Publications in the Year: 2014

Book Chapter

Salminen, J, Dinis J, Mateus O.  2014.  Preliminary Magnetostratigraphy for the Jurassic–Cretaceous Transition in Porto da Calada, Portugal. STRATI 2013 First International Congress on Stratigraphy At the Cutting Edge of Stratigraphy. (Rogério Rocha, João Pais, José Carlos Kullberg, Stanley Finney, Ed.).:873-877., Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London: Springer Abstractsalminen_et_al_2014_porto_da_calada_stratigraphy_jk_boundary_in_rocha_et_al_strati_.pdf

We present a stratigraphic log supporting a preliminary magnetostratigraphy of a Tithonian–Berriasian section in Porto da Calada (Portugal). Based on biostratigraphy and reversed and normal magnetostratigraphy, the location of the Tithonian–Berriasian boundary is tentatively located at ca. 52 m, not in disagreement
with former proposals. Due to the occurrence of later remagnetization (diagenesis), the magnetostratigraphic definition of the Tithonian–Berriasian section at the Cabo Espichel (Portugal) location was not able to be established.

Mateus, O.  2014.  Gigantic Jurassic predators. 52 Things You Should Know About Palaeontology. :56-57.: Agile Libremateus_2014_gigantic_jurassic_predators.pdf

Conference Paper

Marzola, M, Mateus O, Russo J, Milàn J.  2014.  Comparison of modern and fossil Crocodylomorpha eggs and contribution to the oophylogeny of Amniota, p. 192. XII Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. , Regione Piemonte: European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists. Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturalimarzola_et_al._2014_comparison_of_modern_and_fossil_crocodylomorpha_eggs_and_contribution_to_the_oophylogeny_of_amniota-_eavp_2014.pdf
Polcyn, MJ, Jacobs LL, Strganac C, Mateus O, Myers TS, May S, Araújo R, Schulp AS, Morais ML.  2014.  Geological and paleoecological setting of a marine vertebrate bonebed from the Lower Maastrichtian at Bentiaba, Angola, 2-4 Jun 2014. Secondary Adaptation of Tetrapods to Aquatic Life. , Washington DC, USA

Conference Proceedings

Mateus, O, Marzola M.  2014.  Dinosaur taphonomy in the Lourinhã Formation (Late Jurassic, Portugal). 7th International Meeting on Taphonomy and Fossilization, Taphos 2014. :60-61., Ferrara, Italymateus__marzola_2014_lourinha_taphonomy_ferrara_taphonomy_meeting_2014.pdf
Holwerda, F, Tschopp E, Mateus O.  2014.  Sauropod body fossils in Europe: overview and current issues. XII EAVP Meeting XII Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists – Abstract Book. :p.77., Torino 24-28 June 2014holwerda_et_al_2014_sauropods_europe_eavp.pdf
Leal, S, Mateus O, Tomás C, Dionisio A.  2014.  Degradation processes and consolidation of Late Jurassic sandstone dinosaur tracks in museum environment (Museum of Lourinhã, Portugal). EGU General Assembly 2014 - Geophysical Research Abstracts. :Vol.16,EGU2014-9026-1,2014.leal_et_al_2014_tracks_lab_egu2014-9026-1.pdf
Hendrickx, C, Mateus O, Araújo R.  2014.  The dentition of megalosaurid theropods, with a proposed terminology on theropod teeth. XII EAVP Meeting XII Annual Meeting of the European Association of Vertebrate Palaeontologists – Abstract Book. :p.75., Torino 24-28 June 2014hendrickx_et_al_2014_megalosaurid_teeth_eavp.pdf

Journal Article

Jacobs, L, Polcyn M, Mateus O, Scott M, Graf J, Kappelman J, Jacobs B, Schulp A, Morais M, Goncalves O.  2014.  Cenozoic vertebrates of coastal Angola. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts, 2014. :153.jacobs_et_al._2014_cenozoic_vertebrates_of_coastal_angola.pdf
Marinheiro, J, Mateus O, Alaoui A, Amani F, Nami M, Ribeiro C.  2014.  New Quaternary fossil sites from the Middle Atlas of Morocco. Comunicações Geológicas. 101, Especial I:485-488. Abstractmarinheiro_et_al_2014_new_quaternary_fossil_sites_from_the_middle_atlas_of_morocco.pdf

The paleontological richness of Morocco has been scientifically known since at least the early 20th century. The region of the Middle Atlas, more specifically the Boulemane area, has been however only sparsely studied since the 1960s when it provided vertebrate fossils from the Middle Jurassic. In September 2013, a Moroccan-Portuguese expedition to the village of Taghrout, Boulemane, made excavations in a Pleistocene fossil site that once was a small high-altitude sedimentary basin, uncharted in previous geological maps. The excavations yielded bone material from large mammals, the most common findings are elephants ascribed to Elephas, but artiodactyls, turtles, and in-situ Acheulean tools were also collected. This represents a new and important paleontological and archeological site. In addition to the discoveries of Taghrout, the expedition also retrieved Quaternary vertebrate material from a nearby cave and found new Jurassic localities, with arcosaur bones and dinosaur footprints, in El Mers.

Ribeiro, V, Mateus O, Holwerda F, Araújo R, Castanhinha R.  2014.  Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology. 26(2):206-217. Abstractribeiro_et_al_2014_theropod_eggs_nest_portugal.pdfWebsite

Two new Late Jurassic (uppermost Late Kimmeridgian) dinosaur eggshell sites are described, Casal da Rola and Porto das Barcas, both near Lourinha˜, central-west Portugal. Casal da Rola yields eggshells with an obliquiprismatic morphotype comparable to those from a nest with the associated fossil embryos from Paimogo, tentatively assigned to the theropod Lourinhanosaurus antunesi. The Porto das Barcas eggshells have a dendrospherulitic morphotype with a prolatocanaliculate pore system. This morphotype was also recognised in eggshells from a clutch with associated Torvosaurus embryos at the Porto das Barcas locality. A preliminary cladistic analysis of eggshell morphology suggests theropod affinities for the Casal da Rola eggs, but is unable to resolve the phylogenetic position of the Porto das Barcas eggs. The eggshells at both sites are preserved in distal flood plain mudstones and siltstones. Carbonate concretions within the deposits indicate paleosol development.

Marinheiro, J, Mateus O, Alaoui A, Amani F, Nami M, Ribeiro C.  2014.  Elephas and other vertebrate fossils near Taghrout, Morocco. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:178.marinheiro_et_al._2014_elephas_and_other_vertebrate_fossils_near_taghrout.pdf
Mateus, O, Mannion PD, Upchurch P.  2014.  Zby atlanticus, a new turiasaurian sauropod (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34(3):618-634. Abstractmateus_et_al_2014_zby_atlanticus.pdfWebsite

Here we describe a new partial sauropod skeleton from the late Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) of the Lourinhã Formation, central west Portugal. The closely associated specimen comprises a complete tooth (with root), a fragment of cervical neural arch, an anterior chevron, and an almost complete right pectoral girdle and forelimb. The new sauropod, Zby atlanticus, n. gen. et sp., can be diagnosed on the basis of four autapomorphies, including a prominent posteriorly projecting ridge on the humerus at the level of the deltopectoral crest. Nearly all anatomical features indicate that Zby is a non-neosauropod eusauropod. On the basis of several characters, including tooth morphology, extreme anteroposterior compression of the proximal end of the radius, and strong beveling of the lateral half of the distal end of the radius, Zby appears to be closely related to Turiasaurus riodevensis from approximately contemporaneous deposits in eastern Spain. However, these two genera can be distinguished from each other by a number of features pertaining to the forelimb. Whereas previously described Late Jurassic Portuguese sauropods show close relationships with taxa from the contemporaneous Morrison Formation of North America, it appears that turiasaurians were restricted to Europe. All adult sauropods recovered in the Late Jurassic of Portugal thus far are very large individuals: it is possible that the apparent absence of small- or medium-sized adult sauropods might be related to the occupation of lower-browsing niches by non-sauropods such as the long-necked stegosaur Miragaia longicollum.

Stockdale, M, Benton M, Mateus O.  2014.  Cracking dinosaur endothermy: paleophysiology unscrambled. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:235-236.stockdale_et_al_2014_eggshells_abstract_svp.pdf
Marzola, M, Mateus O, Schulp A, Jacobs L, Polcyn M, Pervov V.  2014.  Early Cretaceous tracks of a large mammaliamorph, a crocodylomorph, and dinosaurs from an Angolan diamond mine. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts, 2014. :181.marzola_et_al_2014._cretaceous_tracks_mammaliamorph_a_crocodilomorph_angolan_diamond_mine.pdf
Hendrickx, C, Araújo R, Mateus O.  2014.  The nonavian theropod quadrate II: systematic usefulness, major trends and cladistic and phylogenetic morphometrics analyses, 2014. PeerJ PrePrints. 2:e380v2. AbstractWebsite

The skull-bone quadrate in nonavian theropods is very diverse morphologically alongside the disparity of the group as a whole. However this disparity has been underestimated for taxonomic purposes. In order to evaluate the phylogenetic potential and investigate the evolutionary transformations of the quadrate, we conducted a Catalano-Goloboff phylogenetic morphometric analysis as well as a cladistic analysis using 98 discrete quadrate related characters. The cladistic analysis provides a fully resolved tree mirroring to some degree the classification of nonavian theropods. The quadrate morphology by its own provides a wealth of data with strong phylogenetic signal and allows inference of major trends in the evolution of this bone. Important synapomorphies include: for Abelisauroidea, a lateral ramus extending to the ectocondyle; for Tetanurae, the absence of the lateral process; for Spinosauridae, a medial curvature of the ventral part of the pterygoid ramus occurring just above the mandibular articulation; for Avetheropoda, an anterior margin of the pterygoid flange formed by a roughly parabolic margin; and for Tyrannosauroidea, a semi-oval pterygoid flange shape in medial view. The Catalano-Goloboff phylogenetic morphometric analysis reveals two main morphotypes of the mandibular articulation of the quadrate linked to function. The first morphotype, characterized by an anteroposteriorly broad mandibular articulation with two ovoid/subcircular condyles roughly subequal in size, is found in Ceratosauria, Tyrannosauroidea and Oviraptorosauria. This morphotype allows a very weak displacement of the mandible laterally. The second morphotype is characterized by an elongate and anteroposteriorly narrow mandibular articulation and a long and parabolic/sigmoid ectocondyle. Present in Megalosauroidea, Carcharodontosauridae and Dromaeosauridae, this morphotype permits the lower jaw rami to be displaced laterally when the mouth opened.

Polcyn, MJ, Jacobs LL, Ara´ujo R, Schulp AS, Mateus O.  2014.  Physical drivers of mosasaur evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 400:17-27. Abstractpolcyn_et_al_2014_physical_drivers_mosasaurs.pdf

Mosasaurs are marine squamates with a 32.5 million-year history from their appearance at 98 Ma to their extinction at the K-Pg boundary (65.5 Ma). Using a database of 43 generic and 94 species-level taxa, we compare the taxonomic diversity and patterns of morphological disparity in mosasaurs with sea level, sea surface temperature, and stable carbon isotope curves for the Upper Cretaceous to explore factors that may have influenced their evolution. No single factor unambiguously accounts for all radiations, diversification, and extinctions; however, the broader patterns of taxonomic diversification and
morphological disparity point to niche differentiation in a “fishing up” scenario under the influence of “bottom-up” selective pressures. The most likely driving force in mosasaur evolution was high productivity in the Late Cretaceous, driven by tectonically controlled sea levels and climatically controlled ocean stratification and nutrient delivery. When productivity collapsed at the end of the Cretaceous, coincident with bolide impact, mosasaurs became extinct.

Mallison, H, Schwarz-Wings D, Tsai H, Holliday C, Mateus O.  2014.  Fossil longbone cartilage preserved in stegosaurs? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:176.mallison_et_al._2014_fossil_longbone_cartilage_preserved_in_stegosaurs.pdf
Hendrickx, C, Mateus O.  2014.  Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp., the largest terrestrial predator from Europe, and a proposed terminology of the maxilla anatomy in nonavian theropods, 03. PLoS ONE. 9:e88905., Number 3: Public Library of Science Abstracthendrickx_mateus_2014_torvosaurus_portugal.pdfWebsite

The Lourinhã Formation (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian) of Central West Portugal is well known for its diversified dinosaur fauna similar to that of the Morrison Formation of North America; both areas share dinosaur taxa including the top predator Torvosaurus, reported in Portugal. The material assigned to the Portuguese T. tanneri, consisting of a right maxilla and an incomplete caudal centrum, was briefly described in the literature and a thorough description of these bones is here given for the first time. A comparison with material referred to Torvosaurus tanneri allows us to highlight some important differences justifying the creation of a distinct Eastern species. Torvosaurus gurneyi n. sp. displays two autapomorphies among Megalosauroidea, a maxilla possessing fewer than eleven teeth and an interdental wall nearly coincidental with the lateral wall of the maxillary body. In addition, it differs from T. tanneri by a reduced number of maxillary teeth, the absence of interdental plates terminating ventrally by broad V-shaped points and falling short relative to the lateral maxillary wall, and the absence of a protuberant ridge on the anterior part of the medial shelf, posterior to the anteromedial process. T. gurneyi is the largest theropod from the Lourinhã Formation of Portugal and the largest land predator discovered in Europe hitherto. This taxon supports the mechanism of vicariance that occurred in the Iberian Meseta during the Late Jurassic when the proto-Atlantic was already well formed. A fragment of maxilla from the Lourinhã Formation referred to Torvosaurus sp. is ascribed to this new species, and several other bones, including a femur, a tibia and embryonic material all from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian of Portugal, are tentatively assigned to T. gurneyi. A standard terminology and notation of the theropod maxilla is also proposed and a record of the Torvosaurus material from Portugal is given.

Russo, J, Mateus O, Marzola M, Balbino A.  2014.  Eggs and eggshells of crocodylomorpha from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:218.russo_et_al_2014eggs_crocodylomorpha_portugal.pdf
Young, MT, Hua S, Steel L, Foffa D, Brusatte SL, Thüring S, Mateus O, Ignacio-Ruiz Omeñaca J, Lepage Y, Havilk P, Andrade MB.  2014.  Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia). Royal Society Open Science. 1(140222):1-42.young_et_al_2014_machimosaurus_crocodylomorph_revision.pdf
Hayashi, S, Redelstorff R, Mateus O, Watabe M, Carpenter K.  2014.  Gigantism of stegosaurian osteoderms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:145.hayashi_et_al_2014_gigantism_of_stegosaurian_osteoderms.pdf
Leal, AS, Mateus O, Tomás C, Dionísio A.  2014.  Decay and conservation trial of Late Jurassic sandstone with dinosaur tracks in a museum environment (Museum of Lourinhã, Portugal). Buletini i Shkencave Gjeologjike. 1(2014):410. Abstractleal_et_al_2014_cbgassav1-_abstract_dinosaur_footprints__page_410.pdf

Abstract
Late Jurassic dinosaur footprints were found on a coastline cliff in Lourinhã, Porto das Barcas, Lagido do Forno (coordinate 39°14.178’N, 9°20.397’W, Portugal) in June 2001. The locality is characterized by steep cliffs with high slopes that are composed of gray and red sandstones/ siltstones. The location belongs to the successions of Lusitanian Basin representing the Porto Novo Member of the Lourinhã Formation. Three natural infills of tridactyl tracks, possibly ascribed to ornithopod, a bipedal herbivore were found, representing a left foot movement, a right and a left one, respectively. Footprints are 300- 400mm wide and have a height of 330-360mm. The footprints are characterized by round fingers, which are elongated due to some degradation/ erosion. The footprints were collected from the field in 2001 and subsequently cleaned, consolidated and glued in the laboratory of the Museum of Lourinhã before being exhibited in a museum display. Stone matrix was removed and a consolidation product was applied, probably a polyvinyl acetate. The footprint with broken central digit was glued with an epoxy resin, Araldite. Both applied products were confirmed by analysis of μ- FTIR and both presented colour change and detachment surface problems. The footprints have been exposed in the palaeontology hall of the Museum of Lourinhã, Portugal from 2004 without climate controlling. These trace fossils form an important part of the palaeontological collection of Late Jurassic vertebrate fossils from Lourinhã Formation. Presently, it is considered a unique heritage in danger of disappearing due to high decay level of disaggregation of its geological structure. The footprints display several pathologies, such as “Blistering”, “Powdering”, “Exfoliation”’ as well as “Dirt”, “Fracture”’, “Inscriptions”, “Consolidants” and “Adhesives” and are now in very poor conditions. Laboratorial analysed were made to evaluate the presence of salts. Moreover a microclimatic study was conducted inside the museum to evaluate the influence of thermo-hygrometric parameters on the decay processes. The future interventions will depend on the results of consolidation trials that are currently under progress by using stone samples taken from the same layer and location from Porto das Barcas applying different commercial consolidation products.

Hendrickx, C, Mateus O.  2014.  Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal and dentition-based phylogeny as a contribution for the identification of isolated theropod teeth. Zootaxa. 3759:1-74. Abstracthendrickx__mateus_2014._abelisauridae_dinosauria_theropoda_from_the_late_jurassic_of_portugal.pdf

Theropod dinosaurs form a highly diversified clade, and their teeth are some of the most common components of the Mesozoic dinosaur fossil record. This is the case in the Lourinhã Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian-Tithonian) of Portugal, where theropod teeth are particularly abundant and diverse. Four isolated theropod teeth are here described and identified based on morphometric and anatomical data. They are included in a cladistic analysis performed on a data matrix of 141 dentition-based characters coded in 60 taxa, as well as a supermatrix combining our dataset with six recent datamatrices based on the whole theropod skeleton. The consensus tree resulting from the dentition-based data matrix reveals that theropod teeth provide reliable data for identification at approximately family level. Therefore, phylogenetic methods will help identifying theropod teeth with more confidence in the future. Although dental characters do not reliably indicate relationships among higher clades of theropods, they demonstrate interesting patterns of homoplasy suggesting dietary convergence in (1) alvarezsauroids, therizinosaurs and troodontids; (2) coelophysoids and spinosaurids; (3) compsognathids and dromaeosaurids; and (4) ceratosaurids, allosauroids and megalosaurids.

Based on morphometric and cladistic analyses, the biggest tooth from Lourinhã is referred to a mesial crown of the megalosaurid Torvosaurus tanneri, due to the elliptical cross section of the crown base, the large size and elongation of the crown, medially positioned mesial and distal carinae, and the coarse denticles. The smallest tooth is identified as Richardoestesia, and as a close relative of R. gilmorei based on the weak constriction between crown and root, the “eight-shaped” outline of the base crown and, on the distal carina, the average of ten symmetrically rounded denticles per mm, as well as a subequal number of denticles basally and at mid-crown. Finally, the two medium-sized teeth belong to the same taxon and exhibit pronounced interdenticular sulci between distal denticles, hooked distal denticles for one of them, an irregular enamel texture, and a straight distal margin, a combination of features only observed in abelisaurids. They provide the first record of Abelisauridae in the Jurassic of Laurasia and one of the oldest records of this clade in the world, suggesting a possible radiation of Abelisauridae in Europe well before the Upper Cretaceous.