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Mateus, O., Maidment S. C. R., & Christiansen N. A. (2009).  A new long-necked {'}sauropod-mimic{'} stegosaur and the evolution of the plated dinosaurs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276, 1815-1821., Number 1663 Abstract
Mateus, O. (1998).  Dinossauros Portugueses. Caderno de resumos do I Congresso de Estudantes de Biologia. 13–13., Évora Abstract
Mateus, O., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn M. J., Schulp A. S., Neto A. B., & Antunes M. T. (2008).  Dinosaur and turtles from the Turonian of Iembe, Angola. Livro de Resumos de Tercer Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontologia de Vertebrados. 156., Neuquén, Argentina Abstractmateus_et_al_2008_dinosaur_and_turtles_from_the_turonian_of_iembe_angola.pdf


Mateus, O. (2016).  Late Jurassic of Morrison Formation and Portugal tetrapods compared: a model to explain faunal exchange and similarity. Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 185., Salt Late City Abstract
Mateus, O., Maidment S. C. R., & Christiansen N. A. (2008).  A new specimen aff. Dacentrurus armatus (Dinosauria: Stegosauridae) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Livro de Resumos de Tercer Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología de Vertebrados. 157–157., Neuquén, Argentina Abstract
Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2008).  Landmarks in the history of dinosaur paleontology in Portugal, focusing on skeletal remains. Abstract volume, Dinosaurs - A Historical Perspective, 6-7 may 2008. , London Abstract
Mateus, O., Polcyn M. J., Jacobs L. L., Araújo R., Schulp A. S., Marinheiro J., Pereira B., & Vineyard D. (2012).  Cretaceous amniotes from Angola: dinosaurs, pterosaurs, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, and turtles. V Jornadas Internacionales sobre Paleontología de Dinosaurios y su Entorno. 71-105., Salas de los Infantes, Burgos Abstractmateus_et_al_2012_amniotes_from_angola_cretaceous_amniotes_from_angola_dinosaurs_pterosaurs_mosasaurs.pdf

Although rich in Cretaceous vertebrate fossils, prior to 2005 the amniote fossil record of Angola was poorly known. Two horizons and localities have yielded the majority of the vertebrate fossils collected thus far; the Turonian Itombe Formation of Iembe in Bengo Province and the Maastrichtian Mocuio Formation of Bentiaba in Namibe Province. Amniotes of the Mesozoic of Angola are currently restricted to the Cretaceous and include eucryptodire turtles, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs, pterosaurs, and dinosaurs. Recent collecting efforts have greatly expanded our knowledge of the amniote fauna of Angola and most of the taxa reported here were unknown prior to 2005.

Mateus, O., Butler R. J., Brusatte S. L., Whiteside J. H., & Steyer J. S. (2014).  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34, 970-975., Number 4 Abstract
Mateus, O. (2007).  Notes and review of the ornithischian dinosaurs of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27, 114A-114A., Jan: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Abstractmateus_2007_notes_and_review_of_ornithichians_of_portugall.pdf

The record of ornithischian dinosaurs from Portugal is substantial but incomplete in terms of our understanding of taxonomic composition and details of the anatomy of many forms. New data and reinterpretation of these forms are provided. The basal thyreophoran from the Lower Jurassic (the nomen dubium “Lusitanosaurus liasicus”) is the most primitive dinosaur from Iberia. Concerning the Late Jurassic, new material from the Lourinhã Formation (Kimmeridgian/Tithonian) referable to the stegosaur Dacentrurus provides additional information on the systematic position and osteology.
The new material shows two rows of paired triangular plates, with a notch in the anterior rim. A maxillary of an ankylosaur from the Vale Frades (Lourinhã Fm.) is here reported, but cannot be referable to Dracopelta, the only ankylosaur genus currently known from Portugal. The ornithopod Alocodon kuehnei reported as Middle Jurassic (Callovian) is probably Oxfordian in age. A right dentary (ML768 from Zimbral) from the Lourinhã Formation, Kimmeridgian/Tithonian, and shares affinities with Dryosaurus but possesses more denticulation and no secondary ridges, suggesting the occurrence of a new or unreported species for the Late Jurassic of Portugal, which is here tentatively ascribed to aff. Dryosaurus sp. In summary, the Late Jurassic ornithischians species/genera from Portugal include Dacentrurus armatus, Stegosaurus cf. ungulatus, Dracopelta zbyszewskii, Phyllodon henkeli, Hypsilophodon sp., Alocodon kuehnei, Trimucrodon cuneatus, aff. Dryosaurus and Draconyx loureiroi. The Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian / Barremian) of Praia das Aguncheiras, in Cabo Espichel, provided a partial left maxillary (CPGP.1.99.7) of a basal iguanodontian that shows affinities with Camptosaurus, and is tentatively assigned to this genus. The maxillary teeth denticles differ from Iguanodon or other Iguanodontoidea because not show mammillations. More material is necessary to validate but, to be true, that would confirm the presence of this genus in the lower Cretaceous. The Iguanodon has been well reported in the Lower Cretaceous of Cabo Espichel.

Mateus, O., Morais M. L., Schulp A. S., Jacobs L. L., & Polcyn M. J. (2006).  The Cretaceous of Angola. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26, 96–97., Number (Suppl. T Abstract
Mateus, O. (2013).  Crocodylomorphs from the Mesozoic of Portugal and a new skull of eusuchian from the Late Cretaceous. 2013 Hwaseong International Dinosaurs Expedition Symposium, pp.66-67.. , Hwaseong, South Korea Abstractmateus_2013_crocodylomorphs_portugal_new_skull.pdf

The diversity of fossil crocodylomorphs in Portugal is high, with occurrence as old as Mystriosaurus (=Steneosaurus) bollensis from the Lower Jurassic. The Late Jurassic forms are the better documented, and include the following taxa: Machimosaurus hugii, Lisboasaurus estesi Seiffert, 1973, Lusitanisuchus mitrocostatus Seiffert, 1975; Schwarz & Fechner 2004, Theriosuchus guimarotae Schwarz and Salisbury 2005, Cf. Alligatorium, Goniopholis baryglyphaeus, and a crocodylomorph-like eggs in dinosaur nests (Mateus et al., 1998; Ricqlès et al., 2001). From the Lower Cretaceous were reported a few dinosaurs but its record is strangely scarce in crocodylomorphs (Mateus et al., 2011). The Upper Cretaceous crocodiles show a large diversity, but it is mostly based in fragmentary material that require revision, such as “Crocodylus” blavieri? Grey from the Upper Campanian - Maastrichtian of Viso, near Aveiro (initially reported by Sauvage 1897-98), Goniopholis cf. crassidens Owen 1841 and Oweniasuchus pulchelus Jonet 1981. Moreover there is a fascinating, but poorly understood, crocodylomorph diversity in the Cenomanian of Portugal, documented by fragmentary specimens that have been doubtfully assigned to Thoracosaurus Leidy 1852 of the Middle Cenomanian of Cacém, to the nomen dubium Oweniasuchus lusitanicus Sauvage 1897-98 (interpreted as a mesosuchian goniopholid) based in a fragmentary mandible from the Campanian-Maastrichtian, and also from the Middle Cenomanian of Portugal, Buffetaut and Lauverjat (1978) report an fragmentary unidentified possible dyrosaurid from Nazaré. All this specimens are too incomplete to be compared with the specimen here described. In contrast, Cenozoic crocodiles of Portugal are often known after complete skulls and several individuals. The taxa list include Iberosuchus macrodon (Lower to Middle Eocene), Tomistoma calaritanus (Early Miocene) and T. lusitanica (Burdigalian-Helvetian), and Diplocynodon sp. (Antunes, 1961, 1987, 1994).
At least, two different morphotypes of crocodylomorph eggs from the Late Jurassic of Lourinhã Formation are also known.
A new specimen here reported of crocodile based in a partial skull and mandible (ML1818) from the Uppermost Middle Cenomanian platform carbonates of Baixo Mondego, west central Portugal (Tentúgal Fm., Callapez, 2004). The taxon is phylogenetically positioned as a basal Eusuchia, due to the choanae enclosed by the pterygoid, and closely related with stem Crocodylia and Borealosuchus. This specimen represents the only well documented and valid eusuchian species in the Cenomanian of Europe and is the oldest representative of an eusuchian crocodylomorph, with the exception for the Barremian Hylaeochampsa vectiana.

Mateus, O. (1996).  Situação populacional de Hemidactylus turcicus em Évora-Portugal. Actas do IV Congresso Luso-Espanhol de Herpetologia. 45., Porto Abstractmateus_1996_population_situation_of_hemidactyus_turcicus_in_evora_portugal_iv_congresso_lusoespanhol_herpetologia.pdf

A survey of Hemidactylus turcicus L. (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) was carried out from March to October
of 1996, in temporally limited transects, using quadrats of 160x160 meters, in the World Heritage site
of Évora. Occasional observations were also made in 1995 and 1996. Hemidactylus turcicus is
common in the sampled area, occurring in 56% of the quadrats, and prefers quiet streets. The species
Tarentola mauritanica was not observed in Évora but it appears 10 Km to the Southwest of this town.
Diurnal activity and winter activity were not observed.

Mateus, O., Taquet P., Antunes M. T., Mateus H., & Ribeiro V. (1998).  Theropod dinosaur nest from Lourinhã, Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 18, 61A., Number (Suppl. 3) Abstractmateus_et_al_1998_theropod_dinosaur_nest_from_lourinha_portugal_svp.pdfWebsite

More than 100 well preserved dinosaur eggs have been discovered in the Upper Jurassic levels (Tithonian) of Lourinhã, Portugal. The eggshels dispersed in a big area with 11 meters in the highest diameter with high concentration in the middle.

Mateus, O., Callapez {P. M. }, & Puértolas-Pascual E. (2017).  The oldest Crocodylia? a new eusuchian from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Portugal. 160. Abstract
Mateus, O. (2009).  The Cretaceous Skeleton Coast of Angola. 29, , 1 Abstract
Mateus, O., & Jacinto J. J. (1998).  Activity Rithms and habitat of Hemidactylus turcicus (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) in Évora, Portugal. Boletin de ICIJA. 2, 37-43. Abstract
Mateus, O. (2016).  Exemplos bizarros de evolução em dinossauros e alguns casos portugueses. Do Big Bang ao Homem. 81-95., Porto: U.Porto Ediçõesmateus_2016_capitulo_livro_dinosaurs.pdf
Mateus, O. (2016).  Exemplos bizarros de evolução em dinossauros e alguns casos portugueses. Do Big Bang ao Homem. 81-95., Porto Abstract
Mateus, O. (2009).  The sauropod Turiasaurus riodevensis in the the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29, 144–144., Number 3 Abstract
Mateus, O., & Jacinto J. J. (2008).  Hemidactylus turcicus. (A Loureiro, N F de Almeida, M.A Carretero, O S Paulo, Ed.).Atlas dos Anfíbio e Répteis de Portugal. 134-135. Abstract
Mateus, O., & Milan J. (2010).  First records of crocodyle and pterosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Portugal.. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 51, 83-87., Jan Abstractmateus_and_milan_2010_portugal_first_records_of_crocodyle_and_pterosaur_tracks_in_the_upper_jurassic_of_portugal.pdfWebsite

The Upper Jurassic of Portugal has a rich vertebrate fauna well documented from both body and trace fossils. Although the occurrence of crocodyles and pterosaurs is well documented from body fossils, trace fossils from both groups were unknown until now. Here we describe an isolated crocodyle-like track from Praia da Peralta and pterosaur tracks from the Kimmeridgian of Pedreira do Avelino, Sesimbra (Azóia Fm.) and Porto das Barcas, Lourinhã (Lourinhã Fm.). An enigmatic track suggests the possible presence of a small, tail-dragging tetrapod.
Possible track-makers are suggested based on the known Late Jurassic vertebrate fauna of Portugal.

Mateus, O. (2012).  New dinosaur and pterosaur tracksites from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. , Chongqing, China: 2012 Abstract Book of Qijiang International Dinosaur Tracks Symposium Abstractmateus_2012_dinosaur_tracks_portugal__abstract_book_qijiang_int_dinosaur_tracks_symposium.pdf

Portugal is rich on dinosaur remains (bones, eggs, and tracks) from Early Jurassic to Late
Cretaceous ages, but mainly from the Late Jurassic, in which dozen of tracksites have been reported.
Here are reported new or poorly known track localities:
1) Five tracksites share the preservation substrate (marine carbonated limestone), age (late Jurassic), geographic area (Leiria district of Portugal), kind of preservation (true tracks), and completeness (trackways of multiple individuals):
i) Praia dos Salgados includes eight trackways, mostly ornithopods and theropods, and one wide gauge sauropod, made in very soft sediment; some preserve the hallux impression.
ii) Serra de Mangues is mostly covered with vegetation but seems to include dozens of tracks comprising theropods, thyreophorans, ornithopods and sauropods.
iii) Sobral da Lagoa (Pedreira do Rio Real) include six trackways but poorly preserved;
iv) Serra de Bouro that preserves four sauropod trackways in one single layer.
v) Pedrógão, preserved, at least, one theropod trackway and several isolated tracks of
theropods and ornithopods were found in different layers in the Early Oxfordian.
2) The locality in Praia de Porto das Barcas yielded natural casts of stegosaur tracks
(including pes print with skin impression) and a very large sauropod pes print with about
1.2 m long pes.
3) A new pterosaur tracksite was found in the Late Jurassic of Peralta, Lourinhã (Sobral Member, Lourinhã Fm.; Late Kimmeridgian/Early Tithonian). More than 220 manus and pes tracks have been collected in about five square meters, all ascribed to pterosaurs. The tracks were produced in a thin mud layer that has been covered by sand which preserved them as sandstone mould infill (natural casts). The manus of the largest specimens is 13 cm wide and 5.5 cm long and the pes measures 14.5 cm in length and 9 cm in width. This shows the occurrence of very large pterosaurs in the Late Jurassic. Other pterosaur tracksites in the Late Jurassic of Portugal are: Porto das Barcas (Lourinhã Municipality), South of Consolação (Peniche Municipality), and Zambujal de Baixo (Sesimbra Municipality).

Mateus, O. (2008).  Two ornithischian dinosaurs renamed: Microceratops Bohlin 1953 and Diceratops Lull 1905. Journal of Paleontology. 82, , Number 2 Abstract
Mateus, O. (2013).  Cathetosaurus as a valid sauropod genus and comparisons with Camarasaurus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 173., 1 Abstract
Mateus, O. (2009).  The sauropod dinosaur Turiasaurus riodevensis in the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29, 144A., Jan Abstractmateus_2009_sauropod_dinosaur_turiasaurus_portugal_svp09abstractspdf.pdfWebsite

A partial sauropod was found in 1996 in Vale Pombas, north of Lourinhã, Central West of Portugal, in the Lourinhã Formation, top of Amoreira Porto Novo member dated as c. 150 M.a. (Early Tithonian, Late Jurassic) and is currently housed at Museum of Lourinhã, in Portugal. The specimen (ML368) comprises a complete tooth with root, anterior chevron and almost complete right forelimb including partial scapula, complete coracoid, humerus, ulna, radius, metacarpals I, III and V, phalanx, and ungual phalanx I. It can be ascribed to Turiasaurus riodevensis, which was previously described from the Villar del Arzobispo
Formation at Riodeva (Teruel, Spain). Characters shared with T. riodevensis holotype include: curvature and asymmetry of tooth crown, expansion of crown, outline of humerus, medial deflection of the proximal end of humerus, shape and prominence of deltopectoral crest, vertical ridge in the distal half of the ulna (considered as diagnostic of Turiasauria), configuration of metacarpals, and bone proportions. It differs from T. riodevensis holotype by the smaller size and the more rectangular ungual phalanx in lateral view. The sediments from which the Riodeva specimen was recovered were previsouly thought to be Tithonian to Berriasian in age. The presence of this species in Portugal, in beds confidently dated as Early
Tithonian, may allow a more precise date for the Riodeva type locality of early Tithonian in age. The humerus of the Portuguese T. riodevensis is 152 cm long. Although shorter than the Spanish specimen (790 mm), it represents a large individual. All adult sauropods recovered in Portugal thus far are very large individuals: Dinheirosaurus (estimated body length is 20-25 m), Lusotitan (humerus length estimated to be 205 cm), Lourinhasaurus (femur length: 174 cm), and Turiasaurus here reported. The lack of of small or medium adult body-size sauropods in the Late Jurassic of Portugal, suggests browsing niches thought to be occupied by smaller forms, could be have been available for other dinosaurs, like the long necked stegosaur Miragaia longicollum.

Mateus, O. (2014).  Preliminary Magnetostratigraphy for the Jurassic–Cretaceous Transition in Porto da Calada, Portugal. (Rogério Rocha, João Pais, Kullberg, {José Carlos}, Stanley Finney, Ed.).STRATI 2013:First International Congress on Stratigraphy At the Cutting Edge of Stratigraphy. 873–877., 1: Springer International Publishing Switzerland Abstract

We present a stratigraphic log supporting a preliminary magnetostratigraphy of a Tithonian–Berriasian section in Porto da Calada (Portugal). Based on biostratigraphy and reversed and normal magnetostratigraphy, the location of the Tithonian–Berriasian boundary is tentatively located at ca. 52 m, not in disagreement with former proposals. Due to the occurrence of later remagnetization (diagenesis), the magnetostratigraphic definition of the Tithonian–Berriasian section at the Cabo Espichel (Portugal) location was not able to be established

Mateus, O., & Milan J. (2005).  Ichnological evidence for giant ornithopod dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal.. Abstract Book of the International Symposium on Dinosaurs and Other Vertebrates Palaeoichnology. 60., Fumanya, Barcelona Abstractmateus__milan_2005_footprint.pdf

The Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation contains a diverse dinosaur fauna comprising theropods, sauropods, stegosaurs, ankylosaurs and several genera of ornithopods.
The sedimentology in the area favours preservation of footprints, and footprints from most of the dinosaurs represented by skeletal remains are present in the area. During fieldwork in the summer of 2003 a new, large, tridactyl footprint was found at the beach of Vale Frades, approximately 6 km north of Lourinhã, Portugal. The footprint was found together with a stegosaur footprint on a clay bed exposed within the tidal zone. The footprints were preserved as sandstone casts standing on a pedestal of clay. This unusual type of preservation is the result of the footprints having first been emplaced in clay, and then filled with sand. During the present day erosion from the sea, the harder sandstone cast of the footprints protects the subjacent clay layers from erosion. Owing to the immediate danger of erosion of, the footprint was collected and is now on display at Museu da Lourinhã (ML 1000). The footprint is 70 cm long and 69 cm wide, the toes are short and broad, with indications of short blunt claws. The

divarication angle between the outer digits is close to 90 degrees. The dimensions and general

morphology of the footprint identifies it as deriving from an ornithopod dinosaur with an estimated hip height of 4.13 metres. Although very large ornithopods are known from the Cretaceous, the largest known Jurassic ornithopod is Camptosaurus from USA, and the largest known from Portugal is the camptosaurid Draconyx loureiroi. Neither of these reached the body size suggested by the new footprint. So far the footprint described herein is s the only evidence for a Jurassic ornithopod of that size.

Mateus, O., Marzola M., Schulp A. S., Jacobs L. L., Polcyn M. J., Pervov V., Gonçalves A. O. {\'ı}mpio, & Morais M. L. (2017).  Angolan ichnosite in a diamond mine shows the presence of a large terrestrial mammaliamorph, a crocodylomorph, and sauropod dinosaurs in the Early Cretaceous of Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 471, 220–232., apr: Elsevier {BV} AbstractWebsite
Mateus, O. (2010).  Colecções e museus de Geologia: missão e gestão. , 1: Ed. Universidade de Coimbra e Centro de Estudos de História e Filosofia da Ciência Abstract
Mateus, O., Antunes M. T., & Taquet P. (2001).  Dinosaur ontogeny : the case of Lourinhanosaurus (Late Jurassic, Portugal). J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 21, Abstract
Mateus, O. (1999).  Upper Jurassic dinosaurs of Lourinhã (Portugal). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19(Suppl. to 3), 62A., Number (Suppl. to 3)mateus_1999_upper_jurassic_lourinha_portugal_svp_1999_abstracts.pdfWebsite
Mateus, O. (2009).  Preparation techniques applied to a stegosaurian Dinosaur from Portugal. Journal of Paleontological Techniques. 5, 1–24., 1, Number NA Abstract
Mateus, O., & Milan J. (2008).  Sauropod forelimb flexibility deduced from deep manus tracks. 52th Paleontological Association Annual Meeting. 18th-21st December 2008,. 67-68.: University of Glasgow Abstractmateus__milan_2008_palass_sauropod_forelimb_flexibility_deduced_from_deep_manus_tracks.pdf

Sauropods are often considered to have very limited mobility and reduced limb flexibility, mainly due to their giant size and consequent weight. In the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, central-west Portugal, deep vertical natural casts of sauropod manus tracks are often preserved as the infills of the original tracks. These manus tracks are vertical-walled, with marks of the striations of the skin scales, showing that the movement of the sauropod manus impacting and exiting the mud was totally vertical with no horizontal component of the stride. Some tracks are up to 66 cm deep, which is equivalent to the height of whole sauropod manus. This means that sauropods could lift their anterior feet in a complete vertical manner. Such movement is only possible if there is mobility at elbow and shoulder articulations in a higher degree than previously thought for sauropods. Our vision of sauropod limbs as inflexible columns has to be updated to a more dynamic model for limbs and body.

Mateus, O. (1996).  Situação populacional de Hemidactylus turcicus em Évora-Portugal. Actas do IV Congresso Luso-Espanhol de Herpetologia. 45., Porto Abstract
Mateus, O. (2006).  The European Enigmatic Dinosaur Evolution [in Japanese]. The Gigantic dinosaur Expo 2006 (catalogue). 69-71.mateus_2006_european.pdf
Mateus, O., Dyke G., Motchurova-Dekova N., Ivanov P., & Kamenov G. D. (2008).  The Bulgarian dinosaur: did it exist? European late Cretaceous ornithomimosaurs. 56th Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy. 47–47., Dublin Abstract
Mateus, O., Neto de Carvalho C., & Klompmaker A. A. (2013).  Decapod crustacean body and ichnofossils from the Mesozoic of Portugal. 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans. , 25–27 June 2013, Warszawa: Polish Geological Institute − National Research Institute & AGH University of Science and Technologymateus_et_al_2013_crustacea_mesozoic_portugal_5th_decapod_crustaceans_meeting_2013.pdf
Mateus, O., Dyke G., Motchurova-Dekova N., Ivanov P., & Kamenov G. D. (2010).  The first record of a dinosaur from Bulgaria. Lethaia. 43, 88-94., Jan Abstractmateus_et_al__2010_the_first_record_of_a_dinosaur_in_bulgaria._lethaia.pdfWebsite

A portion of a left humerus from the Upper Maastrichtian of Vratsa district (NW Bulgaria)
is shown to be from a non-avian theropod dinosaur: this is the first record of a
dinosaur from Bulgaria. We describe this bone, suggest that it most likely pertains to an
ornithomimosaur, and discuss the fossil record of other similar taxa of Late Cretaceous
age that have been reported from Europe. To investigate the taphonomy of this fossil,
rare earth element (REE) analysis is combined with strontium (Sr) isotope data to confirm
that this Bulgarian dinosaur bone was initially fossilized in a terrestrial environment,
then later re-worked into late Maastrichtian marine sediments.

Mateus, O. (2012).  Evidence for presence of clavicles and interclavicles in sauropod dinosaurs and its implications on the furcula-clavicle homology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 184–185., 1 Abstract

Clavicles and interclavicles are plesiomorphically present in Reptilia. However, several groups show reduction or even loss of these elements. Crocodylimorpha, e.g., lost the clavicles, whereas dinosaurs are generally interpreted to only preserve the clavicles, the theropod furcula representing an unique case of fused clavicles. In sauropods, reports of clavicles are relatively frequent in non-titanosauriforms. These elements are elongated, curved, and rather stout bones with a spatulate and a bifurcate end. However, they were always found as single bones, and differ from the relatively short and unbifurcated clavicles found articulated with the scapulae of basal sauropodomorphs. Elements from the Howe Quarry (Late Jurassic; Wyoming, USA) shed new light on these interpretations. Besides the elongated, curved bones (herein named morphotype A), also pairs of symmetric, L-shaped bones were recovered (morphotype B), associated with diplodocid dorsal and cervical vertebrae. Elements resembling morphotype B - articulated between the scapulae - have recently been reported from a diplodocid found near Tensleep, Wyoming. Taphonomic evidence, as well as the fact that they were preserved in symmetrical pairs, therefore implies that morphotype B represents the true sauropod clavicles. Contrary to earlier reports, morphotype A elements from the Howe Quarry, as well as of previously reported specimens show a symmetry plane following the long axis of the elements. It is thus possible that the morphotype A elements were single bones from the body midline. The only such element present in the pectoral girdle of tetrapods are the interclavicle and the furcula. Comparison with crocodilian and lacertiform interclavicles indicates that the bifurcate end of the sauropod elements might represent the reduced transverse processes of the anterior end, and the spatulate end would have covered the coracoids or sternal plates ventrally. The presence of both clavicles and interclavicles in the pectoral girdle stiffens the anterior trunk, and enhances considerably its stability. Such an enforcement might have been needed in diplodocids due to the strong lateral forces induced to the fore-limbs by the posteriorly placed center of mass (due to shorter fore- than hind-limbs), as well as lateral movements of the enormously elongated necks and tails. The absence of clavicles and interclavicles in titanosauriforms coincides with the development of wide-gauge locomotion style. The presence of interclavicles in sauropods supports the recently proposed homology of the furcula with the interclavicle, instead of representing fused clavicles. Interclavicles were thus not lost, but may have remained cartilaginous or have yet to be found in basal dinosauriforms.

Mateus, O., Laven T., & Knotschke N. (2004).  A dwarf between giants?: A new late Jurassic sauropod from Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 23, 90., Number suppl. to 3 Abstract
Mateus, I., Mateus H., Antunes M. T., Mateus O., Taquet P., Ribeiro V., & Manuppella G. (1998).  Upper Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur embryos from Lourinhã (Portugal). Mem. Acad. Ciências de Lisboa. 37, 101-109. Abstractmateus_et_al_1998_-_upper_jurassic_theropod_dinosaur_embryos_from_lourinha_portugal_-_upper_jurassic_palaeoenvironments_in_portugal_ed._....pdfWebsite

Upper Jurassic nesting site from Paimogo (Lourinhã, Portugal) yielded the oldest dinosaur theropod embryos ever found. Numerous bones, including skull bones, from the skeleton of these embryos have been collected. The study of bones and embryos offers the possibility to learn more on the early life of theropod dinosaurs.

Mateus, O., and Dinis J., Cunha P. P., & and (2017).  The Lourinhã Formation: the Upper Jurassic to lower most Cretaceous of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal – landscapes where dinosaurs walked. Ciências da Terra - Earth Sciences Journal. 19, 75–97., sep, Number 1: {NOVA}.{ID}.{FCT} AbstractWebsite
Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2002).  Novos vestígios de dinossauros saurópodes do Jurássico Superior da Lourinhã (Portugal). Congresso Ibérico de Herpetologia. , Évora Abstract
Mateus, O., & Antunes M. T. (2000).  Late Jurassic dinosaurs of Portugal.. Abstracts of the 1st Symposium of European Dinosaurs, p.18. , Dusseldorf, Germany. Abstractmateus__antunes_2000_late_jurassic_dinosaurs_of_portugal_dusseldorf_2000.pdf


Mateus, O. (2009).  DINOSAUR EGGSHELL AND EMBRYO LOCALITIES IN LOURINHA FORMATION, LATE JURASSIC, PORTUGAL. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29, 76A–76A., 1 Abstract