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Conti, S., Sala G., & Mateus O. (2023).  Smart Biomechanical Adaptation Revealed by the Structure of Ostrich Limb Bones. Biomimetics. 8(1), , Number 1 Abstractbiomimetics-08-00098.pdfWebsite

Ostriches are known to be the fastest bipedal animal alive; to accomplish such an achievement, their anatomy evolved to sustain the stresses imposed by running at such velocities. Ostriches represent an excellent case study due to the fact that their locomotor kinematics have been extensively studied for their running capabilities. The shape and structure of ostrich bones are also known to be optimized to sustain the stresses imposed by the body mass and accelerations to which the bones are subjected during movements. This study focuses on the limb bones, investigating the structure of the bones as well as the material properties, and how both the structure and material evolved to maximise the performance while minimising the stresses applied to the bones themselves. The femoral shaft is hollowed and it presents an imbricate structure of fused bone ridges connected to the walls of the marrow cavity, while the tibial shaft is subdivided into regions having different mechanical characteristics. These adaptations indicate the optimization of both the structure and the material to bear the stresses. The regionalization of the material highlighted by the mechanical tests represents the capability of the bone to adapt to external stimuli during the life of an individual, optimizing not only the structure of the bone but the material itself.

Guillaume, A. R. D., Costa F., & Mateus O. (2022).  Stegosaur tracks from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal: new occurrences and perspectives. Ciências da Terra / Earth Sciences Journal. 20(1), 37-60. Abstractguillaumeetal.pdf

The record of Late Jurassic stegosaur tracks from the Lourinhã Formation (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian) is here revised. Thirty-eight dinosaur tracks, preserved as natural infill casts, are here reported, and thirty-two of them are attributed to the ichnogenus Deltapodus. Four of those present impressions of skin, with polygonal scales and random pattern. Deltapodus is the most common ichnogenus in the track record of the Lourinhã Formation. The sizes and shape suggest one single dacentrurine trackmaker, which could be Miragaia longicollum, also common in the same horizons.

Martins, R. M. S., Beckmann F., Castanhinha R., Mateus O., Araújo R., & Pranzas P. K. (2012).  Synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomography applied to the characterization of dinosaur fossils from the Lourinhã Formation. 1 st . Meeting of Synchrotron Radiation Users from Portugal. 1-2., Caparica, Portugalmartins_et_al_2012_tomography_enurs_martins-rui_dinosaurfossils.pdf
Marzola, M., Mateus O., Milàn J., & Clemmensen L. B. (2017).  Synrift sedimentary deposition and vertebrate fossil abundance: the tetrapod record from Greenland. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts. 2017, 159-160. Abstractmarzola_et_al_2017_svp_abstract_greenland.pdf

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Marzola, M., Mateus O., Milàn J., & Clemmensen {L. B. } (2017).  Synrift sedimentary deposition and vertebrate fossil abundance: the tetrapod record from Greenland. 159–160. Abstract
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Park, J., Lee Y., Currie P. J., Kobayashi Y., Koppelhus E. B., Barsbold R., Lee S., Kim S., & Mateus O. (2019).  Three new skulls of the Late Cretaceous armored dinosaur Talarurus plicatospineus Maleev, 1952. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts. 165-166.park_et_al_2019_svp_abstract.pdf
Park, J., Lee Y., Currie P. J., Kobayashi Y., Koppelhus E. B., Barsbold R., Lee S., Kim S., & Mateus O. (2019).  Three new skulls of the Late Cretaceous armored dinosaur Talarurus plicatospineus Maleev, 1952. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Program and Abstracts. 165-166. Abstract
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Milan, J., Christiansen P., & Mateus O. (2005).  A three-dimensionally preserved sauropod manus impression from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal: Implications for sauropod manus shape and locomotor mechanics. Kaupia. 14, 47-52. Abstractmilan_et_al_mateus_2005_-_3d_sauropod_manus_track_l_j_portugal.pdfWebsite

Sauropods were the largest animals ever to walk the earth, and evolved several specializations in their limbs in order to support their body mass. Their legs became columnar and their manual digits became reduced and encapsulated in tissue to form a single weight-bearing unit in the derived sauropods. A new three-dimensionally preserved cast of a sauropod manus, found in the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal, demonstrates not only the shape, but also the actual movements of the sauropod manus during the stride. The manus cast is 32 cm deep, and show the manus to be hoof-shaped and lacking any impressions of individual digits, except for digit I, the pollex. Well preserved striations from skin on the sides of the cast show that the manus was covered in rough, tubercular skin. The width of the manus cast is consistent from top to bottom, demonstrating that the manus was brought down and lifted vertically before any parasaggital movement of the upper limb took place.

Martins, R. M. S., Beckmann F., Castanhinha R., Araújo R., O. Mateus, & Pranzas P. K. (2011).  Tomographic techniques for the study of exceptionally preserved dinosaur and crocodile fossils from the mesozoic of Portugal. VII Encontro Nacional de Biologia Evolutiva, Coimbra, 21 Dezembro 2011. 19. Abstractmartins_et_al_mateus_2011_tomographic_techniques_for_the_study_of_exceptionally_preserved_dinosaur_and_crocodile.pdf

Portugal is ranked within the ten countries with more dinosaur taxa and the Lourinhã Formation is known
by the Late Jurassic findings of dinosaurs and other fossils. Often, studies of the external morphological
characteristics of the fossils are not sufficient and, observations of internal structures, using non-
destructive techniques, are required. The fossils here presented belong to the Museum da Lourinhã
(Portugal) and comprise a lower jaw of a basal crocodilian (possibly a Tomistomidae), eggshells and
several vertebrae from the exceptionally well preserved in ovo remains of Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur
Lourinhanosaurus. Neutron Tomography (NT) experiments with this material has been carried out at the
Geesthacht Neutron Facility in Germany. Additionally, eggshell fragments and several vertebrae have
been studied by Synchrotron-Radiation based Micro-Computed Tomography (SRμCT) at the HARWI II and
BW2 beamlines, respectively. These beamlines are operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht at the
storage ring DORIS III at the Deutsches Elektronen–Synchrotron DESY in Hamburg, Germany. In both cases
(NT and SRμCT) complete 3D recordings have been obtained using a non-destructive procedure. The high-
quality tomographic datasets can be effectively studied through interactive digital visualization. Hence,
these visualization methods provide precious information about the 3D internal micro morphology of
fossils, like the network of the eggshell pores, often invisible in more traditional techniques, and provide a
direct window into the evolutionary history of organisms.

Martins, R. M. S., Araújo R., Mateus O., Castanhinha R., Pranzas P. K., & Beckmann F. (2012).  Tomography applied to the study of dinosaur fossils from the collection of the museum of Lourinhã (Portugal). I Congresso Internacional GeoCiencias na CPL. , Coimbra: Univ. Coimbramartins_et_al_2012_abstract.pdf
Clemmensen, L. B., Kent D. V., Mau M., Mateus O., & Milàn J. (2020).  Triassic lithostratigraphy of the Jameson Land basin (central East Greenland), with emphasis on the new Fleming Fjord Group. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark. 68, 95–132. Abstractclemmensen_et_al_2020_triassic_lithostratigraphy_of_the_jameson_land_basin.pdfWebsite

The lithostratigraphy of the Triassic deposits of the Jameson Land Basin in central East Greenland is revised. The new Scoresby Land Supergroup is now composed of the Wordie Creek, Pingo Dal, Gipsdalen and Fleming Fjord Groups. This paper only deals with the lithostratigraphy of the late Early-Late Triassic continental deposits of the latter three groups with emphasis on the vertebratebearing Fleming Fjord Group. The new Pingo Dal Group consists of three new formations, the Rødstaken, Paradigmabjerg and Klitdal Formations (all elevated from members), the new Gipsdalen Group consists of three new formations, the Kolledalen, Solfaldsdal (with the new Gråklint Member) and Kap Seaforth Formations (all elevated from members), and the new Fleming Fjord Group is subdivided into three new formations, the Edderfugledal, Malmros Klint and Ørsted Dal Formations (all elevated from members). The Edderfugledal Formation contains two cyclic bedded, lacustrine members, a lowermost Sporfjeld Member (elevated from beds), and an uppermost Pingel Dal Member (elevated from beds). The lacustrine red beds of the Malmros Klint Formation are not subdivided. The lacustrine and fluvial Ørsted Dal Formation contains three new members. In the eastern and central part of the basin, the formation is initiated by cyclic bedded, red lacustrine mudstones of the Carlsberg Fjord Member (elevated from beds), while in the northwestern part of the basin the lowermost part of the formation is composed of grey fluvial conglomerates and sandstones with subordinate red mudstones of the Bjergkronerne Member (elevated from beds). The uppermost part of the formations in most of the basin is composed of cyclic bedded, variegated lacustrine mudstones and grey to yellowish marlstones of the Tait Bjerg Member (elevated from beds). The sediments in the Fleming Fjord Group contain remains of a rich and diverse vertebrate fauna including dinosaurs, amphibians, turtles, aeotosaurs, pterosaurs, phytosaurs and mammaliaforms. Most vertebrate bones have been found in uppermost Malmros Klint Formation, and in the Carlsberg Fjord and Tait Bjerg Members. The Norian–early Rhaetian, lacustrine Fleming Fjord Group was deposited at about 41° N on the northern part of the supercontinent Pangaea. Lacustrine sedimentation was controlled by seasonal as well as longer-term (orbital) variation in precipitation. Precipitation was probably brought to the basin by southwesterly winds. The lacustrine sediments of the uppermost Fleming Fjord Group show deposition during increasingly humid conditions changing the lake environment from an ephemeral lake-steppe area to a perennial lake. This evolution of lake environment suggests a change from a winter-wet temperate climate to one with precipitation throughout the year.

Ribeiro, V., Mateus O., Holwerda F., Araújo R., & Castanhinha R. (2014).  Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology. 26(2), 206-217. Abstractribeiro_et_al_2014_theropod_eggs_nest_portugal.pdfWebsite

Two new Late Jurassic (uppermost Late Kimmeridgian) dinosaur eggshell sites are described, Casal da Rola and Porto das Barcas, both near Lourinha˜, central-west Portugal. Casal da Rola yields eggshells with an obliquiprismatic morphotype comparable to those from a nest with the associated fossil embryos from Paimogo, tentatively assigned to the theropod Lourinhanosaurus antunesi. The Porto das Barcas eggshells have a dendrospherulitic morphotype with a prolatocanaliculate pore system. This morphotype was also recognised in eggshells from a clutch with associated Torvosaurus embryos at the Porto das Barcas locality. A preliminary cladistic analysis of eggshell morphology suggests theropod affinities for the Casal da Rola eggs, but is unable to resolve the phylogenetic position of the Porto das Barcas eggs. The eggshells at both sites are preserved in distal flood plain mudstones and siltstones. Carbonate concretions within the deposits indicate paleosol development.

Ribeiro, V., Mateus O., Holwerda F., Araújo R., & Castanhinha R. (2014).  Two new theropod egg sites from the Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation, Portugal. Historical Biology. 26, 206-217., Number 2 Abstract
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Moreno-Azanza, M., Balauz B., Ezquerro L., Coimbra R., Mateus O., & Nuñez-Lahuerta C. (2022).  Unbroken dinosaur eggs accumulated together do not guarantee autochthony of the fossil assemblage. Journal of Taphonomy. 16(1-4), 129-130. Abstractmoreno-azanza_et_al_2020_unbroken_eggs.pdf

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Mateus, O., Dinis J., & Cunha P. (2014).  Upper Jurassic to Lowermost Cretaceous of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal-landscapes where dinosaurs walked. Ciências da Terra, special. , Number 8 Abstract
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Silva, T., Costa F., Fernandes J., Calvo R., & Mateus O. (2016).  The use of a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer in the reconstitution of dinosaur fossils. , 7: European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry (EXRS) Abstract

Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (p-XRF) have been used in many fields of application/studies like art, archaeology, heavy metals in soil, rocks and ores characterization, and have been a powerful tool for a rapid non-destructive in-situ analysis, without any sample preparation required. This approach was applied in the present case, to distinguish the origin of the fossil bones of two dinosaur specimens from different localities that were accidentally put together in the museum a few years ago. Fossil bones with sedimentary matrix associated were stored together until today in the collection of Geological Museum (Lisbon) and regarded as one single specimen. One set of bones is part of the holotype MG 5787 of the ankylosaur Dracopelta zbyszweskii, which was discovered at Praia do Sul, and described in 1980, while the other, is an undescribed half skeleton of dacentrurine stegosaur, unearthed in the 1960’s at Atouguia da Baleia, near Peniche (both in the coast of central Portugal, distanced about 100 km from each other). Since both specimens are highly valuable for paleontology, a study was developed with the aim of separating and reconstituting the two specimens. The handheld p-XRF (Genius 9000+7000 from Skyray Instrument) was directly used in the sedimentary matrix when it was separated from the bone, and the measure of the chemical content was performed in the intermediate layer between the surface and the bone, to avoid contaminations. Although the light elements could not be attained, because the analyzer is not equipped with the option of gas charging system, the spectra obtained showed differences mainly in the ratio K/Ca, allowing distinguishing the provenance of the bones (Atouguia or Praia do Sul). These results were compared with chemical analysis obtained with XRF laboratorial equipment and complemented by the mineralogical study through X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the sediments where the bones fossilized. The difference observed in the mineralogical constitution of the sedimentary matrix from the two localities (mainly quartz, calcite, feldspars and micas with variable content) explains the variation in the values found for the ratio K/Ca (<0.5 for Atouguia and >>1 for Praia do Sul). The data obtained will be presented and discussed focusing on the importance of using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer applied to the reconstitution of dinosaur fossils that proved to be very useful in the present case.

Silva, T., Costa F., Fernandes J., Calvo R., & Mateus O. (2016).  The use of a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer in the reconstitution of dinosaur fossils. European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry. , June 19 – 24, 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract
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Silva, T., Costa F., Fernandes J., Calvo R. \é\}rio, & Mateus O. \á\}vio (2016).  The use of a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer in the reconstitution of dinosaur fossils. European Conference on X-Ray Spectrometry. , June 19 \–\} 24, 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract
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Clemmensen, L. B., Milàn J., Adolfssen J. S., Estrup E. J., Frobøse N., Klein N., Mateus O., & Wings O. (2015).  The vertebrate-bearing Late Triassic Fleming Fjord Formation of central East Greenland revisited: stratigraphy, palaeoclimate and new palaeontological data. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 434(1), 31-47. Abstractclemmensenetal2015greenland.pdfWebsite

In Late Triassic (Norian–Rhaetian) times, the Jameson Land Basin lay at 40° N on the northern part of the supercontinent Pangaea. This position placed the basin in a transition zone between the relatively dry interior of the supercontinent and its more humid periphery. Sedimentation in the Jameson Land Basin took place in a lake–mudflat system and was controlled by orbitally forced variations in precipitation. Vertebrate fossils have consistently been found in these lake deposits (Fleming Fjord Formation), and include fishes, dinosaurs, amphibians, turtles, aetosaurs and pterosaurs. Furthermore, the fauna includes mammaliaform teeth and skeletal material. New vertebrate fossils were found during a joint vertebrate palaeontological and sedimentological expedition to Jameson Land in 2012. These new finds include phytosaurs, a second stem testudinatan specimen and new material of sauropodomorph dinosaurs, including osteologically immature individuals. Phytosaurs are a group of predators common in the Late Triassic, but previously unreported from Greenland. The finding includes well-preserved partial skeletons that show the occurrence of four individuals of three size classes. The new finds support a late Norian–early Rhaetian age for the Fleming Fjord Formation, and add new information on the palaeogeographical and palaeolatitudinal distribution of Late Triassic faunal provinces.

Clemmensen, L. B., Milàn J., Adolfssen J. S., Estrup E. J., Frobøse N., Klein N., Mateus O., & Wings O. (2015).  The vertebrate-bearing Late Triassic Fleming Fjord Formation of central East Greenland revisited: stratigraphy, palaeoclimate and new palaeontological data. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 434, AbstractWebsite

In Late Triassic (Norian–Rhaetian) times, the Jameson Land Basin lay at 40° N on the northern part of the supercontinent Pangaea. This position placed the basin in a transition zone between the relatively dry interior of the supercontinent and its more humid periphery. Sedimentation in the Jameson Land Basin took place in a lake–mudflat system and was controlled by orbitally forced variations in precipitation. Vertebrate fossils have consistently been found in these lake deposits (Fleming Fjord Formation), and include fishes, dinosaurs, amphibians, turtles, aetosaurs and pterosaurs. Furthermore, the fauna includes mammaliaform teeth and skeletal material. New vertebrate fossils were found during a joint vertebrate palaeontological and sedimentological expedition to Jameson Land in 2012. These new finds include phytosaurs, a second stem testudinatan specimen and new material of sauropodomorph dinosaurs, including osteologically immature individuals. Phytosaurs are a group of predators common in the Late Triassic, but previously unreported from Greenland. The finding includes well-preserved partial skeletons that show the occurrence of four individuals of three size classes. The new finds support a late Norian–early Rhaetian age for the Fleming Fjord Formation, and add new information on the palaeogeographical and palaeolatitudinal distribution of Late Triassic faunal provinces.

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Ripple, W. J., Wolf C., Newsome T. M., Galetti M., Alamgir M., Crist E., Mahmoud M. I., Laurance W. F., & other scientist signatories +15 364 (2017).  World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. BioScience. bix125. Abstractripple_et_al_2017_scientists_merged_with_supp_material.pdfWebsite

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Ripple, W. J., Wolf C., Newsome T. M., Galetti M., Alamgir M., Crist E., Mahmoud M. I., Laurance W. F., & signatoriesscientist +15364 (2017).  World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. BioScience. 125, Abstract
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Martins, R. M. S., Castanhinha R. A., Mateus O., Araújo R., Beckmann F., & Schell N. (2012).  {Synchrotron radiation-based techniques applied to the study of dinosaur fossils from the collection of the museum of Lourinhã. Ciencia e Tecnologia dos Materiais. 24, 153-156., Number 3-4 Abstract
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