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Mateus, O. (2010).  Evolutionary major trends of ornithopod dinosaurs teeth.. (J Calvo, J Porfiri, Y, {D Dos Santos BGR}, Ed.).Dinosaurios y paleontología desde América Latina,. 25–31 pp.., 1: EDIUNC Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2016).  Exemplos bizarros de evolução em dinossauros e alguns casos portugueses. Do Big Bang ao Homem. 81-95., Porto: U.Porto Ediçõesmateus_2016_capitulo_livro_dinosaurs.pdf
Mateus, O. (2016).  Exemplos bizarros de evolucão em dinossauros e alguns casos portugueses. Do Big Bang ao Homem. 81–95.: U.Porto Edicões Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2016).  Exemplos bizarros de evolução em dinossauros e alguns casos portugueses. Do Big Bang ao Homem. 81-95., Porto: U.Porto Edi{\c c}ões Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2016).  Exemplos bizarros de evolução em dinossauros e alguns casos portugueses. Do Big Bang ao Homem. 81-95., Porto Abstract
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Polcyn, M. J., Bardet N., Amaghzaz M., Gonçalves O. A., Jourani E., Kaddumi H. F., Lindgren J., Mateus O., Meslouhf S., Morais M. L., Pereda-Suberbiola X., Schulp A. S., Vincent P., & Jacobs L. L. (2016).  An extremely derived plioplatecarpine mosasaur from the Maastrichtian of Africa and the Middle East. 5th Triennial Mosasaur Meeting- a global perspective on Mesozoic marine amniotes. 16-20(May 16-20, 2016), May 16-20, 2016., Uppsala, Sweden: Museum of Evolutiom, Uppsala University. Abstractpolcyn_et_al_2016_extremely_derived_mosasaur.pdf

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Polcyn, M. J., Bardet N., Amaghzaz M., Gon{\c c}alves O. A., Jourani E., Kaddumi H. F., Lindgren J., Mateus O., Meslouhf S., Morais M. L., Pereda-Suberbiola X., Schulp A. S., Vincent P., & Jacobs L. L. (2016).  An extremely derived plioplatecarpine mosasaur from the Maastrichtian of Africa and the Middle East. 5th Triennial Mosasaur Meeting- a global perspective on Mesozoic marine amniotes. 16-20, May 16-20, 2016., Uppsala, Sweden: Museum of Evolutiom, Uppsala University. Abstract

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Polcyn, M. J., Bardet N., Amaghzaz M., Gon\{\c c\}alves O. A., Jourani E., Kaddumi H. F., Lindgren J., Mateus O., Meslouhf S., Morais M. L., Pereda-Suberbiola X., Schulp A. S., Vincent P., & Jacobs L. L. (2016).  An extremely derived plioplatecarpine mosasaur from the Maastrichtian of Africa and the Middle East. 5th Triennial Mosasaur Meeting- a global perspective on Mesozoic marine amniotes. 16-20, May 16-20, 2016., Uppsala, Sweden Abstract
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Polcyn, {M. J. }, Bardet N., Amaghzaz M., Gonçalves {A. O. }, Jourani E., Kaddumi {H. F. }, Lindgren J., Mateus O., Meslouhf S., & Morais {M. L. } (2016).  An extremely derived plioplatecarpine mosasaur from the Maastrichtian of Africa and the Middle East. 32–33. Abstract
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Araújo, R., Castanhinha R., Martins R. M. S., Mateus O., Hendrickx C., Beckmann F., Schell N., & Alves L. C. (2013).  Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports. 3(1924), , 2013/05/30/onlin: Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved Abstractaraujo_et_al_2013_filling_the_gaps_of_dinosaur_eggshell_phylogeny_late_jurassic_theropod_clutch_with_embryos_from_portugal.pdf

The non-avian saurischians that have associated eggshells and embryos are represented only by the sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Coelurosauria (derived theropods), thus missing the basal theropod representatives. We report a dinosaur clutch containing several crushed eggs and embryonic material ascribed to the megalosaurid theropod Torvosaurus. It represents the first associated eggshells and embryos of megalosauroids, thus filling an important phylogenetic gap between two distantly related groups of saurischians. These fossils represent the only unequivocal basal theropod embryos found to date. The assemblage was found in early Tithonian fluvial overbank deposits of the Lourinhã Formation in West Portugal. The morphological, microstructural and chemical characterization results of the eggshell fragments indicate very mild diagenesis. Furthermore, these fossils allow unambiguous association of basal theropod osteology with a specific and unique new eggshell morphology.

Araújo, R., Castanhinha R., Martins R. M. S., Mateus O., Hendrickx C., Beckmann F., Schell N., & Alves L. C. (2013).  Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Scientific Reports. 3, , may: Nature Publishing Group AbstractWebsite
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Carrano, M., Mateus O., & Mitchell J. (2013).  First definitive association between embryonic Allosaurus bones and prismatoolithus eggs in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic, Wyoming, USA). Annual Meeting of Vertebrate Paleontology. 101.: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts, 2013 Abstractcarrano_mateus_mitchell_2013_allosaurus_embryos_morrison_svp_abstract.pdf

Despite more than a century of collecting, resulting in one of the best-studied vertebrate fossil records anywhere in the world, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation has produced surprisingly few examples of dinosaur eggs associated with embryonic remains. Even more puzzling, none of these seem to pertain to the theropod Allosaurus, one of the most common and best-understood dinosaur taxa in the formation. Here we
report on a dinosaur nest site that has produced both abundant prismatoolithid eggshell and embryonic (or perinatal) bones of Allosaurus from Fox Mesa, Wyoming. This represents the first such discovery for any theropod in the Jurassic of North America. The nest is heavily weathered but contains a few ellipsoid eggshell clusters that suggest an egg size of about 8 x 6.5 cm. Study of the eggshell morphology and microstructure confirms that a single egg type is present throughout, which is indistinguishable from Prismatoolithus coloradensis. All of the identifiable embryonic materials pertain to theropods, and two premaxillae specimens show the five alveoli diagnostic for Allosaurus among Morrison theropods. This confirms the theropod origin of Prismatoolithus eggs and implicates Allosaurus as the specific Morrison parent taxon. As a result, it is now possible to assign several previous discoveries of dinosaur eggs and potential nests to Allosaurus, including the isolated egg from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry. This discovery
also calls into question prior assignments of Prismatoolithus eggs to ornithopods, and suggests that more detailed study of such sites is warranted. Prismatoolithus eggshells are also associated with the Upper Jurassic theropod Lourinhanosaurus from Portugal, along with larger embryos that exhibit four premaxillary alveoli.

Mateus, O. (2013).  First definitive association between embryonic Allosaurus bones and prismatoolithus eggs in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic, Wyoming, USA). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 101., 1 Abstract

Despite more than a century of collecting, resulting in one of the best-studied vertebrate fossil records anywhere in the world, the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation has produced surprisingly few examples of dinosaur eggs associated with embryonic remains. Even more puzzling, none of these seem to pertain to the theropod Allosaurus, one of the most common and best-understood dinosaur taxa in the formation. Here we report on a dinosaur nest site that has produced both abundant prismatoolithid eggshell and embryonic (or perinatal) bones of Allosaurus from Fox Mesa, Wyoming. This represents the first such discovery for any theropod in the Jurassic of North America. The nest is heavily weathered but contains a few ellipsoid eggshell clusters that suggest an egg size of about 8 x 6.5 cm. Study of the eggshell morphology and microstructure confirms that a single egg type is present throughout, which is indistinguishable from Prismatoolithus coloradensis. All of the identifiable embryonic materials pertain to theropods, and two premaxillae specimens show the five alveoli diagnostic for Allosaurus among Morrison theropods. This confirms the theropod origin of Prismatoolithus eggs and implicates Allosaurus as the specific Morrison parent taxon. As a result, it is now possible to assign several previous discoveries of dinosaur eggs and potential nests to Allosaurus, including the isolated egg from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry. This discovery also calls into question prior assignments of Prismatoolithus eggs to ornithopods, and suggests that more detailed study of such sites is warranted. Prismatoolithus eggshells are also associated with the Upper Jurassic theropod Lourinhanosaurus from Portugal, along with larger embryos that exhibit four premaxillary alveoli.

Adams, T. L., Polcyn M. J., Mateus O., Winkler D. A., & Jacobs L. L. (2011).  First occurrence of the long-snouted crocodyliform Terminonaris (Pholidosauridae) from the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) of Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31, 712-716., Jan: So Methodist Univ, Univ Nova Lisboa Abstractadams_polcyn_mateus_et_al_2011_terminonaris_crocodile_pholidosauridae.pdf

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Adams, T. L., Polcyn M. J., Mateus O., Winkler D. A., & Jacobs L. L. (2011).  First occurrence of the long-snouted crocodyliform Terminonaris (Pholidosauridae) from the Woodbine Formation (Cenomanian) of Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31, 712-716., Number 3 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Butler R. J., Brusatte S. L., Whiteside J. H., & Steyer S. J. (2014).  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34(4), 970-975.mateus_et_al_2014_first_phytosaur_algarve_portugal_jvp.pdfWebsite
Mateus, O., Butler R. J., Brusatte S. L., Whiteside J. H., & Steyer J. S. (2014).  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34, 970-975., Number 4 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Butler R. J., Brusatte S. L., Whiteside J. H., & Steyer J. S. (2014).  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34, 970–975., Number 4 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Dyke G., Motchurova-Dekova N., Ivanov P., & Kamenov G. D. (2010).  The first record of a dinosaur from Bulgaria. Lethaia. 43, 88-94., Jan Abstractmateus_et_al__2010_the_first_record_of_a_dinosaur_in_bulgaria._lethaia.pdfWebsite

A portion of a left humerus from the Upper Maastrichtian of Vratsa district (NW Bulgaria)
is shown to be from a non-avian theropod dinosaur: this is the first record of a
dinosaur from Bulgaria. We describe this bone, suggest that it most likely pertains to an
ornithomimosaur, and discuss the fossil record of other similar taxa of Late Cretaceous
age that have been reported from Europe. To investigate the taphonomy of this fossil,
rare earth element (REE) analysis is combined with strontium (Sr) isotope data to confirm
that this Bulgarian dinosaur bone was initially fossilized in a terrestrial environment,
then later re-worked into late Maastrichtian marine sediments.

Mateus, O., Dyke G. A. J., Motchurova-Dekova N., Kamenov G. D., & Ivanov P. (2010).  The first record of a dinosaur from Bulgaria. Lethaia. 43, 88-94., Number 1 Abstract
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Campos, H., & Mateus O. (2018).  The first record of placodonts in Portugal and its chronological and paleoecological implications. XVI Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. 38.: Abstract book of the XVI Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists, Caparica, Portugal June 26th-July 1st, 2018. Abstractcampos__mateus_2018_eavp_abstract.pdf

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Campos, H., & Mateus O. (2018).  The first record of placodonts in Portugal and its chronological and paleoecological implications. XVI Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. 38.: Abstract book of the XVI Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists, Caparica, Portugal June 26th-July 1st, 2018. Abstract

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Mateus, O., & Milan J. (2010).  First records of crocodyle and pterosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Portugal.. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 51, 83-87., Jan Abstractmateus_and_milan_2010_portugal_first_records_of_crocodyle_and_pterosaur_tracks_in_the_upper_jurassic_of_portugal.pdfWebsite

The Upper Jurassic of Portugal has a rich vertebrate fauna well documented from both body and trace fossils. Although the occurrence of crocodyles and pterosaurs is well documented from body fossils, trace fossils from both groups were unknown until now. Here we describe an isolated crocodyle-like track from Praia da Peralta and pterosaur tracks from the Kimmeridgian of Pedreira do Avelino, Sesimbra (Azóia Fm.) and Porto das Barcas, Lourinhã (Lourinhã Fm.). An enigmatic track suggests the possible presence of a small, tail-dragging tetrapod.
Possible track-makers are suggested based on the known Late Jurassic vertebrate fauna of Portugal.

Mateus, O. (2010).  First records of crocodyle and pterosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Portugal.. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 51, 83–87., 1, Number NA Abstract

The Upper Jurassic of Portugal has a rich vertebrate fauna well documented from both body and trace fossils. Although the occurrence of crocodyles and pterosaurs is well documented from body fossils, trace fossils from both groups were unknown until now. Here we describe an isolated crocodyle-like track from Praia da Peralta and pterosaur tracks from the Kimmeridgian of Pedreira do Avelino, Sesimbra (Azóia Fm.) and Porto das Barcas, Lourinhã (Lourinhã Fm.). An enigmatic track suggests the possible presence of a small, tail-dragging tetrapod. Possible track-makers are suggested based on the known Late Jurassic vertebrate fauna of Portugal.

Mateus, O. (2008).  Fósseis de transição, elos perdidos, fósseis vivos e espécies estáveis. (Levy, et al, Ed.).Evolução: História e Argumentos. 77-96., Lisboa: Esfera do Caosmateus_2008_evolucao_fosseis_de_transicao.pdf
Pereira, T., Mateus O., & Moreno-Azanza M. (2018).  Fossil amphibians from Portugal. 1st Palaeontological Virtual Congress. online. Abstractpereira_et_al_2018_amphibians_portugal.pdf

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Pereira, T., Mateus O., & Moreno-Azanza M. (2018).  Fossil amphibians from Portugal. 1st Palaeontological Virtual Congress. online. Abstract

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Mallison, H., Schwarz-Wings D., Tsai H., Holliday C., & Mateus O. (2014).  Fossil longbone cartilage preserved in stegosaurs?. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014, 176.mallison_et_al._2014_fossil_longbone_cartilage_preserved_in_stegosaurs.pdf
Mateus, O., Callapez P. M., Polcyn M. J., Schulp A. S., Gonçalves A. O., & Jacobs L. L. (2019).  The Fossil Record of Biodiversity in Angola Through Time: A Paleontological Perspective. (Huntley, Brian J., Russo, Vladimir, Lages, Fernanda, Ferrand, Nuno, Ed.).Biodiversity of Angola: Science & Conservation: A Modern Synthesis. 53–76.: Springer International Publishing Abstractmateus2019_chapter_thefossilrecordofbiodiversityi.pdf

This chapter provides an overview of the alpha paleobiodiversity of Angola based on the available fossil record that is limited to the sedimentary rocks, ranging in age from Precambrian to the present. The geological period with the highest paleobiodiversity in the Angolan fossil record is the Cretaceous, with more than 80{%} of the total known fossil taxa, especially marine molluscs, including ammonites as a majority among them. The vertebrates represent about 15{%} of the known fauna and about one tenth of them are species firstly described based on specimens from Angola.

Mateus, O., Callapez P. M., Polcyn M. J., Schulp A. S., Gonçalves A. O., & Jacobs L. L. (2019).  The Fossil Record of Biodiversity in Angola Through Time: A Paleontological Perspective. (Huntley, Brian J., Russo, Vladimir, Lages, Fernanda, Ferrand, Nuno, Ed.).Biodiversity of Angola: Science {&} Conservation: A Modern Synthesis. 53–76., Cham: Springer International Publishing Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the alpha paleobiodiversity of Angola based on the available fossil record that is limited to the sedimentary rocks, ranging in age from Precambrian to the present. The geological period with the highest paleobiodiversity in the Angolan fossil record is the Cretaceous, with more than 80{%} of the total known fossil taxa, especially marine molluscs, including ammonites as a majority among them. The vertebrates represent about 15{%} of the known fauna and about one tenth of them are species firstly described based on specimens from Angola.

Mateus, O., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn M. J., Myers T. S., & Schulp A. S. (2015).  The fossil record of testudines from angola from the turonian to oligocene. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Annual Meeting. 177., Dallasmateus_et_al_2015_testudines_angola_svp_abstract.pdf
Mateus, O., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn {M. J. }, Myers T. S., & Schulp A. S. (2015).  The fossil record of testudines from Angola from the Turonian to Oligocene. : Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Abstract
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Ribeiro, C., Callapez P. M., & Mateus O. (2018).  Fossil vertebrates in the paleontological collections of the Science Museum (University of Coimbra, Portugal). XVI Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. 163., Caparica, Portugal June 26th-July 1st, 2018: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa Abstractribeiro_et_al_2018_eavp_abstract.pdf

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Milàn, J., & Mateus O. (2003).  Fra strandbred til museum p{\aa} syv dage: historien om et gigantisk dinosaur fodspor. Varv. 8–14., Number 2003/3 Abstract
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Polcyn, M. J., Jacobs L. L., Strganac C., Mateus O., Myers T. S., May S., Araújo R., Schulp A. S., & Morais M. L. (2014).  Geological and paleoecological setting of a marine vertebrate bonebed from the Lower Maastrichtian at Bentiaba, Angola. Secondary Adaptation of Tetrapods to Aquatic Life. , 2-4 Jun 2014, Washington DC, USA
Mateus, O. (2014).  Geological and paleoecological setting of a marine vertebrate bonebed from the Lower Maastrichtian at Bentiaba, Angola. Proceedings of the Secondary Adaptation of Tetrapods to Aquatic Life. NA., 1 Abstract

A single, geographically and temporally restricted horizon at Bentiaba, Angola (14.3° S), preserves a concentration of skeletons and isolated elements representing sharks, rays, bony fish, at least three species of turtles, two species of plesiosaurs, at least five species of mosasaurs, and rare volant and terrestrial forms. The concentration, referred to as the Bench 19 Fauna, formed on a narrow continental shelf at paleolatitude 24°S as predicted by paleomagnetic data and confirmed by plate motion models. The shelf evolved as a transform passive margin along faults associated with the opening of the South Atlantic. Latitude 24°S falls today along the coast of northern Namibia, an area of intense upwelling and hyperarid coastal desert. The Namibe Basin in southern Angola is separated from the Walvis Basin of Namibia by the Walvis Ridge, and the continental shelf in northern Namibia is eight times the width of that at Bentiaba. However, the sediment entombing the fossils at Bentiaba is an immature feldspathic sand, shown by detrital zircon ages to be derived from nearby exposed granitic shield rocks, suggesting similar climatic and drainage conditions between the two regions. Temporal control of the Bentiaba section is provided by magnetostratigraphy and stable carbon isotope chemostratigraphy anchored by an Ar40/Ar39radiometric date on basalt. The age of Bench 19 is constrained to chron C32n.1n and thus falls between 71.4 and 71.64 Ma. Massive bedding without hummocky cross-bedding or other sedimentary structures indicates deposition in shallow water below wave base. δ18O analysis of bivalve shells indicates a water temperature of 18° C immediately below Bench 19. Nearest neighbor distance peaks at 5 m (n=19

Strganac, C., Jacobs L., Polcyn M., Mateus O., Myers T., Araújo R., Fergunson K. M., Gonçalves A. O., Morais M. L., Schulp A. S., da Tavares T. S., & Salminen J. (2015).  Geological Setting and Paleoecology of the Upper Cretaceous Bench 19 Marine Vertebrate Bonebed at Bentiaba, Angola. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences. 94(1), 121-136. Abstractstrganac_et_al_2014_geological_setting_bentiaba_angola.pdfWebsite

The Bench 19 Bonebed at Bentiaba, Angola, is a unique concentration of marine vertebrates preserving six species of mosasaurs in sediments best correlated by magnetostratigraphy to chron C32n.1n between 71.4 and 71.64 Ma. The bonebed formed at a paleolatitude near 24°S, with an Atlantic width at that latitude approximating 2700 km, roughly half that of the current width. The locality lies on an uncharacteristically narrow continental shelf near transform faults that controlled the coastal outline of Africa in the formation of the South Atlantic Ocean. Biostratigraphic change through the Bentiaba section indicates that the accumulation occurred in an ecological time dimension within the 240 ky bin delimited by chron 32n.1n. The fauna occurs in a 10 m sand unit in the Mocuio Formation with bones and partial skeletons concentrated in, but not limited to, the basal 1–2 m. The sediment entombing the fossils is an immature feldspathic sand shown by detrital zircon ages to be derived from nearby granitic shield rocks. Specimens do not appear to have a strong preferred orientation and they are not concentrated in a strand line. Stable oxygen isotope analysis of associated bivalve shells indicates a water temperature of 18.5°C. The bonebed is clearly mixed with scattered dinosaur and pterosaur elements in a marine assemblage. Gut contents, scavenging marks and associated shed shark teeth in the Bench 19 Fauna indicate biological association and attrition due to feeding activities. The ecological diversity of mosasaur species is shown by tooth and body-size disparity and by δ13C analysis of tooth enamel, which indicate a variety of foraging areas and dietary niches. The Bench 19 Fauna was formed in arid latitudes along a coastal desert similar to that of modern Namibia on a narrow, tectonically controlled continental shelf, in shallow waters below wave base. The area was used as a foraging ground for diverse species, including molluscivorus Globidens phosphaticus, small species expected near the coast, abundant Prognathodon kianda, which fed on other mosasaurs at Bench 19, and species that may have been transient and opportunistic feeders in the area.

Strganac, C., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn M. J., Mateus O., Myers T. S., Salminen J., May S. R., Araújo R., Ferguson K. M., Gon?alves A. O., Morais M. L., Schulp A. S., & da Silva Tavares T. (2014).  Geological setting and paleoecology of the Upper Cretaceous Bench 19 Marine Vertebrate Bonebed at Bentiaba, Angola. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences. 94, 121-136., Number 1 Abstract
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Polcyn, M., Jacobs L., Strganac C., Mateus O., Myers S., May S., Araujo R., Schulp A., & Morais M. (2014).  Geology and paleoecology of a marine vertebrate bonebed from the lower Maastrichtian of Angola. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014, 206.polcyn_et_al._2014_geology_and_paleoecology_of_a_marine_vertebrate_bonebed_from_the_lower_maastrichtian_of_angola.pdf
Pereira, B., Mateus O., Kullberg J. C., & Rocha R. (2017).  The geotouristic potential of the Oeste Region of Portugal. 14th European Geoparks Conference | Abstracts Book 167. 167., Ponta Delgadapereira_et_al_2017_geotouristic_oeste.pdf
Pereira, B., Mateus O., Kullberg J. C., & Rocha R. (2017).  The geotouristic potential of the Oeste Region of Portugal. Abstract
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Mateus, O. (2014).  Gigantic Jurassic predators. 52 Things You Should Know About Palaeontology. 56-57.: Agile Libremateus_2014_gigantic_jurassic_predators.pdf
Mateus, O. (2014).  Gigantic jurassic predators. (Agile Libre, Ed.).52 Things You Should Know About Palaeontology. 56–57.: Agile Libre Abstract
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Hayashi, S., Redelstorff R., Mateus O., Watabe M., & Carpenter K. (2014).  Gigantism of stegosaurian osteoderms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014, 145.hayashi_et_al_2014_gigantism_of_stegosaurian_osteoderms.pdf