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Ligações em superfícies curvas entre compósitos de FRP e betão sujeitas a temperaturas elevadas, Biscaia, Hugo, Chastre Carlos, Silva Manuel, and Franco Noel , Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2016, 2-4 November 201, FCTUC, Coimbra, Portugal, p.13, (2016) Abstractbe_2016_paper_109_biscaia.pdf

O reforço estrutural com materiais de matriz polimérica reforçada com fibras (FRP) em diferentes tipos de elementos estruturais, e.g. pilares, vigas, lajes ou arcos, tem sido objecto de vários estudos. No entanto, os estudos sobre a avaliação da aderência entre ligações coladas em superfícies curvas são muito limitados, não se conhecendo trabalhos, quer analíticos ou numéricos, que se debrucem ainda sobre o efeito da temperatura neste tipo de ligações coladas. Todavia, os trabalhos disponíveis na literatura indicam, de forma unânime, que o descolamento do FRP da superfície curva exige a interacção entre os modos de fractura I e II. Neste sentido, o presente estudo propõe o desenvolvimento de uma solução analítica simples para simular ligações CFRP/betão com superfícies curvas de raio constante e que assumem ambas, isoladamente ou simulataneamente, as acções: (i) aplicação de uma força ao FRP; e (ii) uma a variação de temperatura. Dependendo dos coeficientes de dilatação térmica linear dos materiais colados e para níveis de temperatura não muito superiores à temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg) do FRP, o efeito da temperatura pode ser, do ponto de vista da resistência da ligação, prejudicial ou benéfico, ou seja, pode diminir ou aumentar a capacidade resistente da ligação. Diferentes critérios de rotura são adoptados e diferentes situações, e.g. raio da curva ou diferentes níveis de temperaturas, são abordadas. A solução analítica pressupõe que a lei de aderência relativamente ao modo II de fractura depende da temperatura e é representada por um exponencial, enquanto que para o modo I se assume uma lei de aderência do tipo linear com rotura frágil e cuja influência da temperatura é feita de acordo com os mesmos pressupostos da lei exponencial.

Ligações rígidas em estruturas pré-fabricadas, Lúcio, Válter, and Chastre Carlos , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.137-166, (2012) Abstract
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Linear and nonlinear analysis of bond-slip models for interfaces between FRP composites and concrete, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 45, Number 1, p.1554-1568, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The paper analyses different analytical and numerical solutions for the debonding process of the FRP-to-concrete interface on shear tests with the FRP plate submitted to a tensile load in one of its ends. From the point of view of the state of the art, two different ways of finding the bond-slip curve from experiments are discussed and analysed. Essentially, three different linear bond-slip models, one exponential model and another power based function are employed in the numerical process. The results are analysed and compared. The differences found in the stress field along the interface, maximum load, maximum slip, ultimate slip, fracture energy and effective bond length are reported. The load-slip behaviour is also presented for the linear and non-linear models herein studied and the influence of the local bond-slip model on the debonding process is discussed. The numerical integration process used on the present study proved to be coherent with the analytical expressions determined for the linear bond-slip models and allowed to verify that maximum load transmittable to the FRP plate is influenced by the square root of the FRP stiffness and fracture energy even when nonlinear bond-slip models are assumed.

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Materiais e tecnologias de reforço de estruturas de betão - potencialidade e limitações, Chastre, Carlos , REHABEND 2014 - Congresso Latinoamericano "Patología de la construcción, Tecnología de la rehabilitacíon y gestión del patrimonio"., 2014, Santander, (2014) Abstractcarlos_chastre__-_rehabend2014_-_santander.pdf

O desenvolvimento da engenharia de estruturas tem tido grandes avanços nas últimas décadas, baseados em novos meios de cálculo e na investigação em novos materiais e tecnologias a eles associadas. Por sua vez, as atividades de reparação e reforço têm vindo a incrementar devido ao envelhecimento e à degradação das estruturas de betão, o que consequentemente tem dado origem ao aparecimento de novos materiais e tecnologias de reparação e reforço de estruturas. A utilização destes novos materiais na construção tem vindo a substituir outros materiais e técnicas existentes, requerendo, no entanto, mais estudos sobre o seu real comportamento quer em termos de caracteristicas mecânicas quer em termos de durabilidade.

Mechanical Response of Anchored FRP bonded joints: A Nonlinear Analytical Approach, Biscaia, Hugo, Chastre Carlos, Silva Cinderela, and Franco Noel , Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, (2018) Abstract

The paper presents a nonlinear analytical solution for the prediction of the full-range debonding response of mechanically-anchored FRP composites from the substrate. The nonlinear analytical approach predicts, for any monotonic loading history or bonded length the relative displacements (or slips) between materials, the strains in the FRP composite, the bond stresses within the interface and the stresses developed in the substrate. The load-slip responses FRP-to-substrate interfaces with a short and a long bonded lengths are motive of analysis and discussion. The solutions obtained from the proposed approach are also compared with other experimental results found in the literature.

Mechanical response of anchored FRP bonded joints: A nonlinear analytical approach, Biscaia, Hugo Charrinho, Chastre Carlos, Silva Cinderela, and Franco Noel , Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 2018/02/17, Volume 25, Number 3, p.238-252, (2018) AbstractWebsite

This article presents a nonlinear analytical solution for the prediction of the full-range debonding response of mechanically anchored, fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites from the substrate. The nonlinear analytical approach predicts, for any monotonic loading history or bonded length, the relative displacements (or slips) between materials, the strains in the FRP composite, the bond stresses within the interface, and the stresses developed in the substrate. The load-slip responses of FRP-to-substrate interfaces with short and long bonded lengths are motives of analysis and discussion. The solutions obtained from the proposed approach are also compared with other experimental results found in the literature.

Metodologia para a caraterização física e mecânica de edifícios históricos de pedra utilizando ensaios não destrutivos, Chastre, Carlos, and Ludovico-Marques Marco , TEST&E 2019 - 2º Congresso de Ensaios e Experimentação em Engenharia Civil, 19-20 February 2, ISEP, Porto, Portugal, p.12, (2019) Abstract

Os edifícios históricos como os palácios, castelos, igrejas e templos, são exemplos do património construído e constituem uma parte importante do nosso património cultural. Estas construções históricas incluem normalmente paredes de alvenaria maciça e pedra natural. A salvaguarda do património construído em pedra é de importância inquestionável, pelo que devem ser desenvolvidas e estudadas técnicas de intervenção adequadas em materiais e estruturas. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma metodologia de ensaios não destrutivos para avaliar a conservação de edifícios históricos de pedra e, com base nesta metodologia, é mostrado um caso de estudo na Igreja de São Leonardo, monumento português construído na Atouguia da Baleia no século XIII.

Model uncertainty of recycled aggregate concrete beams subjected to bending, Pacheco, J., de Brito J., Chastre C., and Evangelista L. , HISER International Conference on Advances in Recycling and Management of Construction and Demolition Waste, 21-22-23 June 20, Delft, The Netherlands, (2017) Abstract

This paper investigates whether the model uncertainty of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams subjected to bending differs from that of reinforced natural aggregate concrete (NAC) beams. An introductory remark concerning the importance of the codification of RAC structural design is made and notions concerning model uncertainties and their role on structural codification are given. Afterwards, the criteria used in the construction of a database of RAC and NAC beams are referred before presenting the key findings of an analysis on the model uncertainty of the cracking, yielding and ultimate moments of beams subjected to four-point bending tests. The analytical moments were calculated following Eurocode 2 provisions. Probabilistic models for model uncertainties are proposed. Negligible differences in the model uncertainty of NAC and RAC beams are reported.

Modelação de vigas de betão armado reforçadas à flexão com materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica, Biscaia, H. C., Chastre C., and Franco N. , JPEE2014 – 5ª Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia de Estruturas, Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2014., LNEC, Lisboa., (2014) Abstractartigo_jpee_biscaia_chastre_franco.pdf

Nas últimas décadas, os estudos sobre o desempenho de vigas de betão armado (BA) reforçadas com materiais compósitos de matriz polimérica têm aumentado. Porém, muitas dúvidas e questões persistem, fazendo realçar algumas lacunas sobre o conhecimento adquirido. Um desses aspetos reside na forma de modelar a ligação entre o compósito e o betão. É também sabido que a modelação da abertura de fendas no betão (discreta ou distribuída numa banda) influência o desempenho da ligação entre os materiais colados.
Nesse sentido, apresentam-se, neste trabalho, os resultados numéricos obtidos da modelação numérica não-linear a 3D de vigas de BA sujeitas a flexão de 4 pontos. Os resultados numéricos são confrontados com os experimentais e os diferentes parâmetros que influenciam a ligação analisados e discutidos.

Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares, Ludovico-Marques, M., Chastre C., and Vasconcelos G. , 8º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental, Guimarâes, (2010) Abstract
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Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares baseada em ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, Chastre Carlos, and Vasconcelos Graça , Mecânica Experimental, Number 19, p.101-110, (2011) Abstractrev_19_a10.pdfWebsite

No património edificado português as rochas granulares assumem importância relevante nos elementos construtivos presentes no património histórico e cultural, nomeadamente as pedras graníticas e areníticas. Tendo por objectivo a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares presentes no património edificado histórico foi realizado um estudo de investigação experimental sobre amostras dos litótipos seleccionados e que são representativos de rochas presentes no próprio edificado, em termos de propriedades petrográficas, físicas e mecânicas. Neste artigo apresenta-se um modelo analítico definido com base em ensaios experimentais que permite efectuar a simulação do comportamento das rochas em compressão uniaxial (diagramas de tensão-deformação), função de propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas através de ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos. Este modelo permite desta forma a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares sem afectar a integridade do património histórico.

Modelling GFRP-to-concrete joints with interface finite elements with rupture based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Construction and Building Materials, 10//, Volume 47, p.261-273, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures by means of externally bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRPs) is now routinely considered and applied in the retrofit or strengthening of structures. FRP composites have received a considerable attention from civil engineers in recent years due to the high strength-weight and stiffness/weight ratios when compared to other materials. However, when FRP composites are bonded to a concrete surface, there is a persistent potential problem that the FRP plates may debond prematurely from the concrete. This is a very important issue for the engineers who have to focus on the computational modelling of this phenomenon. Some studies can be found in literature on computational modelling. However, there is very little information about the best modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete and this work is intended to help bridge this gap. The computational analysis presented here is based on three-dimensional software which assumes the smeared crack model, and the interface finite elements (FEs) used have a rupture criteria based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. The definition of these FEs was based on double shear tests that were performed specifically for this purpose and they have shown that the debonding phenomenon can be predicted with some accuracy. In total, 10 double shear models were studied and the results were compared with the 21 experimental tests performed. The double shear tests consisted of applying loads to 2 layered GFRP laminates bonded to a 150 mm concrete cube with a bonded area of 150 × 80 mm (length × width). Double shear models with and without a gap interface were considered in order to emphasize the importance of modelling the GFRP-to-concrete interface with interface finite elements. The effect of the concrete strength on the interface performance was also considered. An externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) concrete T-beam strengthened with 2 GFRP layers is presented to illustrate the application of the method. The wet lay-up technique was used for the external reinforcement of a reinforced concrete T-beam and then tested under a four point bending test until rupture. The results are reported and differences between the numerical and the experimental results are discussed.

Modelling the compressive mechanical behaviour of granite and sandstone historical building stones, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, Chastre Carlos, and Vasconcelos Graça , Construction and Building Materials, Volume 28, Number 1, p.372-381, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Building stones, particularly sandstone and granite, are very important in the building elements of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage. Experimental research, based on uniaxial compressive tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of lithotypes of rocks used in historic built heritage, with a view to evaluating the compressive mechanical behaviour of different building stones. The results showed that porosity plays a central role in the compressive behaviour of granites and sandstones. As porosity can be evaluated in field conditions with non-destructive tests it was decided to derive an analytical model to predict compressive behaviour based on the knowledge of porosity of the building stones. A cubic polynomial function was adopted to describe the pre-peak regime under compression to implement the model. Furthermore, a statistical correlation between mechanical and porosity data had to be defined. Good agreement between experimental and analytical compressive stress–strain diagrams, from which the mechanical properties like compressive strength and modulus of elasticity can be derived, was achieved.

Modelo analítico não linear para analisar as ligações CFRP/betão, Biscaia, Hugo, Chastre Carlos, Franco Noel, and Cardoso João , Encontro Nacional Betão Estrutural 2016, 2-4 November 201, FCTUC, Coimbra, Portugal, p.9, (2016) Abstractbe_2016_paper_108_biscaia.pdf

Desde que o reforço estrutural começou a utilizar materiais de matriz polimérica reforçada com fibras (FRP) que o fenómeno do descolamento prematuro dos compósitos de FRP da superfície colada tem merecido especial atenção de vários autores. O conhecimento do processo de descolamento completo da ligação CFRP/betão ganhou assim, algum destaque nos últimos anos. Na generalidade, as ligações CFRP/betão têm sido analisadas com recurso métodos analíticos e numéricos sendo que, nos primeiros, se tem vindo a adoptar leis de aderência muito simplificadas das observadas experimentalmente. Apesar das simplificações adoptas nas análises analíticas, as expressões obtidas são muito importantes já que têm grande potencial em serem adoptadas pelos códigos ou normas nacionais e/ou interncionais. Por outro lado, e apesar de adoptarem leis de aderência mais refinadas, as análises numéricas permitem apenas a obtenção de expressões empíricas que podem não contemplar a generalidade dos casos estudados. Neste sentido, este trabalho apresenta um conjunto de soluções analíticas com base numa lei de aderência exponencial capaz de representar todas as não-linearidades envolvidas no descolamento da ligação CFRP/betão. Os resultados analíticos são confrontados com ensaios experimentais em que a técnica de colagem EBR foi utilizada. Contudo, o modelo analítico proposto pode ser também utilizado quando a técnica Near Surface Mounted (NSM) é adoptada. Adicionalmente, são apresentadas soluções analíticas para o caso em que o deslocamento relativo entre o CFRP e o betão é restringido por, e.g., um dispositivo de amarração mecânica instalado na extremidade oposta à aplicação de carga.

Modelo simplificado para análise do comportamento dinâmico de torres treliçadas em concreto armado para turbinas eólicas offshore, Souza, Luiz A. S., Chastre Carlos, LUCIO Válter J. G., and Souza Sueli T. M. , CILAMCE 2015 - XXXVI Ibero-Latin American Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering, 22-25 Nov, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, p.16p, (2015) Abstractsouza2015chlusu-cilamce2015paper327.pdf

Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um software para análise de torres treliçadas em concreto armado, pós-tensionada por tirantes externos, com a finalidade de suporte para turbinas eólicas de eixo horizontal, em ambiente offshore. A torre está sujeita às ações gravitacionais, aerodinâmicas, hidrodinâmicas. Desenvolveu-se um código computacional, em linguagem MATLAB, específico para este tipo de torre. As dificuldades de uma análise tridimensional mais complexa foram reduzidas propondo-se um modelo simplificado bi-dimensional utilizando-se elementos de pórtico plano. As cargas de vento são variadas segundo o espectro de von Karman. Para as ondas marítimas e correntes são implementados o espectro de Pierson-Moskowitz e o de JONSWAP. As cargas hidrodinâmicas são avaliadas pela equação de Morison. Estas cargas são integradas ao longo dos elementos estruturais e transformadas em cargas nodais equivalentes, de acordo com o proposto por Souza. A análise é realizada no domínio do tempo com algoritmo de Newmark. Este software, por ser específico para este tipo de torre, possui facilidades na introdução de dados e na modelagem da estrutura. Com estas estratégias o modelo apresentou bons resultados para a avaliação de cargas, cálculo de freqüências naturais, resposta de deslocamentos, esforços e reações.

Monotonic and quasi-static cyclic bond response of CFRP-to-steel joints after salt fog exposure, Yang, Yongming, Biscaia Hugo, Silva Manuel A. G., and Chastre Carlos , Composites Part B: Engineering, 2019/07/01/, Volume 168, p.532-549, (2019) AbstractWebsite

Deterioration of adhesively bonded CFRP/steel systems in salt fog environment, i.e., deicing salts and ocean environments, has to be taken into account in the design of steel strengthened structures. In the present work, monotonic and quasi-static cyclic loading were applied to CFRP-to-steel double strap joints for two kinds of CFRP laminates after being aged for a period of 5000 h to evaluate the bond behavior. The bonded joints exposed to salt fog had a different failure mode than that observed in the control specimens (0 h of exposure). The severe reduction of the maximum bond stress resulted from damage initiation that occurred in the corrosion region of the steel substrate, associated with final partial rupture on the corroded steel substrate around the edge of the bonded area: it was also correlated with reduced load carrying capacity. Results of pseudo-cyclic tests showed that the relationship between a local damage parameter (D) and normalized local dissipated energy (Wd/Gf) and the normalized slip increment (ΔS/ΔSult) exhibited almost the same trend in the un-aged and aged bonded joints. The normalized slip increment can be seen as a direct indicator for the local and global damage for the un-aged and aged bonded joints. However, monotonic and quasi-static cyclic tests results revealed that the stress concentration due to local corrosion of steel substrate could lead to brittle rupture or accelerated cumulative damage once the aged bonded interface had become weaker. The bonded joints have exhibited also a smaller relative deformation capacity between CFRP and steel.

Monotonic axial behavior and modelling of RC circular columns confined with CFRP, Chastre, Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Engineering Structures, Aug, Volume 32, Number 8, p.2268-2277, (2010) AbstractWebsite

The retrofit of reinforced concrete columns with FRP jackets has received considerable attention in recent years. The advantages of this technique compared to other similar techniques include the high strength-weight and stiffness-weight ratios of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Plastics), the strength and ductility increase of RC columns confined with FRP jackets as well as the fact that FRP external shells prevent or mitigate environmental degradation of the concrete and consequent corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Furthermore, this method also reduces the column transversal deformation and prevents the buckling of longitudinal reinforcement. Twenty five experimental tests were carried out on reinforced concrete columns confined with CFRP composites, and subjected to axial monotonic compression. In order to evaluate the influence of several parameters on the mechanical behavior of the columns, the height of the columns was maintained, while changing other parameters: the diameter of the columns, the type of material (plain or reinforced concrete), the steel hoop spacing of the RC columns and the number of CFRP layers. Predictive equations, based on the experimental analysis, are proposed to estimate the compressive strength of the confined concrete, the maximum axial load and the axial or the lateral failure strain of circular RC columns jacketed with CFRP. A stress-strain model for CFRP confined concrete in compression, which considers the effect of the CFRP and the transversal reinforcement on the confined compressive strength of the column is also proposed. The curves, axial load versus axial or lateral strain of the RC column, are simulated based on the stress-strain model and include the longitudinal reinforcement effect. The results demonstrate that the model and the predictive equations represent very well the axial compression behavior of RC circular columns confined with CFRP. The applicability of this model to a large spectrum of RC column dimensions is its main advantage.

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A New Bonding Technique for the Rehabilitation of Old Timber Floors with CFRP Composites, Biscaia, Hugo, Chastre Carlos, Cruz David, and Franco Noel , 41th IAHS Word Congress of Housing. Sustainability and Innovation for the Future, 13-16 September , Albufeira, Portugal, p.10, (2016) Abstract41_iahs_2016_-_hugo_biscaia_-_ext-abstract.pdf

Despite the number of applications with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) have been grown in civil constructions, the studies available in the literature dedicated to the strengthening of old timber beams are very rare. This paper analyses the bending behaviour of old suspended timber floors flexurally-strengthened with CFRP laminates. A new bonding technique developed by the authors is presented which mainly consists on the embedding of both CFRP ends into the core of the timber beams. Differences between the traditional strengthening, i.e. Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR), and the new bonding technique are reported. A timber pavement without any CFRP laminate bonded to its soffit was also considered and the results were used as reference values for comparison with the strengthened specimens. The results revealed that the CFRP laminate used for the flexurally-strengthened of the specimen according to the EBR technique reached only 27.2% of the rupture strain of the CFRP laminate whereas the new bonding technique was capable to prevent the premature debonding of the CFRP from the timber substrate and the rupture of the CFRP laminate was observed. Furthermore, the strain distributions in the CFRP laminates and the bond stresses within the CFRP-to-timber interfaces were affected when the new technique was used. For the sake of better understanding the rupture modes observed, a numerical approach was developed which allowed us to conclude that, until the collapse of the beams, the timber never reached its yielding point and the collapse were mainly due to the poor quality of the timber (e.g. quantity of knot, cracks and irregular geometries) and the low shear capacity of the beams.

A new discrete method to model unidirectional FRP-to-parent material bonded joints subjected to mechanical loads, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Viegas André , Composite Structures, 3//, Volume 121, p.280-295, (2015) AbstractWebsite

Nowadays fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites play an important role in the strengthening of structures. Different methods can be used to apply these materials: the externally bonded reinforcement (EBR), and the near surface mounted (NSM) using strips and NSM rods. There are only a few studies comparing these methods or presenting an efficient model to simulate these strengthening techniques. This study looks mainly at the analysis of the interface between FRP-to-parent material bonded joints. The paper examines, through a new discrete model based on axial and shear springs, the performance of FRP-to-parent material bonded joints for EBR or NSM techniques using strips or composite rods. In order to implement the model a routine in MATLAB was developed and several bond–slip curves were assumed. The results revealed that load–slip curves or bond stresses, strains or slippages along the bonded length obtained from several bond–slip curves are similar to the analytical and other numerical solutions found in literature. In what concerns the adhesion between two different materials, and assuming the same bond characteristics for the three fiber strengthening techniques, the NSM system using FRP strips had the highest maximum load transmitted to the FRP strip combined with the lowest effective bond length. The results obtained from the proposed model were also very accurate with that obtained from an analytical solution found in literature that simulates the debonding phenomenon of FRP-to-concrete interfaces between to adjacent cracks.

New Methodology For Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Cyclic Test, Gião, Rita, Lúcio Valter, Chastre Carlos, and Proença Jorge , International FIB Conference "Concrete - 21st Century Superhero, London, (2009) Abstractgiao2009luchpr_-_fib-london.pdf

The aim of the present communication is to present an analysis of the gravity load influence on the hysteretic behaviour of a beam-column connection. For this purpose, in the experimental campaign a new procedure for RC cyclic tests is presented in order to reproduce closer demands on the beam critical zone than the traditional procedures. The Experimental campaign included cyclic tests of the specimens according with the ECCS recommendation and an innovate procedure. The test results are presented, compared and analysed. A numerical simulation of the tests is presented where the model for the hysteretic response of the beam was calibrated with the experimental results. Finally, the behaviour of a portal frame system under cyclic displacements up to a drift of 3.5% was analysed, assuming that the non-linearity is concentrated on the plastic hinges, considering different levels of gravity load. Thus it is intended to assess the influence of the gravity load on the behaviour of a structure subjected to cyclic loads.

Non-linear analytical model of composites based on basalt textile reinforced mortar under uniaxial tension, Larrinaga, Pello, Chastre Carlos, San-José José T., and Garmendia Leire , Composites Part B: Engineering, 12//, Volume 55, p.518-527, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The recent development of inorganic based composites as low-cost materials in reinforced concrete structural strengthening and precast thin-walled components, requires the creation of models that predict the mechanical behaviour of these materials. Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) shows complex stress–strain behaviour in tension derived from the heterogeneity of its constituent materials. This complexity is mainly caused by the formation of several cracks in the inorganic matrix. The multiple cracking leads to a decrease in structural stiffness. Due to the severe conditions of the serviceability limit state in structural elements, the prediction of the stress–strain curve is essential for design and calculation purposes. After checking other models, an empirical nonlinear approach, which is based on the crack control expression included in the Eurocode 2, is proposed in this paper. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on 31 TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analysed and satisfactorily contrasted with the presented non-linear approach.

Nondestructive testing methodology to assess the conservation of historic stone buildings and monuments, Chastre, Carlos, and Ludovico-Marques Marco , Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Construction Industries, p.255-294, (2018) Abstract

Earthquakes, soil settlements, traffic vibrations, and air pollution are some of the actions that can affect historic old buildings. Besides these, the lack of continuous maintenance puts a large part of this heritage in risk due to structural problems that reduce their own safety and that of their users. The preservation and risk mitigation of built cultural heritage require the use of reliable tools in order to assess its state of conservation and to identify and prevent potential vulnerabilities. Having this in mind, it is not possible to carry out destructive tests in most historic old buildings, so it is preferable to opt for nondestructive tests (NDT) or alternative methodologies that allow the physical and mechanical characterization of materials and structure. In this chapter, a general view of NDT methods used in historic buildings to obtain the geometrical information, the damage mapping, the mechanical and physical characterization, and the petrographic analysis of stones is presented. An alternative methodology to physically and mechanically characterize the stone of historic buildings using NDT tests is also proposed. The chapter ends with a case study carried out in the St. Leonard’s Church, a Portuguese monument built in Atouguia da Baleia village in the 13th century, where the alternative methodology here presented was applied. The final results of this study show that the methodology proposed allows the obtention of stress-strain curves in a completely nondestructive way, based on the water absorption coefficient at low pressure.

A Nonlinear Analytical model to predict The full-range debonding process of FRP-to-parent material interfaces free of any mechanical anchorage devices, Biscaia, Hugo C., Borba Isabel S., Silva Cinderela, and Chastre Carlos , Composite Structures, 15 March 2016, Volume 138, p.52-63, (2016) AbstractWebsite

Ever since Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) began to be used in the repair or strengthening of structural elements, the premature debonding of the FRP composite from the substrate has been an important drawback that have been motive of several studies. The importance of knowing and describing the full-range behaviour of FRP-to-parent material interfaces rigorously is therefore urgent. However, at present, there are no analytical solutions that describe the full-range behaviour of such interfaces that help us to understand the full debonding phenomena of FRP-to-parent material interfaces free of any mechanical anchorage devices. Therefore, the aim of this study is to contribute the advances of that knowledge through an analytical solution by means of an exponential bond-slip model that is known to represent the nonlinearities involved in the debonding process of the FRP composite from the substrate. Analytical solutions for the slips, strains in the FRP composite, bond stress distributions along the bonded interface and stresses in the substrate are presented. A full-range load-slip analysis is also discussed.

Nonlinear numerical analysis of the debonding failure process of FRP-to-concrete interfaces, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 50, p.210-223, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The paper analyses numerical solutions for the process leading to debonding failure of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP)-to-concrete interfaces in shear tests with the FRP plate subjected to a tensile load at one end. Any realistic local nonlinear bond-slip law can be used in the numerical analysis proposed in the present study. However, only a Popovics’ type expression is employed in the numerical process due to its use in different studies found in the literature. Effective bond length (Leff) is discussed and an expression depending on the Popovics’ constant (nP) is proposed to calculate it. Assuming a fracture in pure Mode II, the debonding process is analyzed in detail and distributions of bond stresses and strains in the FRP plate along the interface are presented. The load-displacement behaviour is also presented and the influence of the local bond-slip law on the debonding process is discussed.

Novo sistema de reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com armaduras de aço inoxidável aplicadas pelo exterior, Franco, Noel, Chastre Carlos, and Biscaia Hugo , II Encontro Luso-Brasileiro de Degradação de Estruturas de Betão, 27-29 September, LNEC, Lisbon, Portugal, p.12p., (2016) Abstractdegrada_2016_-_noel_franco_-_ext-abstract.pdf

O reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado tem apresentado uma evolução com tendência para soluções onde são utilizadas armaduras à base de materiais compósitos de fibras de Carbono, Vidro, Basalto ou Aramida, aplicadas com as técnicas Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) ou Near Surface Mounted (NSM). No entanto, o comportamento elástico-linear destes materiais e as roturas tendencialmente frágeis das soluções condicionam a sua utilização em estruturas onde se pretende alguma ductilidade. Por conseguinte, procurou-se desenvolver um sistema de reforço estrutural alternativo e inovador em que os materiais de reforço aplicados, conjuntamente com a solução de reforço, conseguissem minimizar ou eliminar os riscos de roturas prematuras e ao mesmo tempo aumentassem a ductilidade dos elementos reforçados. Neste trabalho, apresenta-se em pormenor este novo sistema de reforço à flexão de vigas de betão armado com armaduras de aço inoxidável ancoradas internamente por aderência. Neste sistema de reforço as armaduras são contínuas e pós-instaladas pelo exterior, ficando as extremidades ancoradas por aderência no interior do elemento estrutural. Apresentam-se e discutem-se os resultados dos ensaios realizados para avaliar o desempenho das vigas de betão armado reforçadas com esta nova técnica. Os modos de rotura observados são também motivo de análise mais detalhada. Evidenciam-se alguns benefícios na utilização deste sistema de reforço inovador, nomeadamente ao nível da capacidade resistente última das vigas de betão armado e fazem-se algumas recomendações para a sua aplicação e utilização na reabilitação de elementos estruturais degradados.

Novo sistema de reforço estrutural de vigas de betão armado com compósitos de FRP ancorados internamente por aderência, Chastre, Carlos, Monteiro António, Biscaia Hugo, and Franco Noel , II Encontro Luso-Brasileiro de Degradação de Estruturas de Betão, 27-29 September, LNEC, Lisbon, Portugal, p.12p., (2016) Abstractdegrada_2016_-_carlos_chastre_-_ext-abstract.pdf

A reabilitação de estruturas de betão armado com compósitos de FRP tem tido uma grande aceitação em especial devido às excelentes características de durabilidade dos materiais compósitos, ao seu baixo peso e às suas elevadas prestações mecânicas. Contudo, o comportamento elástico-linear dos compósitos de FRP e a sua forma de aplicação pode originar roturas prematuras, quer na técnica de reforço EBR (Externally Bonded Reinforcement), em que o compósito é colado externamente, quer na técnica NSM (Near Surface Mounted) em que o compósito é inserido na zona do recobrimento. No sentido de minimizar o risco de roturas prematuras e ao mesmo tempo aumentar a ductilidade dos elementos reforçados, desenvolveu-se um novo sistema de reforço estrutural em que as armaduras são ancoradas internamente por aderência. A fim de validar o novo sistema de reforço estrutural com compósitos de FRP foi realizado um programa experimental que incluiu o ensaio de vigas de betão armado (BA) reforçadas com as seguintes técnicas de reforço: EBR, NSM e pela nova técnica CREatE (continuous reinforcement embedded at ends). Neste artigo descrevem-se os ensaios experimentais realizados e analisam-se os resultados obtidos. As vigas de BA ensaiadas tinham seção em T, com um vão de 3,0 m e uma altura de 0,3 m e foram solicitadas em flexão em 4 pontos e testadas até a rotura. A técnica CREatE provou ser a mais eficaz das três alternativas testadas mobilizando a totalidade do CFRP e apresentando a maior capacidade resistente e a ductilidade mais elevada.

Numerical analysis of FRP anchorage zones with variable width, Biscaia, Hugo C., Micaelo Rui, Teixeira João, and Chastre Carlos , Composites Part B: Engineering, 11//, Volume 67, p.410-426, (2014) AbstractWebsite

The use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has recently become widespread in the construction industry. However, some drawbacks related to premature debonding of the FRP composites from the bonded substrates have been identified. One of the solutions proposed is the implementation of mechanical anchorage systems. Although some design guidelines have been developed, the actual knowledge continues to be rather limited. Thus, designers and researchers have not yet achieved any consensus on the efficiency of any particular anchor device in delaying or preventing the premature debonding failure mode that can occur in Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) systems. This paper studies the debonding phenomenon of FRP anchoring systems with a linear variable width, with a numerical analysis based on the Distinct Element Method (DEM). Combined systems with constant and variable width are also discussed. The FRP-to-parent material interfaces are modelled with a rigid-linear softening bond–slip law. The numerical results showed that it is possible to attain the FRP rupture force with a variable width solution. This solution is particularly attractive when the bonded length is shorter than the effective bonded length because the strength of the interface can be highly incremented.

Numerical modelling of the effects of elevated service temperatures on the debonding process of frp-to-concrete bonded joints, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, Viegas André, and Franco Noel , Composites Part B: Engineering, Volume 70, p.64-79, (2015) AbstractWebsite

There are many issues concerning the performance behaviour of FRP-to-concrete interfaces at elevated service temperatures (EST). At EST, i.e. slightly above the glass transition temperature (Tg), some properties associated with the FRP composites, such as the stiffness, strength or the bond characteristics, degrade. This is a crucial issue and there are only a few studies that take into account such effects on FRP-to-concrete interfaces at EST. This paper examines, through a numerical analysis, the performance of FRP-to-concrete bonded joints at EST using a new discrete model based on truss elements and shear springs. The External Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) systems subjected to EST are analyzed. The numerical discrete model was implemented in a MATLAB routine and the bond-slip curves of the interfaces at EST were obtained from a model found in literature. The numerical results revealed that the interface at EST behaves similarly to one with two equal mechanical loads applied at both ends of the FRP plate. The load-slip curves or bond stresses, strains or slippages along the bonded length obtained from several bond-slip curves at different temperatures were obtained. Two different single-lap shear tests were simulated at steady-state (steady temperature followed by load increase) and transient state (steady load followed by temperature increase). Regarding the influence of the temperature on the adhesion between the FRP and concrete, the results showed that an increase in the temperature at an earlier situation, i.e. during a period where temperature had no influence in the concrete deformations, leads to an increase in the effective bond length of the interface affecting the initial strength of the interface.

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Old suspended timber floors flexurally-strengthened with different structural materials, Biscaia, Hugo, Franco Noel, Nunes Ricardo, and Chastre Carlos , Key Engineering Materials, Volume 713, p.78-81, (2016) Abstract

The design of timber beams has strict limits when it comes to the Serviceability Limit States (SLS) either in short-term or in long-term deflections. In order to face this aspect efficiently, the increase of the cross section of the beams might be considered as a solution. However, the prohibitive increase of the costs associated to this solution or the change of the initial architecturedesign of the building, opens the opportunity to find new and more efficient solutions. In that way, the use of additional reinforcements to the timber beams may be seen as a promising solution because either new or old structures would keep always their original aesthetical aspect with no significant self-weight increase and improving their behaviour to short and long-term actions.Therefore, the current study is dedicated to the analysis of composite timber beams where Fiber Reinforcement Polymers (FRP), steel or stainless steel are used to improve the stiffness, strength and deflection behaviour of old suspended timber floors. An experimental program was conducted where old suspended timber floors reinforced with CFRP strips were subjected to 4-point bending tests. A simplify nonlinear numerical model was developed to simulate the bending behaviour of the specimens and several other cases with other reinforcement configurations and different structural materials were assumed. The numerical analysis herein presented also takes into account both Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States of the reinforced specimens.

Old suspended timber floors flexurally-strengthened with different structural materials, Biscaia, Hugo, Franco Noel, Nunes Ricardo, and Chastre Carlos , 15th International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics, Alicante, Spain, (2016) Abstract

The design of timber beams has strict limits when it comes to the Serviceability Limit States (SLS) either in short-term or in long-term deflections. In order to face this aspect efficiently, the increase of the cross section of the beams might be considered as a solution. However, the prohibitive increase of the costs associated to this solution or the change of the initial architecturedesign of the building, opens the opportunity to find new and more efficient solutions. In that way, the use of additional reinforcements to the timber beams may be seen as a promising solution because either new or old structures would keep always their original aesthetical aspect with no significant self-weight increase and improving their behaviour to short and long-term actions.Therefore, the current study is dedicated to the analysis of composite timber beams where Fiber Reinforcement Polymers (FRP), steel or stainless steel are used to improve the stiffness, strength and deflection behaviour of old suspended timber floors. An experimental program was conducted where old suspended timber floors reinforced with CFRP strips were subjected to 4-point bending tests. A simplify nonlinear numerical model was developed to simulate the bending behaviour of the specimens and several other cases with other reinforcement configurations and different structural materials were assumed. The numerical analysis herein presented also takes into account both Ultimate and Serviceability Limit States of the reinforced specimens.

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Performance analysis of load–strain models for circular columns confined with FRP composites, Marques, Pedro Faustino, and Chastre Carlos , Composite Structures, Volume 94, Number 11, p.3115-3131, (2012) Abstractmarques__chastre_2012.pdfWebsite

The use of FRP composites for the confinement of concrete has become an important aspect to consider on strengthening of concrete columns. It is important therefore that accurate modelling tools are available for the design of this system considering, not only the peak values of load and strain, but also the complete stress–strain behaviour. A wide group of authors have proposed several models specific for FRP-confined concrete based either on theoretical assumptions (analysis-oriented-models – AOMs) or on mathematical calibration from testing results (design-oriented-models – DOMs). This article carries out the implementation and analysis of nine existing models for circular concrete columns in view of axially tested reinforced concrete columns confined with CFRP with three different diameters: 150; 250 and 400 mm. The global shape of curves, peak compressive load, stress–strain relation, axial-to-lateral relation and dilation response were studied to conclude which models’ curves were closer to tests. Quantification of errors in face of the testing results was carried out for the most important parameters – ultimate load, strain and lateral stress – as well as for other curve parameters. Some models are accurate in predicting the peak load, though only few can accurately predict the load–strain and dilation behaviour.

Potencialidade e Limitações dos Novos Materiais de Reforço de Estruturas, Chastre Rodrigues, C., and Silva M. G. , RILEM – 57th Annual Week 2003 & Seminário NDB, Lisboa, (2003) Abstract
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Precast concrete wind tower structures. Historic development, current development and future potential, Lúcio, Válter, and Chastre Carlos , CPI - Concrete Plant International, 3, June 2014, Number 3, p.110-115, (2014) Abstractcpi_03-2014_p144-149.pdfWebsite

The wind energy production is a growing industry and the energy produced is renewable and environmentally cleaner than most of the energy production systems. The supports of the wind energy generators may be built with precast concrete elements. The precast solutions for these structures are competitive in comparison to other structural systems. The evolution of the technology for wind energy production shows a clear need for larger wind turbines and longer blades and, consequently, taller towers. The experience also shows that precast concrete solutions increase their competitiveness as the tower height increases. Offshore wind farms have some advantages in relation to onshore ones, which explains recent investments in this area. Also in this case, the durability of concrete in the sea when compared to steel, gives advantages to precast concrete in relation to other structural solutions. This paper shows the evolution of the supports of the wind energy generators and the advantages of the use of precast concrete towers.

Prediction of the interfacial performance of CFRP laminates and old timber bonded joints with different strengthening techniques, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, Cruz David, and Viegas André , Composites Part B: Engineering, 1/1/, Volume 108, p.1-17, (2017) AbstractWebsite

Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a recent technique to strengthen timber structures and the studies available discussing the debonding between these materials are limited. Therefore, the bond assessment between FRP composites and timber substrates is a topic that needs clarification. The present work analyses the debonding process between Carbon (C) FRP laminates and timber with rupture modes consistent with Mode II interfacial fracture, i.e. with the sliding mode where the bond stresses act parallel to the plane of the bonding surface. Several single-lap shear tests were performed and the experiments showed a nonlinear local behaviour of the CFRP-to-timber interface. An interfacial bond-slip model and its calibration procedure were also presented. Furthermore, the calibrated nonlinear bond-slip model was implemented in a numerical approach where the FRP composite and the adhesive are simulated by linear and nonlinear springs and the substrate is assumed rigid. The following influences on the debonding process of the CFRP-to-timber interface were also analysed: (i) the bonding technique (Externally Bonded Reinforcement - EBR; and Near Surface Mounted - NSM); and (ii) the use of an additional device to mechanically anchor the CFRP laminate. Besides the determination of the effective bond length for each bonding technique, a new concept defining the length beyond which the force at the anchorage device does not decrease with the bonded length and a proposal to estimate its value for any bonded length was also presented and discussed. The experimental tests have shown that the NSM technique has a better performance compared to the EBR technique, independently of the installation of mechanical anchorage devices. In the case of the EBR technique, the strains in the CFRP laminate increased at its vicinities due to the clamping force applied to the anchors, which affected the final strength of the interface.

Preface, Chastre, Carlos , 2nd International Conference on Building Materials and Materials Engineering - ICBMM 2018, Volume 278, Lisbon, Portugal, (2019) Abstract

The 2nd International Conference on Building Materials and Materials Engineering (ICBMM 2018) was held at the University of Lisbon, Portugal, from 26 to 28 September, 2018. The objective of the Lisbon conference was to provide a platform for researchers, engineers, academics, as well as industrial professionals from all over the world, to present their research results and development activities in Building Materials and Materials Engineering.ICBMM 2018 was an opportunity for researchers, engineers and academics to further develop Building Materials and Materials Engineering. Attendees benefitted a lot from expert practitioners and researchers who presented the latest trends in theoretical and practical domains of Building Materials and Materials Engineering. Distinguished professors also delivered their keynote speeches on the latest developments in their respective fields. Among the keynote and plenary speakers were Prof. Carlos Chastre from NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal; Prof. Paulo Mendonça from University of Minho, Portugal; Dr. Mascarenhas Mateus from University of Lisbon, Portugal; Prof. Rudolf Hela from Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.The current set of conference proceedings present a selection of papers submitted by researchers from a variety of universities, research institutes and industries. All papers were peer-reviewed by conference committee members and a panel of international reviewers who selected the papers to be published based on their quality and relevance to the topic of the conference. This volume presents recent advances in the field of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Properties, Measuring Methods and Applications, Materials Manufacturing and Processing, Civil and Structural Engineering, Architecture and Urban Planning.We would like to thank all the authors who have contributed to this volume and also the organizing committee, reviewers, speakers, co-chair persons, sponsors and all the conference participantsfor their strong support to ICBMM 2018, making this conference such a great success. We look forward to meeting you in ICBMM 2019!

Princípios básicos para a conceção de estruturas de edifícios em zonas sísmicas, Chastre, Carlos, Lúcio Válter, and Tsoukantas Spyros , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.227-248, (2012) Abstract
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Probabilistic Conversion of the Compressive Strength of Cubes to Cylinders of Natural and Recycled Aggregate Concrete Specimens, Pacheco, João Nuno, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Materials, Volume 12, Number 2, p.280, (2019) AbstractWebsite

This paper investigates the effect of recycled coarse aggregate incorporation on the relationship between 150 mm cubic and Փ 150 mm cylindrical compressive strength (the reference strength of standards) by comparing data from recycled and natural aggregate concrete compositions in which both cubes and cylinders were tested. A conversion factor from cubic to cylindrical strength is proposed in two versions: A deterministic and a probabilistic one. Such factor has not been studied before and researchers have been converting cubic data as if natural aggregate concrete were tested. The probabilistic factor is intended for reliability analyses on the structural behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete using data from laboratory cube tests. It was found that the incorporation of recycled coarse aggregates sourced from concrete waste significantly decreases the expected value of the factor but the factor’s scatter is relatively unaffected.

Prólogo, Chastre, Carlos , Cáceres-Florencia, patrimonio vivo: Ensayos técnico-arquitectónicos, Volume 3, Cáceres, p.11-15, (2017) Abstract

Este livro apresenta diferentes perspetivas sobre o património arquitetónico em Espanha e Itália, debruçando-se sobre temas que estão na ordem do dia, como a reabilitação do património arquitetónico ou as acessibilidades ao mesmo, sejam elas na forma física ou digital, sendo os autores profundos conhecedores desta área. Nas intervenções a realizar no património edificado é fundamental ter um conhecimento aprofundado do projeto, da história e do processo construtivo da obra, bem como do seu comportamento estrutural. De acordo com o ICOMOS estas intervenções devem ser realizadas utilizando as técnicas mais adequadas, baseadas num diagnóstico apropriado e na compreensão dos materiais existentes. De igual forma, os estudos no edificado monumental devem ser realizados com o menor grau de intrusão e o máximo respeito pela sua integridade física, seguindo os princípios de salvaguarda do património arquitetónico definidos na carta internacional de Atenas.O livro divide‐se em duas grandes áreas: numa, abordam‐se os assuntos que se enquadram essencialmente no âmbito da conservação e reabilitação do património arquitetónico e na outra são apresentados os temas mais dedicados à acessibilidade do público ao património arquitetónico e à sua divulgação online. Os trabalhos apresentados no âmbito da conservação e reabilitação do património arquitetónico seguem na essência as recomendações do ICOMOS em relação à necessidade de compreensão da construção existente, ao desenvolvimento de novas técnicas e dos materiais mais adequados aos trabalhos de conservação e reabilitação, assim como na realização de testes em modelos experimentais à escala, tendo por objetivo avaliar o comportamento da estrutura antes e após a reabilitação. O património arquitetónico construído constitui uma parte importante da história da civilização humana e é um fator determinante da nossa identidade coletiva que importa preservar para as gerações futuras. Com a sua intervenção na conservação, reabilitação, valorização e divulgação do património construído, os autores deste livro estão a cumprir um importante papel na nossa sociedade, preservando um legado que nos foi deixado pelos nossos antepassados.

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Reforço à flexão de pavimentos antigos de madeira com recurso a laminados de fibras de carbono, Biscaia, Hugo, Chastre Carlos, Cruz David, Franco Noel, and Nunes Ricardo , TEST&E 2016 - 1º Congresso de Ensaios e Experimentação em Engenharia Civil, 4-6 July 2016, IST, Lisbon, Portugal, p.8, (2016) Abstractteste2016_-_01049_-_biscaia.pdf

O dimensionamento de vigas de madeira aos Estados Limites de Utilização (ELUt) tem limites muito apertados tanto para ações de curto prazo como para ações de longo prazo. Uma solução eficiente para este problema passa por aumentar as seções transversais das vigas. Porém, este tipo de solução não só acarreta um aumento de custos como também altera profundamente arquitetura original do edifício abrindo, por conseguinte, uma oportunidade para encontrar outras soluções mais eficientes. Neste sentido, o uso de armaduras de reforço em vigas de madeira pode ser considerado como uma solução promissora uma vez que as estruturas, novas ou velhas, manteriam o aspeto estético original sem introduzir nos elementos reforçados, um aumento significativo do seu peso próprio, melhorando o seu desempenho face a ações de curto e longo prazo. O presente estudo é dedicado à análise de vigas de madeira antigas reforçadas à flexão com materiais compósitos de fibras de carbono, vulgarmente designados na literatura internacional por Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP). Neste trabalho, foram reforçados e ensaiados à flexão pavimentos antigos de madeira tendo-se analisado os respetivos desempenhos aquando da utilização de uma técnica de reforço por colagem tradicional (Externally Bonded Reinforcement - EBR) e aquando da utilização de uma técnica de reforço por colagem inovadora (Continous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends - CREatE). Os ensaios experimentais permitiram verificar que a técnica de colagem inovadora CREatE confere aos pavimentos de madeira uma maior rigidez e resistência face à técnica tradicional conseguindo se mobilizar a totalidade do compósito de CFRP.

Reforço de Vigas de Betão Armado com Armaduras Pós-Instaladas de Aço ou de FRP, Chastre, Carlos, Biscaia Hugo, and Franco Noel , 10º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental (CNME 2016), 12-14 October 20, LNEC, Lisbon, Portugal, p.12, (2016) Abstractcnme2016_paper_45_chastre.pdf

Apresentam-se e analisam-se um conjunto de ensaios realizados em vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras pós-instaladas de aço ou de FRP, incluindo os referentes a uma nova técnica (CREatE) desenvolvida na FCT NOVA, tendo-se concluído que a técnica CREatE possibilita aumentos de resistência e ductilidade consideráveis face às técnicas tradicionais.

Reforço de Vigas de Betão Armado com Armaduras Pós‑Instaladas de Aço Inox ou de Compósitos de FRP, Chastre, Carlos, Biscaia Hugo, and Franco Noel , Mecânica Experimental, Volume 28, p.39-46, (2017) AbstractWebsite

Neste artigo apresentam-se e analisam-se um conjunto de ensaios realizados em vigas de betão armado reforçadas com armaduras pós-instaladas de aço ou de FRP, incluindo os referentes a uma nova técnica (CREatE) desenvolvida na FCT NOVA. Os resultados experimentais permitiram concluir que a técnica CREatE possibilita aumentos de resistência e ductilidade consideráveis face às técnicas tradicionais.

Reforço de vigas em betão armado com armaduras exteriores de FRP, Monteiro, António, Chastre Carlos, Biscaia Hugo, and Franco Noel , Revista Internacional TechITT, Jan. 2017, Volume 15, Number 40, p.48-60, (2017) AbstractWebsite

A utilização de Polímeros Reforçados com Fibras (FRP) no reforço de estruturas de Betão Armado (BA) tem tido cada vez mais aceitação devido à sua elevada resistência e rigidez, baixo peso específico e excelente resistência aos efeitos dos agentes ambientais. No entanto, actualmente, é comum utilizarem-se técnicas de reforço que dificilmente permitem tirar partido da resistência total destes materiais. Com o objectivo de explorar a capacidade total de Polímeros Reforçados com Fibras de Carbono (CFRP), foram estudadas e desenvolvidas duas novas técnicas de reforço de vigas à flexão designadas por Continuous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends (CREatE) e Horizontal Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (HNSMR). Posteriormente realizou-se um estudo comparativo entre o desempenho destes sistemas de reforço e o de duas outras técnicas já estudadas e usuais, nomeadamente os sistemas Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) e Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR). A técnica CREatE provou ser a mais eficaz de todas as alternativas testadas mobilizando a totalidade do compósito de CFRP e dotando as vigas de BA com uma maior capacidade resistente e com uma ductilidade mais elevada.Como complemento deste trabalho experimental, desenvolveu-se também um programa de cálculo em MATLAB, capaz de simular o problema em estudo através de um modelo numérico de análise não linear através do equilíbrio de secções. A representatividade dos dados obtidos foi verificada através de uma análise comparativa entre os valores numéricos e os obtidos experimentalmente.The use of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) in order to strengthen Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures has been increasingly accepted due to their strength and stiffness, low weight and excellent resistance to the effects of environmental aggressive agents. However, the bonding techniques available and described in the literature can not allow the full use of the mechanical properties of these materials and premature failures are often observed and described by several researchers. In order to explore the full capacity of CFRP composites, two new bonding strengthening techniques of RC beams when subjected to 4-point bending tests were studied and developed. For these new techniques, the designation of Continuous Reinforcement Embedded at Ends (CREatE) and Horizontal Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (HNSMR) has been assigned. Posteriorly, a comparative study has been carried out between those strengthening systems performance and two traditional techniques, namely, the Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR) and Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement (NSMR). The CREatE technique has proved to be the most effective of all alternatives tested, with the full utilization of the CFRP composite and the highest strength, combined with the highest ductility. A code using MATLAB software was developed as a complement of this experimental work, which is able to simulate the problem under study through a nonlinear numerical model based on the equilibrium of sections. The representativeness of the numerical data has been verified afterwards through a comparative analysis between those and the experimental results.

Reinforced Concrete Columns Jacketed with FRP Composites and Subjected to Cyclic Horizontal Loads, Chastre, C., and Silva M. G. , International Conference CCC2008 - Challenges for Civil Construction, Porto, (2008) Abstract
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Reliability analysis: the next step towards recycled aggregates concrete affirmation, Pacheco, João, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Construction projects: improvement strategies, quality management and potential challenges, p.1-54, (2017) Abstract

TThis chapter concerns the need to evaluate the reliability of structural elements produced with recycled aggregates concrete (RAC) in order to address some designers’ scepticism towards the use of this eco-friendly material. The current knowledge on RAC’s behaviour demonstrates its viability for structural purposes. However, of the investigations performed so far very few are related to a fundamental aspect towards RAC world-wide application as a structural material: structural codes have a probabilistic basis.After briefly presenting the state-of-the-art knowledge on the material properties and structural behaviour of RAC, the limitations of the current knowledge are debated. Afterwards, an introduction to structural codification is presented, as well as the fundamentals of reliability analysis. Examples of code verifications are contextualized with their underlying assumptions and the information necessary for code calibration is discussed. The role of reliability in the calibration of structural codes is shown, common techniques for reliability calculations are briefly explained, and relevant references in the area are cited for the readers’ perusal.Having established how structural codes are calibrated, the state-of-the-art on the probabilistic and statistical knowledge of RAC properties is reviewed. The implications of the very reduced number of studies on this area are discussed and the need to conduct further studies is emphasized.Afterwards, investigations that used reliability analysis to calibrate partial safety factors applicable to RAC are reviewed. The methodology of each investigation is presented, the experimental tests that led to the definition of the probabilistic information of the RAC’s parameters are described and the need to have a wide range of data coming from different RAC compositions and aggregate sources is debated.This chapter finishes by contextualizing the current knowledge on RAC properties with the necessary information for code calibration procedures. The relevance of a code proposal towards RAC affirmation as a structural material is highlighted, as well as the requirements of such code. Suggestions for future studies are made.

Reliability of the bond strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete, Pacheco, João, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures, May, 27-29, 2019, Kraków, Poland, p.913-920, (2019) Abstract

An analysis on the effect of the incorporation of coarse recycled concrete aggregates on the bond strength between concrete and embedded steel reinforcement is presented. The model’s uncertainty of the Level I provision of the anchorage length of fib Bulletin 72 on ribbed steel/recycled aggregate concrete bond is quantified. Afterwards, reliability analyses on the bond strength are made and a partial safety factor for the anchorage length of recycled concrete elements is proposed. The model’s uncertainty is evaluated through data from pullout tests, the only type of bond test that has been so far performed extensively on recycled aggregate concrete specimens. The limitations of this test in reproducing the bond of actual structural elements is discussed, and the model’s uncertainty is converted to that of lap splice tests. The bond strength of recycled aggregate concrete design was found to be less reliable than that of natural aggregate concrete, especially in the absence of confining reinforcement. For concrete with full recycled aggregate incorporation, a 25% increase in the anchorage length is proposed. Additional testing on the bond strength of lapped splices or beam-end specimens is recommended.

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Scatter of constitutive models of the mechanical properties of concrete: comparison of major international codes, Pacheco, João Nuno, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, March 19, 2019, Volume 17, Number 3, p.102-125, (2019) AbstractWebsite

An investigation on the scatter of code-type constitutive models that relate compressive strength (fc) with tensile strength (fct) and Young’s modulus (Ec) of standard concrete specimens is presented. The influence of the mix design on the accuracy of the fc vs. fct and fc vs. Ecrelationships is discussed, with emphasis on the lithological type and morphology of the coarse aggregates. The uncertainty of the constitutive models is analysed in probabilistic terms and random variables that model the uncertainty of the fc vs. fct and fc vs. Ec relationships are proposed for reliability analyses of serviceability limit states. The suitability of the models proposed is assessed through preliminary conservative estimates of their design values.

Seismic Strengthening of RC Beam-Column Connections, Gião, R., Lúcio V., and Chastre C. , 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, (2012) Abstractgiao_lucio_and_chastre.__in_15th_world_conference_on_earthquake_engineering._2012._lisbon..pdf

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A simple analytical approach for creep analysis of EB-FRP systems, Biscaia, H., and Chastre C. , Key Engineering Materials , (2018) Abstract

Based on a few experimental results available in the literature, this work presents a simple analytical approach that allows the study of the long-term behaviour of CFRP-to-concrete interfaces under an initial sustaining load. Only the elastic regime is studied, which means that the interfacial maximum bond stress and maximum slip are never exceeded. Therefore, the maximum initial load to be sustained by the joints is limited by its corresponding elastic value. The analytical results provided by the proposed model are compared with some experimental results found in the literature. The results showed strain redistribution throughout the bonded length over the time.

A Simple Method for the Determination of the Bond-Slip Model of Artificially Aged Joints, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Journal of Composites for Construction, Volume 23, Number 4, p.04019028, (2019) AbstractWebsite

The durability of adhesively bonded fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) and concrete substrates has been the subject of recent studies. The degradation of bonded interfaces conjugated with other factors that affect the interface strength may compromise the potentialities of using FRP in externally bonded reinforced (EBR) concrete structures. However, the estimation of the effects of degradation on these bonded interfaces and the analytical methodologies to quantify them are not fully understood. The present work focuses on a local bond-slip model characterized by two parameters for which the values are obtained experimentally. Then, the determination of the local bond-slip relationship of a glass (G) FRP-to-concrete interface can be estimated. The assessment of the degradation of the bonded interface when subjected to cycles of (1) salt fog; (2) wet-dry environments with salt water; (3) temperatures between −10°C and +30°C; and (4) temperatures between +7.5°C and +47.5°C is presented. The results obtained using the proposed bond-slip model led to the conclusion that after 10,000 h of exposure to temperature cycles between −10°C and +30°C, there was a small change in the GFRP-to-concrete interface performance, whereas the effects on the bonded interface for the specimens subjected to temperature cycles between +7.5°C and +47.5°C were far more most severe.

Size and Relative Stiffness Effects on Compressive Failure of Concrete Columns Wrapped with Glass FRP, Silva, M. A. G., and Rodrigues C. C. , Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 18, Issue 3, p.334-342, (2006) AbstractWebsite

Structural design relies essentially on tests made on cylinders of small size to estimate the probability of failure of prototype members, since full-scale testing of structures to determine their strength is not feasible. The confidence that such scale modeling deserves in terms of representation of actual behavior needs careful examination, due to such factors as material nonlinearities, difficulties of scale representation of particulate materials, and sometimes the impossibility of simultaneously satisfying independent dimensionless parameters. Some failures explained by linear fracture mechanics are associable with strong size effects, as opposed to the cases where small cracks are a material property. Besides research centered on these problems, a number of studies of scale effects have been associated with the increased probability of finding a flaw in larger objects. In fact, geometric similitude may coexist with microscopic randomness of flaws that cause size effects to appear. The type of material of the object under study may also be a decisive factor. For example, scatter of the mechanical properties in unidirectional fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) is much larger than in metals due to a larger density of flaws. Thus the strength of FRP laminates may depend on the volume of material involved. Strengthening reinforced concrete columns with FRP wraps leads to new constitutive laws for the overall response of the columns and requires small-scale testing followed by extrapolation for design use. The present paper focuses on the difficulties of this step, based on the experimental data obtained. The questions mentioned above are addressed, and the relevance of the adequate representation of the lateral stiffness of the FRP jacket in the scaled cylinders is emphasized. The paper also addresses the problem of testing confined cylinders with a given slenderness ratio H/D=height/diameter, within the range usually characteristic of short columns, and extrapolating the results for columns of different H/D. The importance of the parameter (thickness of jacket/diameter of column, representative of stiffness of jacket/stiffness of concrete core) is also examined. The influence of the parameter is shown to be relatively minor, whereas the nonscaling of the relative stiffness of the core and jacket would be a major cause of error. The experimental data, in terms of strain and strength, are also compared with numerical models proposed in the literature, and the quality of the approximations is analyzed.

A smeared crack analysis of reinforced concrete T-beams strengthened with GFRP composites, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Engineering Structures, 11//, Volume 56, p.1346-1361, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with laminates of fibre reinforced polymeric (FRP) matrix has received considerable attention, although there still is lack of information on the more adequate modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete. An experimental programme is described and was designed to: (i) characterise glass FRP-to-concrete interface by shear tests; (ii) analyse reinforced concrete T-beams with external GFRP plates. Double shear tests were carried out based on 15 cm cubes with GFRP bonded to two opposite faces. The concrete T-beams were 3.0 m long and 0.28 m high and were loaded till rupture in 4-point bending tests. The external reinforcement system showed great strength increment in relation to the non retrofitted T-beam, confirming to be an effective approach to the flexural strengthening of RC beams. The computational analysis was based on a three dimensional smeared crack model. In total, 22 computational analyses were made. Models with and without interface FE associated with Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for the FRP-to-concrete interface were defined and different strength types of concrete were considered. The rigid interface does not predict the rupture of the T-beam with precision; however, the results obtained for low concrete strengths revealed that rigid interfaces can be assumed when conjugated with the fixed crack approach. Consequently, a slightly stiffer response of the beam is obtained. The maximum bond stresses obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) revealed that the models with rigid interfaces developed lower bond stresses due to the lack of relative displacements between both materials. The effects of assuming either fixed or rotated crack approaches were also compared. The rotated crack conjugated to a fine mesh in the vicinity of the GFRP-to-concrete stress led to a very good estimation of the bond stresses along the interface. The prediction of the T-beam rupture was also estimated with better results when the rotated crack was used in the model. In general, the FEA predicted with very good results the de-bonding of the GFRP-to-concrete interface of T-beams externally bonded with GFRP composites.

Stainless steel bonded to concrete: An experimental assessment using the DIC technique, Biscaia, Hugo, Franco Noel, and Chastre Carlos , International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, January 30, Volume 12, Number 1, (2018) AbstractWebsite

The durability performance of stainless steel makes it an interesting alternative for the structural strengthening of reinforced concrete. Like external steel plates or fibre reinforced polymers, stainless steel can be applied using externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) or the near surface mounted (NSM) bonding techniques. In the present work, a set of single-lap shear tests were carried out using the EBR and NSM bonding techniques. The evaluation of the performance of the bonding interfaces was done with the help of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The tests showed that the measurements gathered with DIC should be used with caution, since there is noise in the distribution of the slips and only the slips greater than one-tenth of a millimetre were fairly well predicted. For this reason, the slips had to be smoothed out to make it easier to determine the strains in the stainless steel and the bond stress transfer between materials, which helps to determine the bond–slip relationship of the interface. Moreover, the DIC technique allowed to identify all the states developed within the interface through the load–slip responses which were also closely predicted with other monitoring devices. Considering the NSM and the EBR samples with the same bonded lengths, it can be stated that the NSM system has the best performance due to their higher strength, being observed the rupture of the stainless steel in the samples with bond lengths of 200 and 300 mm. Associated with this higher strength, the NSM specimens had an effective bond length of 168 mm which is 71.5% of that obtained for the EBR specimens (235 mm). A trapezoidal and a power functions are the proposed shapes to describe the interfacial bond–slip relationships of the NSM and EBR systems, respectively, where the maximum bond stress in the former system is 1.8 times the maximum bond stress of the latter one.

Statistical analysis of Portuguese ready-mixed concrete production, Pacheco, João Nuno, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Construction and Building Materials, 2019/06/10/, Volume 209, p.283-294, (2019) AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates and compares the statistics of compressive strength data from three Portuguese ready-mixed concrete plants. A hierarchical model showed that different groups of concrete strength records are not statistically equivalent, even if they were produced in the same plant and using the same concrete composition. This finding is related to autocorrelation. For the same specified strength class, compositions produced less often result in higher average compressive strength and variability. The statistics of one of the plants were quite different from those of the others, even though the concrete of this plant also complied with the specifications. It was found that the average compressive strength of a mix may be quite dependent on the plant that produced it, even if the compressive strength complies with quality control specifications. Conformity with the target slump and strength class was checked following the conformity criteria of EN 206-1 for continuous production. Nonconformity with slump is more frequent than failure to comply with the strength class. A bias factor for reliability analyses was proposed.

Surveying of Sandstone Monuments: New and Traditional Methodologies to Assess Viability of Conservation Actions, Chastre, C., Ludovico-Marques M., Saumell J., Guerrero M., and Delgado M. , 40th IAHS Word Congress of Housing. Sustainable Housing Construction., 16-19 December 2, Funchal, Portugal, p.ID 307 (10p), (2014) Abstract40_iahs_chastre_-_ext.abstract.pdf

Sandstone building stones are important in the building elements of Portuguese monuments, particularly in the western and southern regions. Alveolization due to salt crystallization was the most important degradation pattern found in the old sandstone façades of St. Leonardo’s Church, a Portuguese monument built in Atouguia da Baleia village in the Middle Age. Its sandstone façades have a widespread distribution of deep and large alveolization patterns mainly on portals and vaults that appeared as a result of the past and present vicinity of seashore. In this paper a summary of conservation interventions carried out in the past century in St. Leonardo’s Church is presented, as well as a summary of the studies carried out in the last decade. Then the degradation patterns on the sandstone walls of St. Leonard’s Church are shown and finally the evolution of the alveolization occurred on the sandstone walls over the last sixty to seventy years is analysed. Visual inspection of sandstone walls is compared with a survey performed by laser scanning, which seems to be a powerful technology to carry out 3D geometric modelling of the building elements of stone monuments and also the 3D mapping of stone degradation patterns.

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Theoretical analysis of fracture in double overlap bonded joints with frp composites and thin steel plates, Biscaia, Hugo C., and Chastre Carlos , Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 2018/03/01/, Volume 190, p.435-460, (2018) AbstractWebsite

The effective stress transfer between the fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) and the steel substrate is crucial for the successful retrofit of existing steel structures with FRP composites. However, there are no standard tests for FRP-to-steel interfaces, wherefore different test configurations have been used in recent years to assess the bond behaviour in these interfaces. The present study shows that the choice of test configuration is highly important and leads to different transfer stresses between the FRP and steel composites and consequently, has a direct influence on the strength of the bonded joint. Therefore, it is important to understand the debonding process that occurs in each test and avoid misinterpretations, erroneous analyses and dangerous characterizations of the interfacial behaviour of these interfaces. The current study presents a new analytical approach for the prediction of the debonding of FRP-to-steel interfaces when double-lap pull or double-strap tests are used.

Torres pré-fabricadas de betão para suporte de turbinas eólicas, Chastre, Carlos, and Lúcio Válter , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.91-106, (2012) Abstract
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Towards the structural codification of recycled aggregate concrete, Pacheco, João Nuno, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , UKIERI Concrete Congress. Concrete: The Global Builder, March 5-8, 2019, Jalandhar, Punjab, India, (2019) Abstract

This paper analyses the studies made so far on the variability and reliability of recycled aggregate concrete. Since recycled aggregate concrete is seen by different agents of the construction industry as a variable material and no structural code has specifically been calibrated to its use, its role as a structural material is limited. Such calibration is hindered since specific research on the statistical and probabilistic data of recycled aggregate concrete properties is lacking.Investigations on the probabilistic knowledge of recycled aggregates and recycled aggregate concrete properties are discussed, and the studies made so far on the reliability of recycled aggregate concrete elements are summarised. Final remarks regarding the future prospects towards the consensual acceptance of recycled aggregate concrete structures are provided.

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UFRG – Unidirectional fibre reinforced grout as strengthening material for reinforced concrete structures, Gião, R., Lúcio V., Chastre C., and Bras A. , BEFIB2012 – Fibre reinforced concrete, Guimarães, (2012) Abstractgiao2012vlchbr.pdf

The present study is part of an extensive research project, where the main objective is to evaluate a strengthening solution for reinforced concrete structures using a small thickness jacketing in the compression side of the RC element with unidirectional fiber reinforced grout - UFRG.
For this purpose a high performance cementitious grout reinforced with continuous and unidirectional non woven fibermat has been developed. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. Besides, for continuous fibers (with an aspect ratio, defined as the length-to-diameter ratio, l/d=∞), the composite should attain higher tensile strength since the fiber embedment length is enough to prevent fiber pullout.
The experimental campaign included a set of preliminary tests that allowed the design of the fiber reinforced grout, sustained with rheological parameters [7] and mechanical characterization tests of the materials.
Finally, an experimental campaign was carried out in order to proceed to the mechanical characterization of the unidirectional fiber reinforced grout. Compressive tests were conducted in small thickness tubular specimens that enable the determination of the compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity of the material. The tensile strength of the material was obtained using splitting tests of cubic specimens (according the standard DIN 1048-5). The experimental results are presented and analyzed.

Uncertainty models of reinforced concrete beams in bending: code comparison and recycled aggregate incorporation, Pacheco, J., de Brito J., Chastre C., and Evangelista L. , Journal of Structural Engineering, 2019/04/01, Volume 145, Number 4, p.04019013, (2019) AbstractWebsite

The bias factor of the Eurocode 2 [CEN (European Committee for Standardization) (2008). Eurocode 2: Design of ConcreteStructures–Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings] and ACI 318 [ACI (American Concrete Institute) (2014). Building CodeRequirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary] flexural resistance models of reinforced concrete beams are compared withemphasis on the effect of the incorporation of coarse recycled aggregates sourced from concrete waste. The bias factor of the yielding momentcalculations according to both codes is also investigated, and the bias in the cracking moment when Eurocode 2 material clauses are used. Thedatabase was composed of 174 beams, and the criteria that led to its development are discussed. The effect of recycled aggregate incorporationon the statistical descriptors of the bias factor is evaluated and probabilistic modeling using lognormal distributions is argued for. Preliminarypartial safety factors for the bias factor of recycled aggregate concrete beams are proposed. No significant differences in the bias of theultimate moment were found between the two comparison vectors: Eurocode 2 versus ACI 318 specifications and recycled versus naturalcoarse aggregate. The bias of the cracking moment increased when coarse recycled aggregates were incorporated, most probably due to thehigher heterogeneity of recycled aggregates.

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Visão Integrada da Reabilitação, Faria, Paulina, and Chastre Carlos , Paredes 2015. Reabilitação e Inovação., 18 de Junho 2015, Lisboa, p.1-20, (2015) Abstractpaulina_faria_e_carlos_chastre_-_visao_integrada_da_reabilitacao.pdf

A reabilitação de um edifício tem muitas vezes de ser analisada e efetuada tendo em conta os edifícios vizinhos e a envolvente. No caso particular da reabilitação de um edifício, à partida devem considerar-se, de forma integrada, todos os requisitos que não são cumpridos face aos padrões atuais. Com base nessa análise, e tendo em conta muitas vezes condicionantes vários, que vão desde estéticos, técnicos, culturais a económicos, e que dependem em larga medida das tipologias construtivas, a intervenção tem de ser cuidadosamente concebida, preparada e executada. Apresentam-se sinteticamente as tipologias construtivas mais correntes, o contexto legislativo português da construção e específico da reabilitação. Efetua-se uma análise à legislação vigente, detalhando com maior detalhe o Regime Especial da Reabilitação Urbana, que possibilita dispensas de cumprimentos regulamentares mas apenas relativos a aspetos construtivos. Por esse motivo apresenta-se também uma síntese de aspetos relativos à segurança estrutural na reabilitação de edifícios com tipologias correntes. Pretende-se, através desta síntese, contribuir para uma visão mais integrada da reabilitação.