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Non-linear analytical model of composites based on basalt textile reinforced mortar under uniaxial tension, Larrinaga, Pello, Chastre Carlos, San-José José T., and Garmendia Leire , Composites Part B: Engineering, 12//, Volume 55, p.518-527, (2013) AbstractWebsite

The recent development of inorganic based composites as low-cost materials in reinforced concrete structural strengthening and precast thin-walled components, requires the creation of models that predict the mechanical behaviour of these materials. Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) shows complex stress–strain behaviour in tension derived from the heterogeneity of its constituent materials. This complexity is mainly caused by the formation of several cracks in the inorganic matrix. The multiple cracking leads to a decrease in structural stiffness. Due to the severe conditions of the serviceability limit state in structural elements, the prediction of the stress–strain curve is essential for design and calculation purposes. After checking other models, an empirical nonlinear approach, which is based on the crack control expression included in the Eurocode 2, is proposed in this paper. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on 31 TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analysed and satisfactorily contrasted with the presented non-linear approach.

Experimental and Numerical Modelling of Basalt Textile Reinforced Mortar Behavior Under Uniaxial Tensile Stress, Larrinaga, Pello, Chastre Carlos, Biscaia Hugo C., and San-José José T. , Materials & Design, Volume 55, Issue March, p.66-74, (2014) AbstractWebsite

During the last years several projects and studies have improved the knowledge about Textile Reinforced Mortar (TRM) technology. TRM has already been used in strengthening masonry and reinforced concrete structural elements such as walls, arches, columns and beams. This material is presented as a real alternative to the use of fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) in situations where these composites have presented some drawbacks or their use is banned. Textile Reinforced Mortar show a complex mechanical behaviour derived from the heterogeneity of the constituent materials. This paper aims to deepen the knowledge of this composite material in terms of tensile behaviour. Following this scope, this paper presents an experimental campaign focused on thirty one TRM specimens reinforced with four different reinforcing ratios. The results are analysed and contrasted with two distinct models. i) the Aveston-Cooper-Kelly theory (ACK) which is based on a tri-linear analytical approach; and ii) a nonlinear numerical simulation with a 3D Finite Element code. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the TRM tensile tests also showed no significant dependence on the basalt-to-mortar interface, i.e., the choice of a bond-slip curve in order to reproduce the bond stresses and slippages along the interface is irrelevant and it can be simply considered as rigid interface.

Factores que influenciam o desempenho da ligação GFRP/betão, Lucas, D., Biscaia H. C., Silva M. A. G., and Chastre C. , Betão Estrutural 2012, Porto, (2012) Abstractlucas2012bisich_-_be2012.pdf

Os compósitos de FRP podem descolar prematuramente da superfíce de betão, isto é, antes de esgotada a sua resistência elástica. Esta situação é mais provável se não forem tidos em conta factores como o tipo de preparação da superfície, a exposição a acção ambiental severa, e a resistência do próprio betão. Com o objectivo de analisar a influência de parte destes factores no desempenho da ligação compósito de fibra de vidro (GFRP) e betão, empreendeu-se uma campanha experimental baseada em ensaios de corte duplo. Os resultados permitiram determinar e comparar as forças máximas transmitidas ao GFRP e tensões de aderência máxima para diferentes tratamentos de superfície e condições de envelhecimento. Foram também determinadas aproximações para curvas de tensão de aderência vs. deslizamento (bond-slip). Os resultados obtidos são contrastados com resultados obtidos por modelação numérica.

Ligações rígidas em estruturas pré-fabricadas, Lúcio, Válter, and Chastre Carlos , Estruturas Pré-moldadas no Mundo - Aplicações e Comportamento Estrutural, p.137-166, (2012) Abstract
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Precast concrete wind tower structures. Historic development, current development and future potential, Lúcio, Válter, and Chastre Carlos , CPI - Concrete Plant International, 3, June 2014, Number 3, p.110-115, (2014) Abstractcpi_03-2014_p144-149.pdfWebsite

The wind energy production is a growing industry and the energy produced is renewable and environmentally cleaner than most of the energy production systems. The supports of the wind energy generators may be built with precast concrete elements. The precast solutions for these structures are competitive in comparison to other structural systems. The evolution of the technology for wind energy production shows a clear need for larger wind turbines and longer blades and, consequently, taller towers. The experience also shows that precast concrete solutions increase their competitiveness as the tower height increases. Offshore wind farms have some advantages in relation to onshore ones, which explains recent investments in this area. Also in this case, the durability of concrete in the sea when compared to steel, gives advantages to precast concrete in relation to other structural solutions. This paper shows the evolution of the supports of the wind energy generators and the advantages of the use of precast concrete towers.

Durability Assessment of Consolidation Effect on Sandstone Monuments, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , 41th IAHS Word Congress of Housing. Sustainability and Innovation for the Future, 13-16 September , Albufeira, Portugal, p.10p, (2016) Abstract41_iahs_2016_-_marco_marques_-_ext-abstract_durability_assessment_of_consolidation_effect_on_sandstone_monuments_ludovico_marques__chastre.pdf

The façades of St. Leonard’s church and the castle in Atouguia da Baleia village in western region of Portugal are monuments built in Middle Ages. Significant stone degradation patterns are visible, being the alveolization an outstanding case study.The more porous type of sandstones similar to the variety found in the vernacular architecture of Atouguia da Baleia was treated with ethyl silicates. In order to allow the study of the durability of these conservation treatments, accelerated artificial ageing salt crystallization tests were carried out and an automatic ageing chamber was developed.Physical and mechanical behaviour was assessed on consolidated specimens before and after accelerated artificial ageing salt crystallization tests. The authors propose a prediction of the durability of these consolidation treatments by means of the salt crystallization ageing results.

Conservation of sandstone monuments: a new approach in consolidation treatments, Ludovico-Marques, M., and Chastre C. , 40th IAHS Word Congress of Housing. Sustainable Housing Construction., 16-19 December, Funchal, Portugal, p.ID 211 (10p), (2014) Abstract40_iahs_ludovico-marques_-_ext.abstract.pdf

Sandstones are very important in the building elements of world’s historical and cultural heritage. The façades of St. Leonard’s church in Atouguia da Baleia village in western region of Portugal are an outstanding example of the effect of alveolization on going for several centuries. In Middle ages there was an harbour and a sodium chloride rich environment near this church was responsible for this significant stone degradation pattern.
A new approach of consolidating products application on stone walls façades based on Karsten pipe using total head to allow full absorption of stone was followed.
Experimental research, based on physical and mechanical tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of a variety of sandstones on monuments treated with ethyl silicates in order to assess the effectiveness and harmfulness of these treatments.
The comparison of results between traditional immersion applications and Karsten pipe’s based procedure on stone monument indicate the potential viability of this new approach when difficult conditions of consolidating products’ absorption occurs on stone monuments.

Modelling the compressive mechanical behaviour of granite and sandstone historical building stones, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, Chastre Carlos, and Vasconcelos Graça , Construction and Building Materials, Volume 28, Number 1, p.372-381, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Building stones, particularly sandstone and granite, are very important in the building elements of Portugal’s historical and cultural heritage. Experimental research, based on uniaxial compressive tests, was carried out on selected representative samples of lithotypes of rocks used in historic built heritage, with a view to evaluating the compressive mechanical behaviour of different building stones. The results showed that porosity plays a central role in the compressive behaviour of granites and sandstones. As porosity can be evaluated in field conditions with non-destructive tests it was decided to derive an analytical model to predict compressive behaviour based on the knowledge of porosity of the building stones. A cubic polynomial function was adopted to describe the pre-peak regime under compression to implement the model. Furthermore, a statistical correlation between mechanical and porosity data had to be defined. Good agreement between experimental and analytical compressive stress–strain diagrams, from which the mechanical properties like compressive strength and modulus of elasticity can be derived, was achieved.

Consolidation works on sandstone monuments: A new approach, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis: With Case Studies from the Construction Industries, p.235-254, (2018) Abstract

Abstract Sandstones are widely used in the building elements of the world’s stone monuments. Alveolization due to salt crystallization-dissolution is the most important degradation pattern found on the Middle Ages’ sandstone façades of St. Leonardo’s Church in Portugal. An outstanding case of widespread distribution of deep and large alveolization patterns found mainly on portals and vaults of its sandstone façades appeared as a result of the past and present proximity of the seashore. On stonewall façades, a new approach of consolidating products’ treatments using the total head was followed in order to allow full absorption of stone. Physical and mechanical tests were carried out on selected representative specimens of varieties of sandstones on the monument. Treatments with ethyl silicates were assessed by means of its effectiveness, harmfulness, and durability. The comparison of results between the application of this new procedure on this stone monument and the traditional intervention treatments highlighted the potential viability of the former to overcome difficult conditions of absorption of consolidating products.

Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares baseada em ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, Chastre Carlos, and Vasconcelos Graça , Mecânica Experimental, Number 19, p.101-110, (2011) Abstractrev_19_a10.pdfWebsite

No património edificado português as rochas granulares assumem importância relevante nos elementos construtivos presentes no património histórico e cultural, nomeadamente as pedras graníticas e areníticas. Tendo por objectivo a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares presentes no património edificado histórico foi realizado um estudo de investigação experimental sobre amostras dos litótipos seleccionados e que são representativos de rochas presentes no próprio edificado, em termos de propriedades petrográficas, físicas e mecânicas. Neste artigo apresenta-se um modelo analítico definido com base em ensaios experimentais que permite efectuar a simulação do comportamento das rochas em compressão uniaxial (diagramas de tensão-deformação), função de propriedades físicas e mecânicas obtidas através de ensaios não destrutivos e quasi não destrutivos. Este modelo permite desta forma a avaliação do comportamento mecânico de rochas granulares sem afectar a integridade do património histórico.

Effect of salt crystallization ageing on the compressive behavior of sandstone blocks in historical buildings, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , Engineering Failure Analysis, 12//, Volume 26, p.247-257, (2012) AbstractWebsite

Sandstone building stones are important in the building elements of Portuguese monuments, particularly in the western and southern regions. Alveolization due to salt crystallization was the most important degradation pattern found in the old sandstone façades of buildings in the village of Atouguia da Baleia. Because weathering progressively increases porosity in stones, experimental research was conducted on the most porous variety of sandstone, which is similar to the type of stones found in the façades of ancient buildings in that village. An automatic salt crystallization accelerated ageing chamber was developed. Monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive tests were carried out on samples after sodium chloride crystallization ageing tests had been performed, in order to assess the compressive mechanical behavior of sandstone during accelerated ageing. The results of stress–strain compression diagrams showed a clear decreasing trend in the values of mechanical parameters during the salt crystallization ageing progress. The difference in compressive strength values between monotonic and cyclic compression also decreases with as salt crystallization ageing progresses. A predictive equation that correlates the compressive strength of sandstones with salt crystallization ageing cycles is proposed.

Effect of Artificial Accelerated Salt Weathering on Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Sandstone Samples from Surface Reservoirs, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis With Case Studies from the Oil and Gas Industry, p.215-233, (2016) Abstract

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Effect of consolidation treatments on mechanical behaviour of sandstone, Ludovico-Marques, Marco, and Chastre Carlos , Construction and Building Materials, 11/15/, Volume 70, p.473-482, (2014) AbstractWebsite

Experimental research was carried out about into ethyl silicate applications on sandstone samples. Consolidation was assessed by drilling strength, impregnation depth and also monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compressive tests in order to evaluate the compressive mechanical behaviour of treated sandstone. The stress–strain compression diagrams showed a significant increase in the values of mechanical parameters after consolidation treatments. The difference in compressive strength values between monotonic and cyclic compression disappears after the consolidation treatments. An equation of consolidation effect was obtained from an analytical model by means of compressive behaviour assessed by stress–strain diagrams. These sandstone samples have values of porosity similar to the more weathered variety of sandstone found in facades of monuments in the village of Atouguia da Baleia, in the western region of Portugal. The most important degradation pattern found on sandstone building stones is alveolization caused by salt crystallization since the Middle Ages.

Modelação do comportamento mecânico em compressão de rochas granulares, Ludovico-Marques, M., Chastre C., and Vasconcelos G. , 8º Congresso de Mecânica Experimental, Guimarâes, (2010) Abstract
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