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Kullberg, J. C., Rocha R. B., Soares A. F., Rey J., Terrinha P., Azerêdo A. C., Callapez P., Duarte, L.V., Kullberg M. C., Martins L., Miranda J. R., Alves C., Mata J., Madeira J., Mateus O., Moreira M., & Nogueira C. R. (2013).  A Bacia Lusitaniana: Estratigrafia, Paleogeografia e Tectónica. (Dias, R. Araújo, A, Terrinha, P. and Kullberg, J. C., Ed.).Geologia de Portugal no contexto da Ibéria. Volume II. 195-350., Lisboa: Escolar Editorakullberg_et_al_2013_a_bacia_lusitaniana.pdf
da} Rocha, {R. E. B., Kullberg {J. C. R. }, & Mateus O. (2013).  A Bacia Lusitaniana: Estratigrafia, Paleogeografia e Tectónica. (Dias, Araújo, R., A, Terrinha, P., Kullberg, {J. C.}, Ed.).Geologia de Portugal no contexto da Ibéria. 195–347., 1: Escolar Editora Abstract
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Bianucci, G., Miján I., Lambert O., Post K., & Mateus O. (2013).  Bizarre fossil beaked whales (Odontoceti, Ziphiidae) fished from the Atlantic Ocean floor off the Iberian Peninsula. Geodiversitas. 35(1), 105-153. Abstractbianucci_et_al_2013_fossil_beaked_whales_iberian_peninsula.pdf

Forty partial fossil skulls belonging to beaked whales (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Ziphiidae) were collected by trawling and long-line fishing on Neogene (probably Late Early to Middle Miocene) layers of the Atlantic floor off the coasts of Portugal and Spain (Asturias and Galicia). e systematic study of the most diagnostic Iberian specimens, those preserving the rostrum and the dorsal part of the cranium, led to the recognition of two new genera (Globicetus n. gen. and Imocetus n. gen.) and four new species (Choneziphius leidyi n. sp., G. hiberus n. gen., n. sp., I. piscatus n. gen., n. sp., and Tusciziphius atlanticus n. sp.).
Based on the matrix of a previous work, the phylogenetic analysis places all the new taxa in the subfamily Ziphiinae Gray, 1850. More fragmentary specimens are tentatively referred to the genera Caviziphius Bianucci & Post, 2005 and Ziphirostrum du Bus, 1868. Among these new ziphiids, extremely bizarre skull morphologies are observed. In G. hiberus n. gen., n. sp. the proximal portion of the rostrum bears a voluminous premaxillary spheroid. In T. atlanticus n. sp. a medial premaxillary bulge is present on the rostrum; together with asymmetric
rostral maxillary eminences at the rostrum base, this bulge displays various degrees of elevation in different specimens, which may be interpreted as sexual dimorphism. Specimens of I. piscatus n. gen., n. sp. bear two sets of even crests: spur-like rostral maxillary crests and longitudinal maxillary crests laterally bordering a wide and long facial basin. A preliminary macroscopic observation of these elements indicates very dense bones, with a compactness comparable with that of cetacean ear bones. Questioning their function, the high medial rostral elements (the premaxillary spheroid of G. hiberus n. gen., n. sp. and the medial bulge of T. atlanticus n. sp.) remind the huge rostral maxillary crests of adult males of the extant Hyperoodon ampullatus (Forster, 1770). In the latter, the crests are very likely related to head-butting. However, they are made of much more spongy bone than in the fossil taxa studied here, and therefore possibly better mechanically suited for facing impacts. Other interpretations of these unusual bone specializations, related to deep-diving (ballast) and echolocation (sound reflection), fail to explain the diversity of shapes and the hypothetical sexual dimorphism observed in at least part of the taxa. e spur-like rostral maxillary crests and long maxillary crests limiting the large facial basin in I. piscatus n. gen., n. sp. and the excrescences on the maxilla at the rostrum base in Choneziphius spp. are instead interpreted as areas of origin for rostral and facial muscles, acting on the nasal passages, blowhole, and melon. From a palaeobiogeographic point of view, the newly described taxa further emphasize the differences in the North Atlantic (including Iberian Peninsula) and South African Neogene ziphiid faunal lists. Even if the stratigraphic context is poorly understood, leaving open the question of the geological age for most of the dredged specimens, these differences in the composition of cold to temperate northern and southern hemisphere fossil ziphiid faunas may be explained by a warm-water equatorial barrier.

Sander, P. M., Mateus O., Laven T., & Knotschke N. (2006).  Bone histology indicates insular dwarfism in a new Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur. Nature. 441, 739-741., Jan Abstractsander_mateus_et_al_2006_europasaurus_sauropod_histology_drwarfism_nature.pdf

Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest animals ever to inhabit the land, with truly gigantic forms in at least three lineages1, 2, 3. Small species with an adult body mass less than five tonnes are very rare4, 5, and small sauropod bones generally represent juveniles. Here we describe a new diminutive species of basal macronarian sauropod, Europasaurus holgeri gen. et sp. nov., and on the basis of bone histology we show it to have been a dwarf species. The fossils, including excellent skull material, come from Kimmeridgian marine beds of northern Germany6, 7, and record more than 11 individuals of sauropods 1.7 to 6.2 m in total body length. Morphological overlap between partial skeletons and isolated bones links all material to the same new taxon. Cortical histology of femora and tibiae indicates that size differences within the specimens are due to different ontogenetic stages, from juveniles to fully grown individuals. The little dinosaurs must have lived on one of the large islands around the Lower Saxony basin8. Comparison with the long-bone histology of large-bodied sauropods suggests that the island dwarf species evolved through a decrease in growth rate from its larger ancestor.

Sander, P. M., Mateus O., Laven T., & Knötschke N. (2006).  Bone histology indicates insular dwarfism in a new Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur. Nature. 441, 739-741. Abstract
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Martin Sander, P., Mateus O., Laven T., & Knötschke N. (2006).  Bone histology indicates insular dwarfism in a new Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur. Nature. 441, 739-741., Number 7094 Abstract
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Mateus, O., Dyke G., Motchurova-Dekova N., Ivanov P., & Kamenov G. D. (2008).  The Bulgarian dinosaur: did it exist? European late Cretaceous ornithomimosaurs. 56th Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy. 47., Dublin Abstract

For historical and geological reasons the dinosaurian fossil record from central Europe is little known. Here we describe and interpret a portion of a left humerus from the Upper Maastrichtian of Vratsa district in north-western Bulgaria. This bone is the first known record of a dinosaur from Bulgaria; it is certainly a theropod, probably an ornithomimosaur. We discuss the fossil record of other similar fossils of theropod dinosaurs, in particular other problematic remains from the Maastrichtian of Belgium. Rare Earth Element (REE) analysis combined with strontium (Sr) isotope data demonstrate that the Bulgarian dinosaur was initially fossilised in a terrestrial environment and then later re-worked into Late Maastrichtian marine sediments.

Mateus, O., Dyke G., Motchurova-Dekova N., Ivanov P., & Kamenov G. D. (2008).  The Bulgarian dinosaur: did it exist? European late Cretaceous ornithomimosaurs. 56th Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy. 47., Dublin Abstract
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Mateus, O., Dyke G., Motchurova-Dekova N., Ivanov P., & Kamenov G. D. (2008).  The Bulgarian dinosaur: did it exist? European late Cretaceous ornithomimosaurs. 56th Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy. 47–47., Dublin Abstract
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