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Uncertainty models of reinforced concrete beams in bending: code comparison and recycled aggregate incorporation, Pacheco, J., de Brito J., Chastre C., and Evangelista L. , Journal of Structural Engineering, 2019/04/01, Volume 145, Number 4, p.04019013, (2019) AbstractWebsite

The bias factor of the Eurocode 2 [CEN (European Committee for Standardization) (2008). Eurocode 2: Design of ConcreteStructures–Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings] and ACI 318 [ACI (American Concrete Institute) (2014). Building CodeRequirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary] flexural resistance models of reinforced concrete beams are compared withemphasis on the effect of the incorporation of coarse recycled aggregates sourced from concrete waste. The bias factor of the yielding momentcalculations according to both codes is also investigated, and the bias in the cracking moment when Eurocode 2 material clauses are used. Thedatabase was composed of 174 beams, and the criteria that led to its development are discussed. The effect of recycled aggregate incorporationon the statistical descriptors of the bias factor is evaluated and probabilistic modeling using lognormal distributions is argued for. Preliminarypartial safety factors for the bias factor of recycled aggregate concrete beams are proposed. No significant differences in the bias of theultimate moment were found between the two comparison vectors: Eurocode 2 versus ACI 318 specifications and recycled versus naturalcoarse aggregate. The bias of the cracking moment increased when coarse recycled aggregates were incorporated, most probably due to thehigher heterogeneity of recycled aggregates.

UFRG – Unidirectional fibre reinforced grout as strengthening material for reinforced concrete structures, Gião, R., Lúcio V., Chastre C., and Bras A. , BEFIB2012 – Fibre reinforced concrete, Guimarães, (2012) Abstract

The present study is part of an extensive research project, where the main objective is to evaluate a strengthening solution for reinforced concrete structures using a small thickness jacketing in the compression side of the RC element with unidirectional fiber reinforced grout - UFRG.
For this purpose a high performance cementitious grout reinforced with continuous and unidirectional non woven fibermat has been developed. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. It was expected that the use of these type of fibers allowed an optimization of its percentage and orientation. Besides, for continuous fibers (with an aspect ratio, defined as the length-to-diameter ratio, l/d=∞), the composite should attain higher tensile strength since the fiber embedment length is enough to prevent fiber pullout.
The experimental campaign included a set of preliminary tests that allowed the design of the fiber reinforced grout, sustained with rheological parameters [7] and mechanical characterization tests of the materials.
Finally, an experimental campaign was carried out in order to proceed to the mechanical characterization of the unidirectional fiber reinforced grout. Compressive tests were conducted in small thickness tubular specimens that enable the determination of the compressive strength and the static modulus of elasticity of the material. The tensile strength of the material was obtained using splitting tests of cubic specimens (according the standard DIN 1048-5). The experimental results are presented and analyzed.