Publications in the Year: 2014

Journal Article

Marinheiro, J, Mateus O, Alaoui A, Amani F, Nami M, Ribeiro C.  2014.  New Quaternary fossil sites from the Middle Atlas of Morocco. Comunicações Geológicas. 101, Especial I:485-488. Abstractmarinheiro_et_al_2014_new_quaternary_fossil_sites_from_the_middle_atlas_of_morocco.pdf

The paleontological richness of Morocco has been scientifically known since at least the early 20th century. The region of the Middle Atlas, more specifically the Boulemane area, has been however only sparsely studied since the 1960s when it provided vertebrate fossils from the Middle Jurassic. In September 2013, a Moroccan-Portuguese expedition to the village of Taghrout, Boulemane, made excavations in a Pleistocene fossil site that once was a small high-altitude sedimentary basin, uncharted in previous geological maps. The excavations yielded bone material from large mammals, the most common findings are elephants ascribed to Elephas, but artiodactyls, turtles, and in-situ Acheulean tools were also collected. This represents a new and important paleontological and archeological site. In addition to the discoveries of Taghrout, the expedition also retrieved Quaternary vertebrate material from a nearby cave and found new Jurassic localities, with arcosaur bones and dinosaur footprints, in El Mers.

Hendrickx, C, Mateus O, Araújo R.  2014.  The dentition of Megalosauridae (Theropoda: Dinosauria). {APP}. : Polska Akademia Nauk Instytut Paleobiologii (Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences) AbstractWebsite
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Marinheiro, J, Mateus O, Alaoui A, Amani F, Nami M, Ribeiro C.  2014.  New Quaternary fossil sites from the Middle Atlas of Morocco. Comunica\\c cões Geológicas. 101, Especial I:485-488. Abstract

The paleontological richness of Morocco has been scientifically known since at least the early 20th century. The region of the Middle Atlas, more specifically the Boulemane area, has been however only sparsely studied since the 1960s when it provided vertebrate fossils from the Middle Jurassic. In September 2013, a Moroccan-Portuguese expedition to the village of Taghrout, Boulemane, made excavations in a Pleistocene fossil site that once was a small high-altitude sedimentary basin, uncharted in previous geological maps. The excavations yielded bone material from large mammals, the most common findings are elephants ascribed to Elephas, but artiodactyls, turtles, and in-situ Acheulean tools were also collected. This represents a new and important paleontological and archeological site. In addition to the discoveries of Taghrout, the expedition also retrieved Quaternary vertebrate material from a nearby cave and found new Jurassic localities, with arcosaur bones and dinosaur footprints, in El Mers.

Young, MT, Hua S, Steel L, Foffa D, Brusatte SL, Thüring S, Mateus O, Ignacio-Ruiz Omeñaca J, Lepage Y, Havilk P, Andrade MB.  2014.  Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia). Royal Society Open Science. 1(140222):1-42.young_et_al_2014_machimosaurus_crocodylomorph_revision.pdf
Polcyn, MJ, Jacobs LL, Araújo R, Schulp AS, Mateus O.  2014.  Physical drivers of mosasaur evolution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 400:17-27. Abstract
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Mateus, O, Mannion PD, Upchurch P.  2014.  Zby atlanticus, a new turiasaurian sauropod (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34:618–634., Number 3 Abstract
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Hayashi, S, Redelstorff R, Mateus O, Watabe M, Carpenter K.  2014.  Gigantism of stegosaurian osteoderms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:145.hayashi_et_al_2014_gigantism_of_stegosaurian_osteoderms.pdf
Russo, J, Mateus O, Balbino A, Marzola M.  2014.  Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunica\\c cões Geológicas. 101, Especial I:563-566. Abstract

We here present fossil Crocodylomorpha eggshells from the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation of Portugal, recovered from five sites: one nest from Cambelas with 13 eggs, and three partial eggs and various fragments from, Paimogo N (I), Paimogo S (II), Casal da Rola, and Peralta. All specimens but the nest were found in association with dinosaur egg material. Our research reveals that on a micro- and ultrastructural analysis, all samples present the typical characters consistent with crocodiloid eggshell morphotype, such as the shell unit shape, the organization of the eggshell layers, and the triangular blocky extinction observed with crossed nicols. We assign the material from the Lourinhã Formation to the oofamily Krokolithidae, making it the oldest crocodylomorph eggs known so far, as well as the best record for eggs of non- crocodylian crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, our study indicates that the basic structure of crocodiloid eggshells has remained stable since at least the Upper Jurassic.

Hendrickx, C, Mateus O.  2014.  Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal and dentition-based phylogeny as a contribution for the identification of isolated theropod teeth. Zootaxa. 3759:1-74. Abstracthendrickx__mateus_2014._abelisauridae_dinosauria_theropoda_from_the_late_jurassic_of_portugal.pdf

Theropod dinosaurs form a highly diversified clade, and their teeth are some of the most common components of the Mesozoic dinosaur fossil record. This is the case in the Lourinhã Formation (Late Jurassic, Kimmeridgian-Tithonian) of Portugal, where theropod teeth are particularly abundant and diverse. Four isolated theropod teeth are here described and identified based on morphometric and anatomical data. They are included in a cladistic analysis performed on a data matrix of 141 dentition-based characters coded in 60 taxa, as well as a supermatrix combining our dataset with six recent datamatrices based on the whole theropod skeleton. The consensus tree resulting from the dentition-based data matrix reveals that theropod teeth provide reliable data for identification at approximately family level. Therefore, phylogenetic methods will help identifying theropod teeth with more confidence in the future. Although dental characters do not reliably indicate relationships among higher clades of theropods, they demonstrate interesting patterns of homoplasy suggesting dietary convergence in (1) alvarezsauroids, therizinosaurs and troodontids; (2) coelophysoids and spinosaurids; (3) compsognathids and dromaeosaurids; and (4) ceratosaurids, allosauroids and megalosaurids.

Based on morphometric and cladistic analyses, the biggest tooth from Lourinhã is referred to a mesial crown of the megalosaurid Torvosaurus tanneri, due to the elliptical cross section of the crown base, the large size and elongation of the crown, medially positioned mesial and distal carinae, and the coarse denticles. The smallest tooth is identified as Richardoestesia, and as a close relative of R. gilmorei based on the weak constriction between crown and root, the “eight-shaped” outline of the base crown and, on the distal carina, the average of ten symmetrically rounded denticles per mm, as well as a subequal number of denticles basally and at mid-crown. Finally, the two medium-sized teeth belong to the same taxon and exhibit pronounced interdenticular sulci between distal denticles, hooked distal denticles for one of them, an irregular enamel texture, and a straight distal margin, a combination of features only observed in abelisaurids. They provide the first record of Abelisauridae in the Jurassic of Laurasia and one of the oldest records of this clade in the world, suggesting a possible radiation of Abelisauridae in Europe well before the Upper Cretaceous.

Tschopp, E, Mateus O, Kosma R, Sander M, Joger U, Wings O.  2014.  A specimen-level cladistic analysis of Camarasaurus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) and a revision of camarasaurid taxonomy. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:241-242.tschopp_et_al._2014_a_specimen-level_cladistic_analysis_of_camarasaurus.pdf
Mateus, O.  2014.  Gigantism of stegosaurian osteoderms. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:145.: Taylor & Francis Abstract
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Mateus, O, Butler RJ, Brusatte SL, Whiteside JH, Steyer JS.  2014.  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34:970–975., Number 4 Abstract
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Mateus, O, Butler RJ, Brusatte SL, Whiteside JH, Steyer SJ.  2014.  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34(4):970-975.mateus_et_al_2014_first_phytosaur_algarve_portugal_jvp.pdfWebsite
Mateus, O, Mannion PD, Upchurch P.  2014.  Zby atlanticus, a new turiasaurian sauropod (Dinosauria, Eusauropoda) from the Late Jurassic of Portugal. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34:618-634., Number 3 Abstract
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Mateus, O, Clemmensen L, Klein N, Wings O, Frobøse N, Milàn J, Adolfssen J, Estrup E.  2014.  The Late Triassic of Jameson Land revisited: new vertebrate findings and the first phytosaur from Greenland. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:182.mateus_et_al2014-_jameson_land_revisited_-_svp_2014.pdf
Russo, J, Mateus O, Balbino A, Marzola M.  2014.  Crocodylomorph eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Fm. (Upper Jurassic), Portugal. Comunica\\c cões Geológicas. 101, Especial I:563-566. Abstract
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Strganac, C, Jacobs LL, Polcyn MJ, Ferguson KM, Mateus O, Gon?alves AO, Morais M-L, da Silva Tavares T.  2014.  Stable oxygen isotope chemostratigraphy and paleotemperature regime of mosasaurs at Bentiaba, Angola. Geologie en Mijnbouw/Netherlands Journal of Geosciences. 94:137-143., Number 1 Abstract
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Strganac, C, Salminen J, Jacobs LL, Ferguson KM, Polcyn MJ, Mateus O, Schulp AS, Morais ML, Tavares TS, Gonçalves AO.  2014.  Carbon isotope stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar age of the Cretaceous South Atlantic coast, Namibe Basin, Angola. Journal of African Earth Sciences. onine:1-11. Abstractstrganac_et_al_2014_carbon_isotope_stratigraphy_magnetostratigraphy_and_40ar_39ar_age_of.pdfWebsite

We present the δ13C and paleomagnetic stratigraphy for marine strata at the coast of southern Angola, anchored by an intercalated basalt with a whole rock 40Ar/39Ar radiometric age of 84.6 ± 1.5 Ma, being consistent with both invertebrate and vertebrate biostratigraphy. This is the first African stable carbon isotope record correlated to significant events in the global carbon cycle spanning the Late Cenomanian to Early Maastrichtian. A positive ∼ 3‰ excursion seen in bivalve shells below the basalt indicates the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event at 93.9 Ma, during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2. Additional excursions above the basalt are correlated to patterns globally, including a negative ∼ 3‰ excursion near the top of the section interpreted as part of the Campanian-Maastrichtian Boundary Events. The age of the basalt ties the studied Bentiaba section to a pulse of Late Cretaceous magmatic activity around the South Atlantic and significant tectonic activity, including rotation, of the African continent.

Polcyn, M, Jacobs L, Strganac C, Mateus O, Myers S, May S, Araujo R, Schulp A, Morais M.  2014.  Geology and paleoecology of a marine vertebrate bonebed from the lower Maastrichtian of Angola. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Program and Abstracts, 2014:206.polcyn_et_al._2014_geology_and_paleoecology_of_a_marine_vertebrate_bonebed_from_the_lower_maastrichtian_of_angola.pdf
Mateus, O, Butler RJ, Brusatte SL, Whiteside JH, Steyer JS.  2014.  The first phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauriformes) from the Late Triassic of the Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 34:970-975., Number 4 Abstract
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Miscellaneous

Mateus, O.  2014.  Cracking dinosaur endothermy: paleophysiology unscrambled, 1. NA Abstract

The amniote eggshell functions as a respiratory structure adapted for the optimal transmission of respiratory gasses to and from the embryo according to its physiological requirements. Therefore amniotes with higher oxygen requirements, such as those that sustain higher metabolic rates, can be expected to have eggshells that can maintain a greater gas flux to and from the egg. Studies of extant amniotes have found that eggshells of reduced porosity impose a limit on the metabolic rate of the offspring. Here we show a highly significant relationship between metabolic rates and eggshell porosity in extant amniotes that predicts highly endothermic metabolic rates in dinosaurs. This study finds the eggshell porosity of extant endotherms to be significantly higher than that of extant ectotherms. Eggshell porosity values of dinosaurs are found to be significantly higherthan that of extant ectotherms, but not extant endotherms. Dinosaur eggshells are commonly preserved in the fossil record, and porosity may be readily identified and measured. This provides a simple tool to identify metabolic rates in extinct egg-laying tetrapods whose eggs possessed a mineralized shell