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g Lorenz, M.a, Ramachandra Rao Venkatesan Fortunato Barquinha Branquinho Salgueiro Martins Carlos Liu Shan Grundmann Boschker Mukherjee Priyada M. S. b T. "The 2016 oxide electronic materials and oxide interfaces roadmap." Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 49 (2016). AbstractWebsite

Oxide electronic materials provide a plethora of possible applications and offer ample opportunity for scientists to probe into some of the exciting and intriguing phenomena exhibited by oxide systems and oxide interfaces. In addition to the already diverse spectrum of properties, the nanoscale form of oxides provides a new dimension of hitherto unknown phenomena due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio. Oxide electronic materials are becoming increasingly important in a wide range of applications including transparent electronics, optoelectronics, magnetoelectronics, photonics, spintronics, thermoelectrics, piezoelectrics, power harvesting, hydrogen storage and environmental waste management. Synthesis and fabrication of these materials, as well as processing into particular device structures to suit a specific application is still a challenge. Further, characterization of these materials to understand the tunability of their properties and the novel properties that evolve due to their nanostructured nature is another facet of the challenge. The research related to the oxide electronic field is at an impressionable stage, and this has motivated us to contribute with a roadmap on 'oxide electronic materials and oxide interfaces'. This roadmap envisages the potential applications of oxide materials in cutting edge technologies and focuses on the necessary advances required to implement these materials, including both conventional and novel techniques for the synthesis, characterization, processing and fabrication of nanostructured oxides and oxide-based devices. The contents of this roadmap will highlight the functional and correlated properties of oxides in bulk, nano, thin film, multilayer and heterostructure forms, as well as the theoretical considerations behind both present and future applications in many technologically important areas as pointed out by Venkatesan. The contributions in this roadmap span several thematic groups which are represented by the following authors: novel field effect transistors and bipolar devices by Fortunato, Grundmann, Boschker, Rao, and Rogers; energy conversion and saving by Zaban, Weidenkaff, and Murakami; new opportunities of photonics by Fompeyrine, and Zuniga-Perez; multiferroic materials including novel phenomena by Ramesh, Spaldin, Mertig, Lorenz, Srinivasan, and Prellier; and concepts for topological oxide electronics by Kawasaki, Pentcheva, and Gegenwart. Finally, Miletto Granozio presents the European action 'towards oxide-based electronics' which develops an oxide electronics roadmap with emphasis on future nonvolatile memories and the required technologies. In summary, we do hope that this oxide roadmap appears as an interesting up-to-date snapshot on one of the most exciting and active areas of solid state physics, materials science, and chemistry, which even after many years of very successful development shows in short intervals novel insights and achievements. Guest editors: M S Ramachandra Rao and Michael Lorenz. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Águas, H., Pereira Costa Barquinha Pereira Fortunato Martins S. D. P. "3 dimensional polymorphous silicon based metal-insulator-semiconductor position sensitive detectors." Thin Solid Films. 515 (2007): 7530-7533. AbstractWebsite

In this work we investigate the properties of a polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure used in 3D position sensitive detectors (PSD). For the first time a 3D sensor made-up by pm-Si:H/SiO2/Au layers is presented. MIS structures present several advantages over p-i-n structures, such as easier fabrication, fast response time and higher resolution. The 1D MIS PSD that constitute the array were extensively studied aiming its application in 3D pattern recognition. The results obtained show that MIS PSD can achieve non-linearities below 2% and sensitivities of 3.2 μA/cm over 6 mm length sensors. The miniaturization of the sensors length to arrays of 6 and 16 mm, respectively showed average non-linearities of about 1.9% for the 16 mm sensor which proved to be the best solution for this MIS structure. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

b b b b b b b Martins, R.a b, Figueiredo Silva Águas Soares Marques Ferreira Fortunato J. a V. a. "32 Linear array position sensitive detector based on NIP and hetero a-Si:H microdevices." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 299-302 (2002): 1283-1288. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we present results concerning the performance exhibited by an integrated array of 32 one-dimensional amorphous silicon thin film position sensitive detectors based on nip and hetero amorphous silicon structures, with a total active area size below 1 cm2 linearity, its spatial resolution and response time, that make it one of the most interesting analog detector to be used in unmanned optical inspection control systems where a continuous detection process is required. This opens a wide range of applications for amorphous silicon devices in the area of image processing. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Contreras, J.a, Gomes Filonovich Correia Fortunato Martins Ferreira L. b S. a. "3D scanning characteristics of an amorphous silicon position sensitive detector array system." Optics Express. 20 (2012): 4583-4602. AbstractWebsite

The 3D scanning electro-optical characteristics of a data acquisition prototype system integrating a 32 linear array of 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD) were analyzed. The system was mounted on a platform for imaging 3D objects using the triangulation principle with a sheet-of-light laser. New obtained results reveal a minimum possible gap or simulated defect detection of approximately 350 μm. Furthermore, a first study of the angle for 3D scanning was also performed, allowing for a broad range of angles to be used in the process. The relationship between the scanning angle of the incident light onto the object and the image displacement distance on the sensor was determined for the first time in this system setup. Rendering of 3D object profiles was performed at a significantly higher number of frames than in the past and was possible for an incident light angle range of 15 ° to 85 °. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a, Tavares Barquinha Duarte Cardoso De Oliveira Martins Fortunato V. G. a P. "A-GIZO TFT neural modeling, circuit simulation and validation." Solid-State Electronics. 105 (2015): 30-36. AbstractWebsite

Development time and accuracy are measures that need to be taken into account when devising device models for a new technology. If complex circuits need to be designed immediately, then it is very important to reduce the time taken to realize the model. Solely based on data measurements, artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methodologies are capable of capturing small and large signal behavior of the transistor, with good accuracy, thus becoming excellent alternatives to more strenuous modeling approaches, such as physical and semi-empirical. This paper then addresses a static modeling methodology for amorphous Gallium-Indium-Zinc-Oxide - Thin Film Transistor (a-GIZO TFT), with different ANNs, namely: multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis functions (RBF) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM). The modeling performance is validated by comparing the model outcome with measured data extracted from a real device. In case of a single transistor modeling and under the same training conditions, all the ANN approaches revealed a very good level of accuracy for large- and small-signal parameters (gm and gd), both in linear and saturation regions. However, in comparison to RBF and LS-SVM, the MLP achieves a very acceptable degree of accuracy with lesser complexity. The impact on simulation time is strongly related with model complexity, revealing that MLP is the most suitable approach for circuit simulations among the three ANNs. Accordingly, MLP is then extended for multiple TFTs with different aspect ratios and the network implemented in Verilog-A to be used with electric simulators. Further, a simple circuit (inverter) is simulated from the developed model and then the simulation outcome is validated with the fabricated circuit response. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

Vieira, M., Martins Fortunato Soares Guimarães R. E. F. "A-Si:H ambipolar diffusion length and effective lifetime measured by flying spot (FST) and spectral photovoltage (SPT) techniques." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 137-138 (1991): 479-482. AbstractWebsite

On this paper we report the physical model that supports the theory of the Flying Spot Technique (FST). Through this technique it is possible to determine separately the ambipolar diffusion length (L*) and the effective lifetime (τ*) of the generated carriers, using either Schottky diodes or quasi-ohmic sandwich structures. We also report a new static method based on the Spectral Photovoltage (SPT) that allows to infer the ambipolar diffusion length and to estimate the surface recombination velocity. © 1991 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.

Pereira, L.a, Brida Fortunato Ferreira Águas Silva Costa Teixeira Martins D. a E. a. "a-Si:H interface optimisation for thin film position sensitive detectors produced on polymeric substrates." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 299-302 (2002): 1289-1294. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we present results concerning the optimisation of the electronic and mechanical properties presented by amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films produced on polyimide (Kapton® VN) substrates with different thicknesses (25, 50 and 75 μm) by the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique. The purpose of this study is to obtain a low defect density as well as low residual stresses (specially at the interface) in order to provide good performances for large area (10 mm wide by 80 mm long) flexible position sensitive detectors. The electrical and optical properties presented by the films will be correlated to the sensor characteristics. The properties of samples have been measured by dark/photoconductivity, constant photocurrent measurements (CPM) and the results have been compared with films deposited on Corning 7059 glass substrates during the same run deposition. The residual stresses were measured using an active optical triangulation and angle resolved scattering. The preliminary results indicate that the thinner polymeric substrate with 25 μm presents the highest density of states, which is associated to the residual stresses and strains associated within the film. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Vieira, M., Fantoni Macarico Soares Martins A. A. F. "a-Si:H optical speed detector based on the flying spot technique." Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Vol. 1. 1994. 571-574. Abstract

We have developed in the past a transient technique called Flying Spot Technique (FST)[1], based on the lateral photoeffect. It allows to determine the ambipolar diffusion length and the effective lifetime of the photogenerated carriers, once the light spot velocity and geometry of the structure are known. We propose to apply this technique backwards in order to detect the path and velocity of an object that is moving toward a light source direction. The light back reflected is analyzed by a p.i.n structure measuring the transient transverse photovoltage which is dependent on the object movement (position and velocity). Details concerning material characterization and device geometry will be presented.

Vieira, M., Fantoni Fortunato Lavareda Martins A. E. G. "AD-layer for spatial control of light induced degradation on pin devices." Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 336. 1994. 741-746. Abstract

In this work we report experimental results on light induced metastability of a-Si: H p.i.n. devices with different microscopic/macroscopic structures and we discuss them in terms of improved stability through spatial control of charged defects grown during light exposure. By placing a thin (few A) intrinsic layer (i) between both p/i and i/n a-Si: H interfaces we are able to reduce the effective degradation rate through spatial modification of the electric field profile in the device. The electronic transport and the stability changes that accompany the change in microstructure (R) and hydrogen content (CH) of the i- and i′-layer, were monitored throughout the entire light induced degradation process and compared with the corresponding μT product (for both carriers) inferred through steady state photoconductivity and Flying Spot Technique (FST) measurements. Results show that the degradation rate is a function of CH and R of both layers and can be correlated with the density of microvoids and di-hydride bonding. Since the i′-layers have a higher CH bonded mainly as SiF2 radicals (R≈0.4), they act as an hindrance to the growth of the defect, in the active region, generating "gettering centers" whose localisation and density are tailored in such a way that they will control spatially the electric field profile during light exposure. Preliminary results show improvements in film's stability when the interfacial layer is included. So future progress toward more stable and efficient a-Si: H solar cells will depend on a careful engineering design of the devices. © 1994 Materials Research Society.

Fortunato, E., Barquinha Pereira Gonçalves Martins P. L. G. "Advanced materials for the next generation of thin film transistors." IDMC 2007 - International Display Manufacturing Conference and FPD Expo - Proceedings. 2007. 371-373. Abstract

Staggered bottom gate transparent thin film transistors (TTFTs) have been produced by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature, using amorphous indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) semiconductor, for the channel as well as for the drain and source regions. The obtained TTFTs operate in the enhancement mode with threshold voltages of 2.4 V, saturation mobility of 22.7 cm2/Vs, gate voltage swing of 0.44 V/dec and an ON/OFF current ratio of 7×10 7. The high performances presented by these TTFTs produced at room temperature, make these TFTs a promising candidate for flexible, wearable, disposable portable electronics as well as battery-powered applications.

b Neves, N.a b, Barros Antunes Calado Fortunato Martins Ferreira R. a E. a. "Aluminum doped zinc oxide sputtering targets obtained from nanostructured powders: Processing and application." Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 32 (2012): 4381-4391. AbstractWebsite

This work reports the production of ceramic targets based on nanostructured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) powders for sputtering applications. The nanostructured powder is obtained by a new patented process based on the detonation of an emulsion containing both Zn and Al metal precursors in the final proportion of 98:2wt% (ZnO:Al 2O 3), through which the Al contains is highly uniform distributed over ZnO. Due to the nanostructured powder characteristics, the targets can be sintered at substantially lower temperatures (1150-1250°C) by conventional sintering, contributing to production costs reduction of ceramic targets and consequently the costs of photovoltaic and displays industries. Electrical resistivity values around 3.0-7.0×10 -3Ωcm have been obtained depending on final microstructure of the targets. The electro-optical properties of the films produced at room temperature with thicknesses around 360nm, besides being highly uniform exhibit a resistivity of about 1×10 -3Ωcm and a transmittance in the visible range above 90%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

b Vieira, M.a, Fantoni Koynov Cruz Maçarico Martins A. a S. a. "Amorphous and microcrystalline silicon p-i-n optical speed sensors based on the flying spot technique." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 198-200 (1996): 1193-1197. AbstractWebsite

From the flying spot technique (FST) the ambipolar diffusion length and the effective-lifetime of the carriers photogenerated by a moving light spot that strikes a p-i-n junction can be inferred. In this paper, those properties of a p-i-n junction are used together with an optical triangulation principle to determine the velocity of an object that is moving in the direction of a light source. The light reflected back from the object is analysed through an amorphous or a microcrystalline p-i-n structure. Its transient transverse photovoltage is dependent on the velocity of the object. A comparison between the performances of both kinds of devices is presented.

d Teixeira, V.a, Cui Meng Fortunato Martins H. N. a L. "Amorphous ITO thin films prepared by DC sputtering for electrochromic applications." Thin Solid Films. 420-421 (2002): 70-75. AbstractWebsite

Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different bias voltages and substrate temperatures. Some improvements were obtained on film properties, microstructure and other physical characteristics for different conditions. Amorphous and polycrystalline films can be obtained for various deposition conditions. The transmission, absorption, spectral and diffuse reflection of ITO films were measured in some ranges of UV-Vis-NIR. The refractive index (n), Energy band gap Eg and the surface roughness of the film were derived from the measured spectra data. The carrier density (nc) and the carrier mobility (μ) of the film micro conductive properties were discussed. The films exhibited suitable optical transmittance and conductivity for electrochromic applications. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Fortunato, E., Barquinha Pimentel Pereira Gonçalves Martins P. A. L. "Amorphous IZO TTFTs with saturation mobilities exceeding 100 cm2/Vs." Physica Status Solidi - Rapid Research Letters. 1 (2007): R34-R36. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we demonstrate the use of amorphous binary In2O3-ZnO oxides simultaneously as active channel layer and as source/drain regions in transparent thin film transistor (TTFT), processed at room temperature by rf sputtering. The TTFTs operate in the enhancement mode and their performances are thickness dependent. The best TTFTs exhibit saturation mobilities higher than 102 cm2/Vs, threshold voltages lower than 6 V, gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/dec and an on/off current ratio of 107. This mobility is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional amorphous silicon TFTs and comparable to or even better than other polycrystal-line semiconductors. © 2007 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang, S., Raniero Fortunato Pereira Águas Ferreira Martins L. E. L. "Amorphous silicon based p-i-i-n structure for color sensor." Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. Vol. 862. 2005. 679-683. Abstract

This work deals with the study of the role of the film thickness and composition on the color selectivity of the collecting spectrum of glass/ZnO:Ga/p-a-Si1-xCx:H/ a-Si1-x C x:H /a-Si:H/n-a-Si:H/Al photoelectronic detectors produced in a single chamber plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The cross contaminations were minimized by a rotate-cover substrate holder system. The devices can detect the blue illumination at small reverse bias and detect red illumination at large reverse bias. The role of the process parameters, especially the thickness of the p-type and intrinsic a-Si1-x C x:H, and the intrinsic a-Si:H layers on the device performances were studied in detail aiming to achieve a better detectivity. © 2005 Materials Research Society.

Contreras, J.a, Idzikowski Pereira Filonovich Fortunato Martins Ferreira M. b S. a. "Amorphous silicon position sensitive detector array for fast 3-d object profiling." IEEE Sensors Journal. 12 (2012): 812-820. AbstractWebsite

A 32/128 linear array of 1-D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD) was integrated into a self constructed suitable and portable data acquisition prototype system. The system is comprised by a commercially available existing electronics module suitable for photodiode data acquisition operations and by another adapter module, which allows for removal and replacement of the 32/128 PSD based sensor. This system is applied for imaging 3-D objects using the triangulation principle with a sheet-of-light laser. The sensor array response obtained from the reflected light of the object was fed into an electronic readout system and the corresponding signals were analyzed using the relevant data algorithm. The obtained results show a sensor nonlinearity of about 4%-7%, a wide sensor/system dynamic range and a 3-D profile spatial resolution supplied by each sensor strip of 339 μm, which can easily be reduced to 8.5 μm and even further with appropriate software modifications. © 2011 IEEE.

Contreras, J.a b, Baptista Ferreira Costa Pereira Águas Fortunato Martins Wierzbicki Heerlein C. a I. a. "Amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors applied to micropositioning." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 352 (2006): 1792-1796. AbstractWebsite

The position of a 40 μm wide by 400 μm long cantilever in a microscope was detected by a 32 lines array of 1D amorphous silicon position sensitive detectors (PSD). The sensor was placed in the ocular used for the CCD camera of a microscope and the alignment, focusing and positioning of the cantilever was achieved using the X-Y-Z translation table of the microscope that has a micrometer resolution controller. In this work we present results concerning the micro positioning of a cantilever and its holding structure through the reflected light that is detected by 1D/3D psd and converted to an analog signal proportional to the movement. The signal given by the 32 sensor array was analyzed directly without any electronic readout system or data algorithm. The obtained results show a linear behavior of the photovoltage relating X and Y movement, a non-linearity less than 2% and spatial resolution of 600 μV/μm. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fortunato, E.a, Malik Sêco Ferreira Martins A. a A. b. "Amorphous silicon sensors: From photo to chemical detection." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 227-230 (1998): 1349-1353. AbstractWebsite

This paper reports the performances of metal/insulator/semiconductor devices, simultaneously sensitive to hydrogen and to the visible region of the spectrum. The sensors used in this work are based on glass/Cr/a-SiH(n+)/a-Si:H(i)/SiOx/Pd structures, where the amorphous silicon was deposited by conventional r.f. techniques and the oxide grown thermally (in air) or chemically (in hydrogen peroxide). The proposed sensors present a response of ∼ 3 orders of magnitude change in the saturation current when in the presence of 400 ppm of hydrogen and an open circuit voltage that decreases in the presence of hydrogen, with a maximum spectral response at 500 nm. These sensors were also compared with equivalent crystalline silicon devices whose oxides were prepared exactly in the same conditions as the ones used for the a-Si:H devices. © 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Fortunato, E., Malik Martins A. R. "Amorphous silicon thin films applied to photochemical sensors." Vacuum. 52 (1999): 41-44. AbstractWebsite

The present paper describes the properties of a photochemical sensor based on amorphous silicon MIS (Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor) diodes. The structure of the sensors used in this work are based on glass/Cr/a-SiH(n +)/a-Si:H(i)SiOx/Pd, where the amorphous silicon layers have been deposited by conventional plasma r.f. techniques. The proposed photochemical sensors present a 2-3 orders of magnitude change in the saturation current and a decrease of up to 40% on the open circuit voltage when in the presence of 400 ppm of hydrogen. The overall performance of these sensors, associated with the low cost fabrication technology, suggests that, in the near future, it will be possible to use them in several industrial applications. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhang, S., Raniero Fortunato Ferreira Águas Martins L. E. I. "Amorphous silicon-based PINIP structure for color sensor." Thin Solid Films. 487 (2005): 268-270. AbstractWebsite

A series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) films was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technology. The microstructure and photoelectronic properties of the film are investigated by absorption spectra (in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The results show that good band gap controllability (1.83-3.64 eV) was achieved by adjusting the plasma parameters. In the energy range around 2.1 eV, the a-Si1-xCx:H films exhibit good photosensitivity, opening the possibility to use this wide band gap material for device application, especially when blue color detectors are concerned. A multilayer device with a stack of glass/TCO(ZnO:Ga)/P(a-SiC:H)/I(a- SiC:H)/N(a-Si:H)/I(a-Si:H)/P(a-Si:H)/Al has been prepared. The devices can detect blue and red colors under different bias voltages. The optimization of the device, especially the film thickness and the band gap offset used to achieve better detectivity, is also done in this work. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

c Martins, R.a, Baptista Raniero Doria Silva Franco Fortunato P. b L. a. "Amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon biosensor for the specific identification of unamplified nucleic acid sequences using gold nanoparticle probes." Applied Physics Letters. 90 (2007). AbstractWebsite

Amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon p i′ i i′ n devices fabricated on micromachined glass substrates are integrated with oligonucleotide-derivatized gold nanoparticles for a colorimetric detection method. The method enables the specific detection and quantification of unamplified nucleic acid sequences (DNA and RNA) without the need to functionalize the glass surface, allowing for resolution of single nucleotide differences between DNA and RNA sequences-single nucleotide polymorphism and mutation detection. The detector's substrate is glass and the sample is directly applied on the back side of the biosensor, ensuring a direct optical coupling of the assays with a concomitant maximum photon capture and the possibility to reuse the sensor. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Bahubalindruni, P.G.a, Silva Tavares Barquinha Cardoso Guedes De Oliveira Martins Fortunato B. a V. G. "Analog circuits with high-gain topologies using a-GIZO TFTs on glass." IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology. 11 (2015): 547-553. AbstractWebsite

This paper presents analog building blocks that find potential applications in display panels. A buffer (source-follower), subtractor, adder, and high-gain amplifier, employing only n-type enhancement amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (a-GIZO TFTs), were designed, simulated, fabricated, and characterized. Circuit simulations were carried out using a neural model developed in-house from the measured characteristics of the transistors. The adder-subtractor circuit presents a power consumption of 0.26 mW, and the amplifier presents a gain of 34 dB and a power consumption of 0.576 mW, with a load of 10 MΩ16 pF. To the authors' knowledge, this is the highest gain reported so far for a single-stage amplifier with a-GIZO TFT technology. © 2015 IEEE.

Martins, R., Guimaraes Carvalho Andrade Corgnier Sanematsu L. N. A. "ANALYSIS OF A NEW PRODUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS." Commission of the European Communities, (Report) EUR. 1984. 778-782. Abstract

This new production technique is based on the growth of a-Si films on a reactor where gas decomposition promoted by a capacitively coupled r. f. power system takes place in a chamber separated from that where amorphous films are deposited under the action of an electromagnetic static field. Using this method, we shall reduce films contamination caused by the residual gas desorbed from reactor walls. At the same time, there is a reduction plasma ion and electron damages on the deposited films. The main species impinging upon our substrates will be mainly composed of long life radicals with high mobilities and high diffusion rates, which will give origin to a random silicon network free of long poly-silane chains.

Topič, M.a, Smole Furlan Fortunato Martins F. a J. a. "Analysis of front contact heterojunction in a-Si:H one-dimensional position sensitive detectors." Review of Scientific Instruments. 68 (1997): 1377-1381. AbstractWebsite

The influence of different transparent conducting oxides (TCO) on the transverse photoelectrical properties of one-dimensional position sensitive detectors based on p-i-n amorphous silicon structures was studied. For both SnO 2 and indium tin oxide, poor quality of the p layer was revealed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements. Good agreement between experimental and simulation characteristics of TCO/p-i-n structure was additionally conditioned by a strong increase in defect states at the p layer surface which can be attributed to the reduction/ oxidation process at the TCO/p interface. However, the analysis showed that under reverse bias the spectral response of the p-i-n structure is not significantly affected by different TCO layers and conditions at the TCO/p heterojunction. Nevertheless, indium tin oxide is less appropriate for a front TCO layer due to the poor reverse dark current-voltage characteristic, i.e., higher leakage current component leading to lower signal to noise ratio. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.

Fortunato, E.a, Lavareda Vieira Martins Ferreira G. a M. a. "Application of thin film technology to optical sensors." Vacuum. 45 (1994): 1151-1154. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we present results of PIN single and dual axis Thin Film Position Sensitive Detectors (TFPSD) based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) technology, with a wide detection area (up to 80 × 80 mm). These sensors provide an alternative to Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) when large inspection areas are needed, under a requirement to use simpler technology. In this paper we analyse the forward and reverse I-V characteristics in the dark and under illumination, as well as the device linearity of TFPSD. © 1994.