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Surveying of Sandstone Monuments: New and Traditional Methodologies to Assess Viability of Conservation Actions, Chastre, C., Ludovico-Marques M., Saumell J., Guerrero M., and Delgado M. , 40th IAHS Word Congress of Housing. Sustainable Housing Construction., 16-19 December 2, Funchal, Portugal, p.ID 307 (10p), (2014) Abstract40_iahs_chastre_-_ext.abstract.pdf

Sandstone building stones are important in the building elements of Portuguese monuments, particularly in the western and southern regions. Alveolization due to salt crystallization was the most important degradation pattern found in the old sandstone façades of St. Leonardo’s Church, a Portuguese monument built in Atouguia da Baleia village in the Middle Age. Its sandstone façades have a widespread distribution of deep and large alveolization patterns mainly on portals and vaults that appeared as a result of the past and present vicinity of seashore. In this paper a summary of conservation interventions carried out in the past century in St. Leonardo’s Church is presented, as well as a summary of the studies carried out in the last decade. Then the degradation patterns on the sandstone walls of St. Leonard’s Church are shown and finally the evolution of the alveolization occurred on the sandstone walls over the last sixty to seventy years is analysed. Visual inspection of sandstone walls is compared with a survey performed by laser scanning, which seems to be a powerful technology to carry out 3D geometric modelling of the building elements of stone monuments and also the 3D mapping of stone degradation patterns.

Statistical analysis of Portuguese ready-mixed concrete production, Pacheco, João Nuno, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Construction and Building Materials, 2019/06/10/, Volume 209, p.283-294, (2019) AbstractWebsite

This paper evaluates and compares the statistics of compressive strength data from three Portuguese ready-mixed concrete plants. A hierarchical model showed that different groups of concrete strength records are not statistically equivalent, even if they were produced in the same plant and using the same concrete composition. This finding is related to autocorrelation. For the same specified strength class, compositions produced less often result in higher average compressive strength and variability. The statistics of one of the plants were quite different from those of the others, even though the concrete of this plant also complied with the specifications. It was found that the average compressive strength of a mix may be quite dependent on the plant that produced it, even if the compressive strength complies with quality control specifications. Conformity with the target slump and strength class was checked following the conformity criteria of EN 206-1 for continuous production. Nonconformity with slump is more frequent than failure to comply with the strength class. A bias factor for reliability analyses was proposed.

Stainless steel bonded to concrete: An experimental assessment using the DIC technique, Biscaia, Hugo, Franco Noel, and Chastre Carlos , International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, January 30, Volume 12, Number 1, (2018) AbstractWebsite

The durability performance of stainless steel makes it an interesting alternative for the structural strengthening of reinforced concrete. Like external steel plates or fibre reinforced polymers, stainless steel can be applied using externally bonded reinforcement (EBR) or the near surface mounted (NSM) bonding techniques. In the present work, a set of single-lap shear tests were carried out using the EBR and NSM bonding techniques. The evaluation of the performance of the bonding interfaces was done with the help of the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The tests showed that the measurements gathered with DIC should be used with caution, since there is noise in the distribution of the slips and only the slips greater than one-tenth of a millimetre were fairly well predicted. For this reason, the slips had to be smoothed out to make it easier to determine the strains in the stainless steel and the bond stress transfer between materials, which helps to determine the bond–slip relationship of the interface. Moreover, the DIC technique allowed to identify all the states developed within the interface through the load–slip responses which were also closely predicted with other monitoring devices. Considering the NSM and the EBR samples with the same bonded lengths, it can be stated that the NSM system has the best performance due to their higher strength, being observed the rupture of the stainless steel in the samples with bond lengths of 200 and 300 mm. Associated with this higher strength, the NSM specimens had an effective bond length of 168 mm which is 71.5% of that obtained for the EBR specimens (235 mm). A trapezoidal and a power functions are the proposed shapes to describe the interfacial bond–slip relationships of the NSM and EBR systems, respectively, where the maximum bond stress in the former system is 1.8 times the maximum bond stress of the latter one.

A smeared crack analysis of reinforced concrete T-beams strengthened with GFRP composites, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Engineering Structures, 11//, Volume 56, p.1346-1361, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The strengthening of reinforced concrete structures with laminates of fibre reinforced polymeric (FRP) matrix has received considerable attention, although there still is lack of information on the more adequate modelling of the interface between FRP composites and concrete. An experimental programme is described and was designed to: (i) characterise glass FRP-to-concrete interface by shear tests; (ii) analyse reinforced concrete T-beams with external GFRP plates. Double shear tests were carried out based on 15 cm cubes with GFRP bonded to two opposite faces. The concrete T-beams were 3.0 m long and 0.28 m high and were loaded till rupture in 4-point bending tests. The external reinforcement system showed great strength increment in relation to the non retrofitted T-beam, confirming to be an effective approach to the flexural strengthening of RC beams. The computational analysis was based on a three dimensional smeared crack model. In total, 22 computational analyses were made. Models with and without interface FE associated with Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for the FRP-to-concrete interface were defined and different strength types of concrete were considered. The rigid interface does not predict the rupture of the T-beam with precision; however, the results obtained for low concrete strengths revealed that rigid interfaces can be assumed when conjugated with the fixed crack approach. Consequently, a slightly stiffer response of the beam is obtained. The maximum bond stresses obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) revealed that the models with rigid interfaces developed lower bond stresses due to the lack of relative displacements between both materials. The effects of assuming either fixed or rotated crack approaches were also compared. The rotated crack conjugated to a fine mesh in the vicinity of the GFRP-to-concrete stress led to a very good estimation of the bond stresses along the interface. The prediction of the T-beam rupture was also estimated with better results when the rotated crack was used in the model. In general, the FEA predicted with very good results the de-bonding of the GFRP-to-concrete interface of T-beams externally bonded with GFRP composites.

Size and Relative Stiffness Effects on Compressive Failure of Concrete Columns Wrapped with Glass FRP, Silva, M. A. G., and Rodrigues C. C. , Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Volume 18, Issue 3, p.334-342, (2006) AbstractWebsite

Structural design relies essentially on tests made on cylinders of small size to estimate the probability of failure of prototype members, since full-scale testing of structures to determine their strength is not feasible. The confidence that such scale modeling deserves in terms of representation of actual behavior needs careful examination, due to such factors as material nonlinearities, difficulties of scale representation of particulate materials, and sometimes the impossibility of simultaneously satisfying independent dimensionless parameters. Some failures explained by linear fracture mechanics are associable with strong size effects, as opposed to the cases where small cracks are a material property. Besides research centered on these problems, a number of studies of scale effects have been associated with the increased probability of finding a flaw in larger objects. In fact, geometric similitude may coexist with microscopic randomness of flaws that cause size effects to appear. The type of material of the object under study may also be a decisive factor. For example, scatter of the mechanical properties in unidirectional fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) is much larger than in metals due to a larger density of flaws. Thus the strength of FRP laminates may depend on the volume of material involved. Strengthening reinforced concrete columns with FRP wraps leads to new constitutive laws for the overall response of the columns and requires small-scale testing followed by extrapolation for design use. The present paper focuses on the difficulties of this step, based on the experimental data obtained. The questions mentioned above are addressed, and the relevance of the adequate representation of the lateral stiffness of the FRP jacket in the scaled cylinders is emphasized. The paper also addresses the problem of testing confined cylinders with a given slenderness ratio H/D=height/diameter, within the range usually characteristic of short columns, and extrapolating the results for columns of different H/D. The importance of the parameter (thickness of jacket/diameter of column, representative of stiffness of jacket/stiffness of concrete core) is also examined. The influence of the parameter is shown to be relatively minor, whereas the nonscaling of the relative stiffness of the core and jacket would be a major cause of error. The experimental data, in terms of strain and strength, are also compared with numerical models proposed in the literature, and the quality of the approximations is analyzed.

A Simple Method for the Determination of the Bond-Slip Model of Artificially Aged Joints, Biscaia, Hugo C., Chastre Carlos, and Silva Manuel A. G. , Journal of Composites for Construction, Volume 23, Number 4, p.04019028, (2019) AbstractWebsite

The durability of adhesively bonded fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) and concrete substrates has been the subject of recent studies. The degradation of bonded interfaces conjugated with other factors that affect the interface strength may compromise the potentialities of using FRP in externally bonded reinforced (EBR) concrete structures. However, the estimation of the effects of degradation on these bonded interfaces and the analytical methodologies to quantify them are not fully understood. The present work focuses on a local bond-slip model characterized by two parameters for which the values are obtained experimentally. Then, the determination of the local bond-slip relationship of a glass (G) FRP-to-concrete interface can be estimated. The assessment of the degradation of the bonded interface when subjected to cycles of (1) salt fog; (2) wet-dry environments with salt water; (3) temperatures between −10°C and +30°C; and (4) temperatures between +7.5°C and +47.5°C is presented. The results obtained using the proposed bond-slip model led to the conclusion that after 10,000 h of exposure to temperature cycles between −10°C and +30°C, there was a small change in the GFRP-to-concrete interface performance, whereas the effects on the bonded interface for the specimens subjected to temperature cycles between +7.5°C and +47.5°C were far more most severe.

A simple analytical approach for creep analysis of EB-FRP systems, Biscaia, H., and Chastre C. , Key Engineering Materials , (2018) Abstract

Based on a few experimental results available in the literature, this work presents a simple analytical approach that allows the study of the long-term behaviour of CFRP-to-concrete interfaces under an initial sustaining load. Only the elastic regime is studied, which means that the interfacial maximum bond stress and maximum slip are never exceeded. Therefore, the maximum initial load to be sustained by the joints is limited by its corresponding elastic value. The analytical results provided by the proposed model are compared with some experimental results found in the literature. The results showed strain redistribution throughout the bonded length over the time.

Seismic Strengthening of RC Beam-Column Connections, Gião, R., Lúcio V., and Chastre C. , 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Lisbon, (2012) Abstract


Scatter of constitutive models of the mechanical properties of concrete: comparison of major international codes, Pacheco, João Nuno, de Brito Jorge, Chastre Carlos, and Evangelista Luís , Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, March 19, 2019, Volume 17, Number 3, p.102-125, (2019) AbstractWebsite

An investigation on the scatter of code-type constitutive models that relate compressive strength (fc) with tensile strength (fct) and Young’s modulus (Ec) of standard concrete specimens is presented. The influence of the mix design on the accuracy of the fc vs. fct and fc vs. Ecrelationships is discussed, with emphasis on the lithological type and morphology of the coarse aggregates. The uncertainty of the constitutive models is analysed in probabilistic terms and random variables that model the uncertainty of the fc vs. fct and fc vs. Ec relationships are proposed for reliability analyses of serviceability limit states. The suitability of the models proposed is assessed through preliminary conservative estimates of their design values.