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2014
Tschopp, E., Mateus O., Kosma R., Sander M., Joger U., & Wings O. (2014).  A specimen-level cladistic analysis of Camarasaurus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) and a revision of camarasaurid taxonomy. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014, 241-242.tschopp_et_al._2014_a_specimen-level_cladistic_analysis_of_camarasaurus.pdf
Ribeiro, V., Mateus O., Holwerda F., Araújo R., & Castanhinha R. (2014).  Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology. 26(2), 206-217. Abstractribeiro_et_al_2014_theropod_eggs_nest_portugal.pdfWebsite

Two new Late Jurassic (uppermost Late Kimmeridgian) dinosaur eggshell sites are described, Casal da Rola and Porto das Barcas, both near Lourinha˜, central-west Portugal. Casal da Rola yields eggshells with an obliquiprismatic morphotype comparable to those from a nest with the associated fossil embryos from Paimogo, tentatively assigned to the theropod Lourinhanosaurus antunesi. The Porto das Barcas eggshells have a dendrospherulitic morphotype with a prolatocanaliculate pore system. This morphotype was also recognised in eggshells from a clutch with associated Torvosaurus embryos at the Porto das Barcas locality. A preliminary cladistic analysis of eggshell morphology suggests theropod affinities for the Casal da Rola eggs, but is unable to resolve the phylogenetic position of the Porto das Barcas eggs. The eggshells at both sites are preserved in distal flood plain mudstones and siltstones. Carbonate concretions within the deposits indicate paleosol development.

Mateus, O., Mannion P. D., & Upchurch P. (2014).  Zby atlanticus, a new turiasaurian sauropod (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34(3), 618-634. Abstractmateus_et_al_2014_zby_atlanticus.pdfWebsite

Here we describe a new partial sauropod skeleton from the late Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) of the Lourinhã Formation, central west Portugal. The closely associated specimen comprises a complete tooth (with root), a fragment of cervical neural arch, an anterior chevron, and an almost complete right pectoral girdle and forelimb. The new sauropod, Zby atlanticus, n. gen. et sp., can be diagnosed on the basis of four autapomorphies, including a prominent posteriorly projecting ridge on the humerus at the level of the deltopectoral crest. Nearly all anatomical features indicate that Zby is a non-neosauropod eusauropod. On the basis of several characters, including tooth morphology, extreme anteroposterior compression of the proximal end of the radius, and strong beveling of the lateral half of the distal end of the radius, Zby appears to be closely related to Turiasaurus riodevensis from approximately contemporaneous deposits in eastern Spain. However, these two genera can be distinguished from each other by a number of features pertaining to the forelimb. Whereas previously described Late Jurassic Portuguese sauropods show close relationships with taxa from the contemporaneous Morrison Formation of North America, it appears that turiasaurians were restricted to Europe. All adult sauropods recovered in the Late Jurassic of Portugal thus far are very large individuals: it is possible that the apparent absence of small- or medium-sized adult sauropods might be related to the occupation of lower-browsing niches by non-sauropods such as the long-necked stegosaur Miragaia longicollum.

Strganac, C., Salminen J., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn M. J., Ferguson K. M., Mateus O., Schulp A. S., Morais M. L., Tavares T. S., & Gon?alves A. O. (2014).  Carbon isotope stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar age of the cretaceous South Atlantic coast, Namibe Basin, Angola. Journal of African Earth Sciences. 99, 452-462., Number PA2 Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2014).  Comparison of modern and fossil Crocodylomorpha eggs and contribution to the oophylogeny of Amniota. Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. , p. 192, Regione Piemonte: European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali. Abstract
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Russo, J., Mateus O., Balbino A., & Marzola M. (2014).  Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunica\\c cões Geológicas. 101, Especial I, 563-566. Abstract
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Russo, J., Mateus O., Balbino A., & Marzola M. (2014).  Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunica\\c cões Geológicas. 101, Especial I, 563-566. Abstract
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Russo, J., Mateus O., Balbino A., & Marzola M. (2014).  Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunica\\c cões Geológicas. 101, Especial I, 563-566. Abstract

We here present fossil Crocodylomorpha eggshells from the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation of Portugal, recovered from five sites: one nest from Cambelas with 13 eggs, and three partial eggs and various fragments from, Paimogo N (I), Paimogo S (II), Casal da Rola, and Peralta. All specimens but the nest were found in association with dinosaur egg material. Our research reveals that on a micro- and ultrastructural analysis, all samples present the typical characters consistent with crocodiloid eggshell morphotype, such as the shell unit shape, the organization of the eggshell layers, and the triangular blocky extinction observed with crossed nicols. We assign the material from the Lourinhã Formation to the oofamily Krokolithidae, making it the oldest crocodylomorph eggs known so far, as well as the best record for eggs of non- crocodylian crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, our study indicates that the basic structure of crocodiloid eggshells has remained stable since at least the Upper Jurassic.

Hendrickx, C., Mateus O., & Araújo R. (2014).  The dentition of Megalosauridae (Theropoda: Dinosauria). {APP}. : Polska Akademia Nauk Instytut Paleobiologii (Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences) AbstractWebsite
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Mateus, O. (2014).  Dinosaur taphonomy in the Lourinhã Formation (Late Jurassic, Portugal). International Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization. 60–61. Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2014).  Eggs and eggshells of crocodylomorpha from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014, 218., Number NA: Taylor & Francis Abstract
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Mateus, O., Butler R. J., Brusatte S. L., Whiteside J. H., & Steyer J. S. (2014).  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34, 970-975., Number 4 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Butler R. J., Brusatte S. L., Whiteside J. H., & Steyer J. S. (2014).  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34, 970–975., Number 4 Abstract
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Strganac, C., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn M. J., Mateus O., Myers T. S., Salminen J., May S. R., Araújo R., Ferguson K. M., Gon?alves A. O., Morais M. L., Schulp A. S., & da Silva Tavares T. (2014).  Geological setting and paleoecology of the Upper Cretaceous Bench 19 Marine Vertebrate Bonebed at Bentiaba, Angola. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences. 94, 121-136., Number 1 Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2014).  Gigantic jurassic predators. (Agile Libre, Ed.).52 Things You Should Know About Palaeontology. 56–57.: Agile Libre Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2014).  Gigantism of stegosaurian osteoderms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014, 145.: Taylor & Francis Abstract
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Araújo, R., Polcyn M. J., Lindgren J., Jacobs L. L., Schulp A. S., Mateus O., Gon?alves A. O., & Morais M. - L. (2014).  New aristonectine elasmosaurid plesiosaur specimens from the Early Maastrichtian of Angola and comments on paedomorphism in plesiosaurs. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences. 94, 93-108., Number 1 Abstract
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Araújo, R., Polcyn M. J., Schulp A. S., Mateus O., Jacobs L. L., Gon?alves A. O., & Morais M. - L. (2014).  A new elasmosaurid from the early Maastrichtian of Angola and the implications of girdle morphology on swimming style in plesiosaurs. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences. 94, 109-120., Number 1 Abstract
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Marinheiro, J., Mateus O., Alaoui A., Amani F., Nami M., & Ribeiro C. (2014).  New Quaternary fossil sites from the Middle Atlas of Morocco. Comunica\\c cões Geológicas. 101, Especial I, 485-488. Abstract

The paleontological richness of Morocco has been scientifically known since at least the early 20th century. The region of the Middle Atlas, more specifically the Boulemane area, has been however only sparsely studied since the 1960s when it provided vertebrate fossils from the Middle Jurassic. In September 2013, a Moroccan-Portuguese expedition to the village of Taghrout, Boulemane, made excavations in a Pleistocene fossil site that once was a small high-altitude sedimentary basin, uncharted in previous geological maps. The excavations yielded bone material from large mammals, the most common findings are elephants ascribed to Elephas, but artiodactyls, turtles, and in-situ Acheulean tools were also collected. This represents a new and important paleontological and archeological site. In addition to the discoveries of Taghrout, the expedition also retrieved Quaternary vertebrate material from a nearby cave and found new Jurassic localities, with arcosaur bones and dinosaur footprints, in El Mers.

Marinheiro, J., Mateus O., Alaoui A., Amani F., Nami M., & Ribeiro C. (2014).  New Quaternary fossil sites from the Middle Atlas of Morocco. Comunicações Geológicas. 101, 485–488., Number Especial I: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Abstract
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Marinheiro, J., Mateus O., Alaoui A., Amani F., Nami M., & Ribeiro C. (2014).  New quaternary fossil sites from the middle atlas of morocco,Novas jazidas fossilíferas do Quaternário do Médio-Atlas de Marrocos. Comunicacoes Geologicas. 101, 485-488. Abstract
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Polcyn, M. J., Jacobs L. L., Araújo R., Schulp A. S., & Mateus O. (2014).  Physical drivers of mosasaur evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 400, 17-27. Abstract
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Salminen, J., Dinis J., & Mateus O. (2014).  Preliminary Magnetostratigraphy for the Jurassic–Cretaceous Transition in Porto da Calada, Portugal. {STRATI} 2013. 873–877.: Springer Science $\mathplus$ Business Media Abstract
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Young, M. T., Hua S., Steel L., Foffa D., Brusatte S. L., Thüring S., Mateus O., Ruiz-Omeñaca J. I., Havlik P., Lepage Y., & De Andrade M. B. (2014).  Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia). Royal Society Open Science. 1, , Number 2 Abstract
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Strganac, C., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn M. J., Ferguson K. M., Mateus O., Gon?alves A. O., Morais M. - L., & da Silva Tavares T. (2014).  Stable oxygen isotope chemostratigraphy and paleotemperature regime of mosasaurs at Bentiaba, Angola. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences. 94, 137-143., Number 1 Abstract
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Ribeiro, V., Mateus O., Holwerda F., Araújo R., & Castanhinha R. (2014).  Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology. 26, 206-217., Number 2 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Dinis J., & Cunha P. (2014).  Upper Jurassic to Lowermost Cretaceous of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal-landscapes where dinosaurs walked. Ciências da Terra, special. , Number 8 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Mannion P. D., & Upchurch P. (2014).  Zby atlanticus, a new turiasaurian sauropod (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34, 618-634., Number 3 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Mannion P. D., & Upchurch P. (2014).  Zby atlanticus, a new turiasaurian sauropod (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34, 618–634., Number 3 Abstract
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2013
Araújo, R., Castanhinha R., Martins R. M. S., Mateus O., Hendrickx C., Beckmann F., Schell N., & Alves L. C. (2013).  Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports. 3, , may: Nature Publishing Group AbstractWebsite
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Mateus, O., Neto de Carvalho C., & Klompmaker A. A. (2013).  Decapod crustacean body and ichnofossils from the Mesozoic of Portugal. 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans. , 25–27 June 2013, Warszawa: Polish Geological Institute − National Research Institute & AGH University of Science and Technologymateus_et_al_2013_crustacea_mesozoic_portugal_5th_decapod_crustaceans_meeting_2013.pdf
Araújo, R., Castanhinha R., Martins R. M. S., Mateus O., Hendrickx C., Beckmann F., Schell N., & Alves L. C. (2013).  Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports. 3(1924), , 2013/05/30/onlin: Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved Abstractaraujo_et_al_2013_filling_the_gaps_of_dinosaur_eggshell_phylogeny_late_jurassic_theropod_clutch_with_embryos_from_portugal.pdf

The non-avian saurischians that have associated eggshells and embryos are represented only by the sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Coelurosauria (derived theropods), thus missing the basal theropod representatives. We report a dinosaur clutch containing several crushed eggs and embryonic material ascribed to the megalosaurid theropod Torvosaurus. It represents the first associated eggshells and embryos of megalosauroids, thus filling an important phylogenetic gap between two distantly related groups of saurischians. These fossils represent the only unequivocal basal theropod embryos found to date. The assemblage was found in early Tithonian fluvial overbank deposits of the Lourinhã Formation in West Portugal. The morphological, microstructural and chemical characterization results of the eggshell fragments indicate very mild diagenesis. Furthermore, these fossils allow unambiguous association of basal theropod osteology with a specific and unique new eggshell morphology.

Pais, {J. J. C. }, Kullberg {J. C. R. }, de} Melo {J. M. D. J., Mateus O., & de} Almeida {J. A. (2013).  Arrábida - al-rábita. , 1: Associação de Municípos da Região de Lisboa Abstract

The publication of the present work - rightly designated as the book of Arrabida's nomination file for inscription on the World Heritage list - has for all of us a special significance as it represents, in a sense, the culmination of a complex, challenging and rewarding process. As is widely known, the Arrábida is included since 2004 in UNESCO's Portuguese tentative list, with AMRS being one of this process' promoters. It wouldn't be appropriate to describe here all the details, but it is fair to say that since 2004 to the present day, we've come a long way in recovering and valuing the Arrábida. It is with sincere satisfaction that we can say: our knowledge of the Property is now deeper, up to date and much more accurate, doing justice to the exceptional values contained within the Arrábida - which is well expressed in the work now published, based on researches and works of the highest scientific value. This is also a regional development project, to value our lands, people and the natural and cultural heritage. The Setúbal's Peninsula is a region that contains within its territory a vast natural and cultural heritage, being the Arrábida one of the most beautiful and significant natural areas in the Mediterranean. The Arrábida Mountain is a place with its own identity, being the result of a long history of Man's adaptation to Nature. It is a place of unmistakable aesthetic beauty, a unique place where nature and culture intertwine; it is a place of contrasts, of land and sea, sky and mountains, a place of combined actions by Man and Nature. Place of vibrant social practices, of rituals and festivals, of knowledge, of representations and expressions, of instruments, objects and artifacts. Place with a history that must be preserved and bequeathed to future generations. Place with monuments of vanished civilizations, but also of living traditions. These are some of the values supporting the Arrábida's nomination for the World's Heritage list. It is a complex and demanding nomination file, which this work is an illustrative sample of. A mixed application - as it includes both the natural and cultural heritage - which, given the richness and uniqueness of the Property in question, is fully justified. It is our profound conviction that this Nomination streamlines the potential of our region, bringing benefits not only to the local population, but also to the whole country. To that extent, it is also a sign of hope and confidence showing that it is possible to build a different future; that by investing in our people, in their abilities, knowledge and traditions, it is possible to create a sustainable development; that is possible to leave for future generations a legacy of which we are proud of having worked on. To be able enjoy this magnificent edition is a step in that direction.

da} Rocha, {R. E. B., Kullberg {J. C. R. }, & Mateus O. (2013).  A Bacia Lusitaniana: Estratigrafia, Paleogeografia e Tectónica. (Dias, Araújo, R., A, Terrinha, P., Kullberg, {J. C.}, Ed.).Geologia de Portugal no contexto da Ibéria. 195–347., 1: Escolar Editora Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2013).  Cabinda revisited: age and environment of new Cenozoic vertebrate fossils from northern Angola. 45, , 1 Abstract

In the early 20thcentury, Belgian naturalists reported Paleocene and Eocene sharks, the bothremydid pleurodiran turtleTaphosphrys(formerlyBantuchelys), and a neosuchian and the dyrosaurid crocodyliformCongosaurusfrom coastal outcrops near Landana in the northern province of Cabinda, Angola. In 1935, rare and fragmentary mammals were reported from strata at Malembo Point, south of Landana, and originally considered to be Miocene in age. Subsequent re-identification of the mammal fossils suggested that the Malembo deposits are Lower Oligocene based on the presence of an arsinoithere and hyracoids. An anthropoid canine, originally identified as a carnivore incisor, was also recognized. In four recent expeditions to Cabinda, Projecto PaleoAngola has traced and measured the stratigraphy between Landana and Malembo Point and sampled these deposits for pollen, stable isotopes, detrital zircons, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and for U/Pb dating of bones, teeth, and coprolites. Although the faunas from all Cabinda localities are dominated by sharks and rays, new discoveries from Landana include a complete cheloniid cryptodire turtle skull, a small snake vertebra, and a bird bone. Discoveries from the Malembo level include a narrow-snouted crocodyliform similar toCongosaurusandEuthecodon, an arsinoithere anterior tooth, an upper molar similar to that of the ptolemaiidanKelba, an unidentified mammalian incisor, and a large primate-like premolar. Recent biostratigraphic advances in East Africa and the new fossil discoveries in Cabinda suggest similarity to late Oligocene faunas in Ethiopia and Kenya, although the large primate-like premolar is unique. To this day, the fossil localities of Malembo provide the only coastal, low latitude, low elevation record of West African Cenozoic terrestrial mammals. https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2013AM/webprogram/Paper232115.html

Mateus, O. (2013).  Cathetosaurus as a valid sauropod genus and comparisons with Camarasaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 173., 1 Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2013).  Decapod crustacean body and ichnofossils from the Mesozoic of Portugal. NA, , 1 Abstract

Book of abstracts of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Decapod Crustaceans

Mateus, O. (2013).  First definitive association between embryonic Allosaurus bones and prismatoolithus eggs in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic, Wyoming, USA). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 101., 1 Abstract

Despite more than a century of collecting, resulting in one of the best-studied vertebrate fossil records anywhere in the world, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation has produced surprisingly few examples of dinosaur eggs associated with embryonic remains. Even more puzzling, none of these seem to pertain to the theropod Allosaurus, one of the most common and best-understood dinosaur taxa in the formation. Here we report on a dinosaur nest site that has produced both abundant prismatoolithid eggshell and embryonic (or perinatal) bones of Allosaurus from Fox Mesa, Wyoming. This represents the first such discovery for any theropod in the Jurassic of North America. The nest is heavily weathered but contains a few ellipsoid eggshell clusters that suggest an egg size of about 8 x 6.5 cm. Study of the eggshell morphology and microstructure confirms that a single egg type is present throughout, which is indistinguishable from Prismatoolithus coloradensis. All of the identifiable embryonic materials pertain to theropods, and two premaxillae specimens show the five alveoli diagnostic for Allosaurus among Morrison theropods. This confirms the theropod origin of Prismatoolithus eggs and implicates Allosaurus as the specific Morrison parent taxon. As a result, it is now possible to assign several previous discoveries of dinosaur eggs and potential nests to Allosaurus, including the isolated egg from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry. This discovery also calls into question prior assignments of Prismatoolithus eggs to ornithopods, and suggests that more detailed study of such sites is warranted. Prismatoolithus eggshells are also associated with the Upper Jurassic theropod Lourinhanosaurus from Portugal, along with larger embryos that exhibit four premaxillary alveoli.

Coelho,(ed)C., & et al (2013).  Arrábida - al-rábita. , Lisboa, 229 pp.: Associação de Município da Região de Setúbal
Kullberg, J. C., Rocha R. B., Soares A. F., Rey J., Terrinha P., Azerêdo A. C., Callapez P., Duarte, L.V., Kullberg M. C., Martins L., Miranda J. R., Alves C., Mata J., Madeira J., Mateus O., Moreira M., & Nogueira C. R. (2013).  A Bacia Lusitaniana: Estratigrafia, Paleogeografia e Tectónica. (Dias, R. Araújo, A, Terrinha, P. and Kullberg, J. C., Ed.).Geologia de Portugal no contexto da Ibéria. Volume II. 195-350., Lisboa: Escolar Editorakullberg_et_al_2013_a_bacia_lusitaniana.pdf
Bianucci, G., Miján I., Lambert O., Post K., & Mateus O. (2013).  Bizarre fossil beaked whales (Odontoceti, Ziphiidae) fished from the Atlantic Ocean floor off the Iberian Peninsula. Geodiversitas. 35(1), 105-153. Abstractbianucci_et_al_2013_fossil_beaked_whales_iberian_peninsula.pdf

Forty partial fossil skulls belonging to beaked whales (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Ziphiidae) were collected by trawling and long-line fishing on Neogene (probably Late Early to Middle Miocene) layers of the Atlantic floor off the coasts of Portugal and Spain (Asturias and Galicia). e systematic study of the most diagnostic Iberian specimens, those preserving the rostrum and the dorsal part of the cranium, led to the recognition of two new genera (Globicetus n. gen. and Imocetus n. gen.) and four new species (Choneziphius leidyi n. sp., G. hiberus n. gen., n. sp., I. piscatus n. gen., n. sp., and Tusciziphius atlanticus n. sp.).
Based on the matrix of a previous work, the phylogenetic analysis places all the new taxa in the subfamily Ziphiinae Gray, 1850. More fragmentary specimens are tentatively referred to the genera Caviziphius Bianucci & Post, 2005 and Ziphirostrum du Bus, 1868. Among these new ziphiids, extremely bizarre skull morphologies are observed. In G. hiberus n. gen., n. sp. the proximal portion of the rostrum bears a voluminous premaxillary spheroid. In T. atlanticus n. sp. a medial premaxillary bulge is present on the rostrum; together with asymmetric
rostral maxillary eminences at the rostrum base, this bulge displays various degrees of elevation in different specimens, which may be interpreted as sexual dimorphism. Specimens of I. piscatus n. gen., n. sp. bear two sets of even crests: spur-like rostral maxillary crests and longitudinal maxillary crests laterally bordering a wide and long facial basin. A preliminary macroscopic observation of these elements indicates very dense bones, with a compactness comparable with that of cetacean ear bones. Questioning their function, the high medial rostral elements (the premaxillary spheroid of G. hiberus n. gen., n. sp. and the medial bulge of T. atlanticus n. sp.) remind the huge rostral maxillary crests of adult males of the extant Hyperoodon ampullatus (Forster, 1770). In the latter, the crests are very likely related to head-butting. However, they are made of much more spongy bone than in the fossil taxa studied here, and therefore possibly better mechanically suited for facing impacts. Other interpretations of these unusual bone specializations, related to deep-diving (ballast) and echolocation (sound reflection), fail to explain the diversity of shapes and the hypothetical sexual dimorphism observed in at least part of the taxa. e spur-like rostral maxillary crests and long maxillary crests limiting the large facial basin in I. piscatus n. gen., n. sp. and the excrescences on the maxilla at the rostrum base in Choneziphius spp. are instead interpreted as areas of origin for rostral and facial muscles, acting on the nasal passages, blowhole, and melon. From a palaeobiogeographic point of view, the newly described taxa further emphasize the differences in the North Atlantic (including Iberian Peninsula) and South African Neogene ziphiid faunal lists. Even if the stratigraphic context is poorly understood, leaving open the question of the geological age for most of the dredged specimens, these differences in the composition of cold to temperate northern and southern hemisphere fossil ziphiid faunas may be explained by a warm-water equatorial barrier.

Jacobs, L. L., Myers T. S., Goncalves A. O., Graf J. F., Jacobs B. F., KAPPELMAN J. W., Mateus O., Polcyn M. J., RASBURY E. T., & Vineyard D. P. (2013).  Cabinda revisited: age and environment of new Cenozoic vertebrate fossils from northern Angola. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 45, No. 7, p.0.