Reliability of the bond strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete

Reliability of the bond strength of recycled coarse aggregate concrete, Pacheco, João, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures, May, 27-29, 2019, Kraków, Poland, p.913-920, (2019) copy at

Date Presented:

May, 27-29, 2019


An analysis on the effect of the incorporation of coarse recycled concrete aggregates on the bond strength between concrete and embedded steel reinforcement is presented. The model’s uncertainty of the Level I provision of the anchorage length of fib Bulletin 72 on ribbed steel/recycled aggregate concrete bond is quantified. Afterwards, reliability analyses on the bond strength are made and a partial safety factor for the anchorage length of recycled concrete elements is proposed. The model’s uncertainty is evaluated through data from pullout tests, the only type of bond test that has been so far performed extensively on recycled aggregate concrete specimens. The limitations of this test in reproducing the bond of actual structural elements is discussed, and the model’s uncertainty is converted to that of lap splice tests. The bond strength of recycled aggregate concrete design was found to be less reliable than that of natural aggregate concrete, especially in the absence of confining reinforcement. For concrete with full recycled aggregate incorporation, a 25% increase in the anchorage length is proposed. Additional testing on the bond strength of lapped splices or beam-end specimens is recommended.


ACI-408. (2003). Bond and development of straight reinforcing bars in tension (49 pages). Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA

Arezoumandi, M., Steele, A. R., & Volz, J. S. (2018). Evaluation of the bond strengths between concrete and reinforcement as a function of recycled concrete aggregate replacement level. Structures, 16, 73-81. doi: 10.1016/j.istruc.2018.08.012

Bartlett, F. M., & MacGregor, J. G. (1996). Statistical Analysis of the Compressive Strength of Concrete in Structures. ACI MATER J, 93(2), 158-168. doi: 10.14359/1353

Butler, L. J., West, J. S., & Tighe, S. (2015). Bond of reinforcement in concrete incorporating recycled concrete aggregates. J STRUCT ENG, 141(3), B4014001. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000928

Cairns, J., & Plizzari, G. (2003). Towards a harmonised European bond test. MATER STRUCT 36(8), 498. doi: 10.1007/bf02480826

Chiriatti, L., Hafid, H., Mercado-Mendoza, H. R., Apedo, K. L., Fond, C., & Feugeas, F. (2018). Influence of recycled concrete aggregate content on the rebar/concrete bond properties through pull-out tests and acoustic emission measurements. International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, 135, 276-283.

D'Alessandro, A., Breccolotti, M., & Materazzi, A. L. (2012). Theoretical and experimental investigation on bond between steel rebars and recycled aggregate concrete. Presented at the Bond In Concrete 2012,

Brescia, Italy.Eracons, R. C. (2016). Strurel software for reliability analysis -Comrel, Sysrel, Costrel: Users Manual Etxeberria, M., Vazquez, E., Mari, A., & Barra, M. (2007). Influence of amount of recycled coarse aggregates and production process on properties of recycled aggregate concrete. CEMENT CONCRETE RES 37(5), 735-742. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.02.002

Fathifazl, G., Razaqpur, A. G., Isgor, O. B., Abbas, A., Fournier, B., & Foo, S. (2012). Bond performance of deformed steel bars in concrete produced with coarse recycled concrete aggregate. CAN J CIVIL ENG 39(2), 128-139. doi: 10.1139/l11-120

FIB. (2013). Bulletin n. 70: Code-type models for concrete behaviour (196 pages). Lausanne, Switzerland. FIB. (2014). Bulletin n. 72: Bond and anchorage of embedded reinforcement: Background to the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 (177 pages). Lausanne, Switzerland.

Gaurav, G., & Singh, B. (2018). Experimental investigation of bond behavior with tension lap splice for deformed steel bars in recycled aggregate concrete. Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, 7(2), 99-121. doi: 10.1080/21650373.2017.1344589

Guerra, M., Ceia, F., de Brito, J., & Julio, E. (2014). Anchorage of steel rebars to recycled aggregates concrete. CONSTR BUILD MATER, 72, 113-123. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.08.081

Hamad, B. S., Dawi, A. H., Daou, A., & Chehab, G. R. (2018). Studies of the effect of recycled aggregates on flexural, shear, and bond splitting beam structural behavior. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 9, e00186. doi: 10.1016/j.cscm.2018.e00186

Henry, M., Hagiwara, K., Nishimura, T., & Kato, Y. (2011). Effect of recycled aggregate quality on variation and estimation of concrete strength. Proceedings of the Japan Concrete Institute, 33(1), 1535-1540.JCSS. (2001). Probabilistic Model Code Part 3: Material properties (41 pages).

Kim, S.-W., Park, W.-S., Jang, Y.-I., Jang, S.-J., & Yun, H.-D. (2017). Bonding behavior of deformed steel rebars in sustainable concrete containing both fine and coarse recycled aggregates. Materials, 10(9), 1082.

Kim, S.-W., & Yun, H.-D. (2013). Influence of recycled coarse aggregates on the bond behavior of deformed bars in concrete. ENG STRUCT 48, 133-143. doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.10.009

Kim, S.-W., & Yun, H.-D. (2014). Evaluation of the bond behavior of steel reinforcing bars in recycled fine aggregate concrete. CEMENT CONCRETE COMP 46, 8-18. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.10.013

Kim, S.-W., Yun, H.-D., Park, W.-S., & Jang, Y.-I. (2015). Bond strength prediction for deformed steel rebar embedded in recycled coarse aggregate concrete. MATER DESIGN, 83, 257-269. doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.008

Kim, S. H., & Hong, S. U. (2014). Bond characteristics of high strength concrete with recycled aggregate and FRP bar. Asian Journal of Chemistry 26(17), 5847-5851.

Pacheco, J., de Brito, J., Chastre, C., & Evangelista, L. (2019a) Experimental investigation on the variability of the main mechanical properties of recycled aggregate concrete. CONSTR BUILD MATER, 201, 110-120. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.12.200

Pacheco, J., de Brito, J., Chastre, C., & Evangelista, L. (2019b) Uncertainty models of reinforced concrete beams in bending: code comparison and recycled aggregate incorporation. J STRUCT ENG, 145(4), 04019013. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943541X.0002296.

Pacheco, J., de Brito, J., Chastre, C., & Evangelista, L (2019c). Probabilistic conversion of the compressive strength of cubes to cylinders of natural and recycled aggregate concrete specimens, MATERIALS, 12(2), 280. doi: 10.3390/ma12020280.

Prince, M. J., & Singh, B. (2014a). Bond behaviour between recycled aggregate concrete and deformed steel bars. MATER STRUCT 47(3), 503-516. doi: 10.1617/s11527-013-0075-8

Prince, M. J., & Singh, B. (2014b). Bond strength of deformed steel bars in high-strength recycled aggregate concrete. MATER STRUCT 1-16. doi: 10.1617/s11527-014-0452-y

Prince, M. J. R., Gaurav, G., & Singh, B. (2017). Splice strength of deformed steel bars embedded in recycled aggregate concrete. Structures, 10, 130-138. doi: 10.1016/j.istruc.2017.03.001

Prince, M. J. R., & Singh, B. (2013). Bond behaviour of deformed steel bars embedded in recycled aggregate concrete. CONSTR BUILD MATER, 49, 852-862. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.08.031

Prince, M. J. R., & Singh, B. (2015). Bond behaviour of normal- and high-strength recycled aggregate concrete. STRUCT CONCRETE, 16(1), 56-70. doi: 10.1002/suco.201300101

Seara-Paz, S., González-Fonteboa, B., Eiras-López, J., & Herrador, M. F. (2013). Bond behavior between steel reinforcement and recycled concrete. MATER STRUCT 47(1-2), 323-334. doi: 10.1617/s11527-013-0063-z

Siempu, R., & Pancharthi, R. K. (2017). Bond characteristics of concrete made of recycled aggregates from building demolition waste. MAG CONCRETE RES, 69(13), 665-682. doi: 10.1680/jmacr.16.00400

Missouri Department of Transportation. (2014). Recycled concrete aggregate for infrastructure elements. Report C: bond behavior of mild reinforceing steel in RCA concrete (pp. 142). Rolla, Missouri University of Science and Technology.

Wang, H.-l. (2016). Steel–concrete bond behaviour of self-compacting concrete with recycled aggregates. MAG CONCRETE RES, 68(13), 678-691. doi: 10.1680/jmacr.15.00143

Wardeh, G., Ghorbel, E., Gomart, H., & Fiorio, B. (2016). Experimental and analytical study of bond behavior between recycled aggregate concrete and steel bars using a pullout test. STRUCT CONCRETE, doi: 10.1002/suco.201600155

Xiao, J., & Falkner, H. (2007). Bond behaviour between recycled aggregate concrete and steel rebars. CONSTR BUILD MATER, 21(2), 395-401. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.08.008

Xiao, J., Li, J., & Zhang, C. (2005). On statistical characteristics of the compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete. STRUCT CONCRETE, 6(4), 149-153. doi: 10.1680/stco.2005.6.4.149

Xiao, J., Zhang, K., & Xie, Q. (2016). Reliability analysis for flexural capacity of recycled aggregate concrete beams. Structural Engineering International, 26(2), 121-129. doi: 10.2749/101686616X14555428758920

Yang, H., Deng, Z., & Ingham, J. M. (2016). Bond position function between corroded reinforcement and recycled aggregate concrete using beam tests. CONSTR BUILD MATER, 127, 518-526. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.10.008