deixar na extremidade inferior dos pilares armaduras salientes que são introduzidas em negativos executados nas fundações. Estes negativos são posteriormente injectados com grout para garantir a ligação. No presente trabalho foram estudadas diferentes soluções de negativos para ligação das armaduras do pilar à fundação, tendo sido realizados ensaios monotónicos para analisar o seu comportamento. Nesta comunicação apresentam-se e discutem-se os resultados obtidos da análise experimental efectuada.

Almeida, G, Biscaia H, Chastre C, Fonseca J, Melício F.  2010.  Displacement Estimation of a RC beam test based on TSS algorithm. CISTI'2010 - 5ª Conferencia Ibérica de Sistemas y Tecnologías de Información. , Santiago de Compostela Abstract

The traditional methodology used in civil engineering measurements requires a lot of equipment and a very complex procedure especially if the number of target points increase. Since the beginning of the current century, several studies have been conducted in the area of photogrametry using digital image
correlation associated with block motion algorithms to estimate displacements in reinforced concrete (RC) beams during a load test. Using image processing techniques it is possible to measure the whole area of interest and not only a few points of the tests materials. In this paper, block-matching algorithms are used in order to compare the results from photogrametry techniques and the data obtained with linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT) sensors during the load tests of RC beams, which are very common to find in civil engineering laboratories.

Reguengo, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2008.  Ligação Pilar - Fundação em Estruturas Pré-Fabricadas. Estudo experimental. Seminário SILE’08. , Lisboa: Fundação FCTUNL Abstract
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Carvalho, T, Chastre C, Biscaia H, Paula R.  2010.  Flexural Behaviour of RC T-Beams Strengthened with Different FRP Materials. The Third International fib Congress and Exhibition "Think Globally, Build Locally", . , Washington DC: fib Abstract

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with FRP materials has received a
considerable increment in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight
ratios of FRP compared to other materials.
An experimental programme was conducted in order to analyse the behaviour of different
structural solutions to strengthen reinforced concrete beams with FRP composites (EBR
GFRP, EBR CFRP, NSRM-CFRP) and is described. The RC T beams had a 3m span by 0.3m
height and were tested until rupture in a 4-point bending test system.
The NSMR technique has proved to be the most effective of the three alternatives tested, as it
obtained high strength, combined with high ductility. Nevertheless, all the systems show
great strength increment in relation to the non retrofitted T-beams, proving to be effective
approaches to the flexural strengthening of RC beams.

Reguengo, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2008.  Ligação pilar – fundação com armaduras salientes do pilar, em estruturas pré-fabricadas – Ensaios monotónicos e ensaios cíclicos. Betão Estrutural 2008. , Guimarães: UMinho Abstractreguengo2008luch_-_be2008.pdf

A ligação pilar-fundação tem um papel fundamental no comportamento das estruturas pré-fabricadas,
em particular, na presença de acções horizontais, como a acção dos sismos e do vento. Um dos sistemas de ligação pilar-fundação usados em estruturas pré-fabricadas consiste em deixar na extremidade inferior dos pilares armaduras salientes que são introduzidas em negativos executados nas fundações, sejam elas sapatas ou maciços de encabeçamento de estacas. Estes negativos são posteriormente injectados com “grout” para garantir a ligação. Foram estudados diferentes soluções de negativos para ligação das armaduras do pilar na fundação. Foram realizados ensaios monotónicos e cíclicos, para analisar não só o comportamento às acções estáticas mas também para a acção sísmica. No presente trabalho apresentam-se os resultados obtidos com a análise experimental efectuada. O estudo realizado permite apresentar recomendações para projecto e quais os tipos de ligações com melhor desempenho.

Biscaia, H, Silva MG, Chastre C.  2009.  Bond GFRP-Concrete under environmental exposure. 15th International Conference on Composite Structures ICCS 15. , Porto: FEUP Abstractbiscaia2009sich_-_iccs15.pdf

Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) are often used to strengthen RC structures.
Despite intense research, durability of reinforced concrete (RC) retrofitted with FRP remains insufficiently known. Long time behavior of the bond laminate-concrete, in flexural strengthening, under environmental action is not well known, conditioning Codes and engineers. An experimental program that subjected RC beams, externally reinforced with Glass FRP (GFRP) strips, to temperature and salt water cycles, for up to 10000h is reported.
At selected intermediate times, the RC beams were loaded to failure in bending. Rupture took place, normally, by tensile failure of concrete at a short distance from the interface with GFRP. The results showed that freeze-thaw cycles were the most severe of the environmental
conditions. The study also generated also non-linear bond-slip relationships from the experimental data. Numerical modeling has been undertaken, based on a commercial code.
The model is based on smeared cracking. Parameters needed for the characterization, namely cohesion and friction angle, were obtained from shear tests conceived for the effect.

Gião, R, Lúcio V, Chastre C.  2012.  Seismic Strengthening of RC Beam-Column Connections. 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. , Lisbon Abstract

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Journal Article

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2012.  Double shear tests to evaluate the bond strength between GFRP/concrete elements. Composite Structures. 94:681-694., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

Externally bonded reinforced systems have been widely used in civil engineering. However, the problems associated with bond between structural elements are not yet fully solved. As a consequence, many researchers have been proposing tests and techniques to standardize procedures and reach better agreement for design purposes. In the present paper, an experimental program is described that was developed to characterize the glass FRP/concrete interface by double shear tests made on 15 cm side cubes with GFRP bonded on two opposite faces. The GFRP wrap had two layers applied by the wet lay-up technique and three classes of concrete were considered. With the support of the experimental program, cohesion and friction angle for GFRP–concrete interfaces were found leading to different envelope failure laws, based on the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for each concrete class, capable of predicting GFRP debonding. Results are discussed.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Viegas A.  2015.  A new discrete method to model unidirectional FRP-to-parent material bonded joints subjected to mechanical loads, 3//. Composite Structures. 121:280-295. AbstractWebsite

Nowadays fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites play an important role in the strengthening of structures. Different methods can be used to apply these materials: the externally bonded reinforcement (EBR), and the near surface mounted (NSM) using strips and NSM rods. There are only a few studies comparing these methods or presenting an efficient model to simulate these strengthening techniques. This study looks mainly at the analysis of the interface between FRP-to-parent material bonded joints. The paper examines, through a new discrete model based on axial and shear springs, the performance of FRP-to-parent material bonded joints for EBR or NSM techniques using strips or composite rods. In order to implement the model a routine in MATLAB was developed and several bond–slip curves were assumed. The results revealed that load–slip curves or bond stresses, strains or slippages along the bonded length obtained from several bond–slip curves are similar to the analytical and other numerical solutions found in literature. In what concerns the adhesion between two different materials, and assuming the same bond characteristics for the three fiber strengthening techniques, the NSM system using FRP strips had the highest maximum load transmitted to the FRP strip combined with the lowest effective bond length. The results obtained from the proposed model were also very accurate with that obtained from an analytical solution found in literature that simulates the debonding phenomenon of FRP-to-concrete interfaces between to adjacent cracks.

Biscaia, HC, Cruz D, Chastre C.  2016.  Analysis of the debonding process of CFRP-to-timber interfaces, 6/15/. Construction and Building Materials. 113:96-112. AbstractWebsite

The use of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) in the strengthening of timber structures is quite recent and few studies have discussed the debonding between these materials. The analysis of the Mode II debonding process between FRP composites and timber elements may be of great importance because this mode is predominant in the case, for instance, of the bending of beams. Knowing the appropriate bond-slip model to use on the estimation of the performance of FRP-to-timber interfaces is greatly relevant. Under such circumstances, a detailed knowledge of all the states that CFRP-to-timber interfaces are subjected to is important as well. The current work gives answers to these aspects proposing an analytical solution based on a tri-linear bond-slip model that is capable of describing precisely the full-range debonding behavior of FRP-to-timber interfaces. Thus, the purpose of this study is to contribute to existing knowledge with an analytical solution capable of describing the full-range debonding process between a FRP composite and a substrate. The analytical solutions herein proposed are also compared with the results obtained from several experiments based on single-lap shear tests. Comparisons at different load levels and different bonded lengths are presented. The slips, strains in the CFRP composite and bond stress distributions within the bonded interface are emphasized in the text. The complete load-slip response of CFRP-to-timber interface is also analyzed. Each state of the debonding process is described and each one is identified in the load-slip curve.

Biscaia, H, Micaelo R, Chastre C, Cardoso J.  2018.  Cyclic loading behaviour of double strap bonded joints with CFRP and aluminium. Key Engineering Materials . Abstract

The adhesively bonded joints behaviour under cyclic loading is not yet well understood due to its inherent complexity. Numerical approaches appear, therefore, as the easiest way to simulate such mechanical behaviour. In this work, double strap bonded joints with Carbon Fibres Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) and aluminium are numerically simulated and subjected to a cyclic loading history. In the numerical simulation, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) is used and it is assumed cohesive bi-linear bond-slip models with local damage of the interface. The evaluation of the bonded joints under cyclic loading is made by comparing the results with those simulated with a monotonic loading.

Marques, PF, Chastre C, Nunes Â.  2013.  Carbonation service life modelling of RC structures for concrete with Portland and blended cements. Cement and Concrete Composites. 37:171-184. Abstractmarques_chastre_et_al._2013.pdfWebsite

The presented work aims at studying the modelling of long term performance of concrete compositions with different proportions of clinker as regards the diffusion of CO2 in concrete – carbonation. The replacing constituents of clinker that will be part of the binder in each concrete composition are limestone filler and low calcium fly ash (FA). The used percentage of FA by weight of binder was of 50%. Concrete compositions were made following standard prescribed requirements to attain service lives of 50 and 100 years as regards concrete performance against reinforcing steel corrosion. Test results of compressive strength and carbonation depth are reported at different curing ages of 28, 90, 180 and 365 days. Carbonation results were used for the implementation of modelling equations in order to estimate the design service life regarding reinforcing steel corrosion. Two performance-based methods were used: safety factor method and probabilistic method, and their results compared with the traditional prescriptive approach. At the age of 28 days the composition with OPC is the only one that reaches the target periods of 50 or 100 years. For the probabilistic method, different curing age results were analysed. For the tested results at 90, 180 and 365 days of age the reliability of some of the compositions with blended cements is within the minimum required, although still far from the higher performance of concrete with OPC.

Biscaia, HC, Chastre C, Silva MAG.  2013.  A smeared crack analysis of reinforced concrete T-beams strengthened with GFRP composites, 11//. Engineering Structures. 56:1346-1361. AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with laminates of fibre reinforced polymeric (FRP) matrix has received considerable attention, although there still is lack of information on the more adequate modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete. An experimental programme is described and was designed to: (i) characterise glass FRP-to-concrete interface by shear tests; (ii) analyse reinforced concrete T-beams with external GFRP plates. Double shear tests were carried out based on 15 cm cubes with GFRP bonded to two opposite faces. The concrete T-beams were 3.0 m long and 0.28 m high and were loaded till rupture in 4-point bending tests. The external reinforcement system showed great strength increment in relation to the non retrofitted T-beam, confirming to be an effective approach to the flexural strengthening of RC beams. The computational analysis was based on a three dimensional smeared crack model. In total, 22 computational analyses were made. Models with and without interface FE associated with Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for the FRP-to-concrete interface were defined and different strength types of concrete were considered. The rigid interface does not predict the rupture of the T-beam with precision; however, the results obtained for low concrete strengths revealed that rigid interfaces can be assumed when conjugated with the fixed crack approach. Consequently, a slightly stiffer response of the beam is obtained. The maximum bond stresses obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) revealed that the models with rigid interfaces developed lower bond stresses due to the lack of relative displacements between both materials. The effects of assuming either fixed or rotated crack approaches were also compared. The rotated crack conjugated to a fine mesh in the vicinity of the GFRP-to-concrete stress led to a very good estimation of the bond stresses along the interface. The prediction of the T-beam rupture was also estimated with better results when the rotated crack was used in the model. In general, the FEA predicted with very good results the de-bonding of the GFRP-to-concrete interface of T-beams externally bonded with GFRP composites.