Publications

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2018
Moniz, António B. Robótica e Trabalho: o futuro hoje (Robotics and Work: The future today). Lisbon: Glaciar Ed., 2018. AbstractWebsite

Approaching the topic of robotics-work relation in a general and international context enables the possibility to know more about the impacts in different sectors. In this book the main discussion themes are followed in order to understand which the main dimensions are included in such debate. In that way, it becomes possible to understand the possible answers and available alternatives.
The book follows the themes of relation between employment and technology, the automation as rationalization process and robotics as a technology reference. The other topics are the emergence of ethical, legal and social aspects of this technology, the development that can be perceived in the case of Portugal, and the conclusions about the limits and perspectives of new robotic developments.
This edition has empirical information on the Portuguese case and also includes data from the main resources of the global debate on this issue: the new developments of automation and its relation with the work content and employment.
The author underlined the importance of the contribute that he got from the discussions at the ITAS Working Group on Robotics Technology Assessment, and at the ITAS Research Group on Technology and Work, in Germany, and at the Observatory of Technology Assessment at CICS.NOVA in Portugal. The book is include in a series supported by the Portuguese-American Foundation for Development (FLAD) and was published by Glaciar.

2017
Moniz, António B. "Cenários sobre o futuro do trabalho: avaliação das implicações tecnológicas [Scenarios on the Future of Work: Assessment of technological implications]." In Prospetiva Estratégica – Teoria, Métodos e Casos Reais [Strategic Foresight – Theory, Methods and Real cases], edited by José Saragoça, Carlos A. Silva and Joaquim Fialho, 173-197. Lisboa: Ed. Silabo, 2017.
Baumann, Manuel, Antónip Moniz, and Marcel Weil. Energy storage systems in the future German electricity system: A literature review and expert interviews based foresight approach In Pensar o Futuro, Preparar a Mudança [To Think the Future, To Prepare Change]. Évora: CICS.NOVA/Universidade de Évora, 2017. Abstract

Germany has ambitious targets to produce 35 % of the needed electricity from Renewables (RES)
mainly based on wind and solar power by 2020 and over 80 % by 2050 within the so called
“Energiewende”. Energy storage is seen as a potential option to assure the safe RES system integration
to achieve this goals. There is a high uncertainty and the resulting public discourse about the future
demand of different storage technologies is driving further development of these technologies. A
literature review of 9 studies and 10 expert interviews is carried out in line of a foresight exercise to
tackle these uncertainties. The estimations of reviewed literature are based on models with a market
perspective on energy storage demand. Most scenarios used in this models are built on top down
logics, where processes at lower levels (technology, micro-economic sphere) are determined by
dominant macro dynamics. Different storage technologies are only considered partially or in an
aggregated way. The reviewed studies show that there is a high for potential storage on every time
scale starting from the year 2030 to 2040. Analysed potentials vary depending on RES diffusion
scenarios and excess rate assumptions which are estimated to be between 0 to 44 GW in 2050.
Reviewed studies strongly integrate shared visions about system developments and formal analyses
and provide important and valuable information about potential future implications regarding energy
storage. But they only partially account, due to practical reasons, wider benefits, stakeholder opinions
and continuous market and system changes. It is also not possible to account for discontinuities in the
technological innovation process of energy storage within this quantitative approaches. Stakeholder
interviews provide thus additional and helpful insights to the literature review. The stakeholders frame
alternative potential future developments that could influence the market success and need for energy
storage until 2050. Most important factors named where policy measures, new market models and
decentralization of the energy system. As in literature there is a big uncertainty among experts about
the importance of different storage technologies and if energy storage is in general the best option
among other flexibility measures as grid reinforcement, flexible demand and flexible power plants. It
remains thus impossible to provide suggestions regarding the development of single storage
technologies.

Versteeg, T., M. Baumann, Marcel Weil, and António Moniz. "Exploring emerging battery technology for grid-connected energy storage with Constructive Technology Assessment." Technological Forecasting and Social Change 115 (2017): 99-110. AbstractWebsite

The last decades have shown an increasing amount of research into expectations of science and technology. Especially for emerging technologies, expectations held by different stakeholder are guiding the direction of research and development. In this article the results of an investigation into the expectations of specific actors regarding the development of emerging battery technology for applications in the power grid are presented. It is set up as an explorative study within the framework of Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA). A number of studies since the 1990s have indicated a growing need for energy storage options in the power grid, where batteries appear to be capable of providing a range of valuable services to the grid. Cost-effectiveness on a large scale will however require considerable technical improvements. The configuration of energy storage may differ in the specific location and exploitation of the storage assets, as well as in the investments in new storage capacity. In this study the visions and expectations of several relevant actors are analysed using interviews and surveys in terms of expectations of technological development, expectations concerning stakeholder roles, and channels of interaction between the relevant actors. The results indicate a divide in expectations between the user side of the technology (the electric power industry) and the development side (academic researchers). Opinions differ with respect to the obstacles to technological development, the actors relevant in early technological development, and the most suitable channels for interaction between these actors. It follows from the theoretical background that conflicts in expectations provide the opportunity for the acceleration of technological development and adoption through stakeholder participation. Small interactive workshops, where conflicts identified in this paper are discussed, were identified as a suitable channel in order to reach consensus in visions and expectations for battery technology.

Fischer, Martin, Bettina Krings, António Moniz, and Eike Zimpelmann. "Herausforderungen der Mensch-Roboter-Kollaboration." Lernen & Lehren 32 (2017): 8-14.
Krings, Bettina-Johanna, António Brandão Moniz, and Linda Nierling. Informatisiert, vernetzt & effizient? Digitale Arbeitswelten und ihre Folgen In "Neue Arbeitswelt und Digitalisierung", 17. Österreichische Konferenz für Technikfolgenabschätzung. Vienna: Institut für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2017.
Moniz, António B. "Transformações no mercado de trabalho e robótica." Cadernos de Economia 30 (2017): 30-34.
Boavida, Nuno, António Brandão Moniz, and Manuel Laranja. The use of indicators and other evidence in two investment decisions of Technology Innovation In 21st International Conference on Science and Technology indicators. STI Conference. Peripheries, frontiers and beyond. Valencia: Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València, 2017. Abstract

Despite increasing calls for evidence-based policies, knowledge about the practical use of evidences remains limited. This paper studies the process of construction of evidences in decisions of innovation policy to understand how evidences were used. It analysis the use of indicators and other evidences through interviews conducted to inquire about the two decisions: an electric mobility policy and a nanotechnology laboratory. Results show indicators and other evidences were brought to decision processes according to their availability and capacity to support the different interests of the actors and
the stakeholders. Their role was influenced by the particular situation of the decision makers. More importantly, the use of persuasive analytical evidences appears to be related with the adversity of the policy context. In addition, research suggests that indicators are one tool among others to foster innovation decisions. In fact, the relatively minor instrumental role of indicators suggests that indicators are mostly a complementary instrument of decision. When used relevantly, indicators can offer support to a decision. But there are other significant influences that need to be taken into account to understand the specific role indicators and other evidences play, such as the social relations of the decision makers and their emotional-intuitive decisions.

2016
Moretto, Susana, Douglas Robinson, Jens Schippl, and António Brandão Moniz. "Beyond visions: survey to the high-speed train industry." Transportation Research Procedia 2016 (2016): 1839-1846. AbstractWebsite

In Europe, the technology development of high-speed trains is increasingly exposed to societal needs, driven by ICT advancements, external to traditional design. Together with the liberalisation of the rail markets and increase pressures from other transport modes leads to an unprecedented situation where planers, operators and suppliers of high-speed have to take decision in this complex and competitive environment.
In such broadening of elements influencing design and, thus, product development process, from the survey here to be presented, it was not observed technology options assessment or strategic agenda setting from visions shifting in the same way.
For the high-speed train industry this new trend requires going beyond the visions of the past 15 to 20 years’ practices of “sector endogenous” and structurally closed strategic methods approaches to a broader interaction with the widening of societal actors now capable of being active contributors to innovation from digitalization.
This way to understand the European industry readiness for undertaking such supra systemic challenge, this paper presents the results from a survey conducted by the authors to 74 representatives of the high-speed train innovation chain regarding to which extent societal embedding is considered in the drafting of their visions and technology development projects.
This work becomes even more pertinent if considered that the debate is now open in the railway industry (not exclusive to high-speed trains) as they are launching the joint initiative SHIFT2RAIL, revise ERRAC (the European Rail Research Advisory Council) mandate and enter in a new research cycle with the European research framework Horizon 2020.

Krings, Bettina, and António Brandão Moniz. "Robots Working with Humans or Humans Working with Robots? Searching for Social Dimensions in New Human-Robot Interaction in Industry." Societies 2016 (2016): 23. AbstractWebsite

The focus of the following article is on the use of new robotic systems in the manufacturing industry with respect to the social dimension. Since “intuitive” human–machine interaction (HMI) in robotic systems becomes a significant objective of technical progress, new models of work organization are needed. This hypothesis will be investigated through the following two aims: The first aim is to identify relevant research questions related to the potential use of robotic systems in different systems of work organization at the manufacturing shop-floor level. The second aim is to discuss the conceptualization of (old) organizational problems of human–robot interaction (HRI). In this context, the article reflects on the limits of cognitive and perceptual workload for robot operators in complex working systems. This will be particularly relevant whenever more robots with different “roles” are to be increasingly used in the manufacturing industry. The integration of such complex socio-technical systems needs further empirical and conceptual research with regard to “social” aspects of the technical dimension. Future research should, therefore, also integrate economic and societal issues to understand the full dimensions of new human–robot interaction in industry today.

Moniz, António Brandão, and Bettina Krings. "Special issue on robots and the work environment." Societies 4 (2016): 31.Website
Moniz, António Brandão, and Kumi Okuwada. Technology Assessment in Japan and Europe. Karlsruhe: KIT Scientific Publishing, 2016. AbstractWebsite

The goal of technology assessment (TA) is to lend support to society and policy making by promoting understanding of the problems related to the grand sociotechnical challenges of our time, as well as to assess the available options for managing them. Researchers from Japan and Europe reflected together in this book on country-specific developments to identify the conditions that must be present to anchor TA in science, politics, and society. This book helps us to learn about different cultures.

Boavida, Nuno, and António Brandão Moniz. "Technology Assessment in Non-PTA Countries: An Overview of Recent Developments in Europe." In Technology Assessment in Japan and Europe, edited by António B. Moniz and Kumi Okuwada, 75-88. Karlsruhe: KIT Scientific Publishing, 2016.
2015
Moniz, António. "Assessing Technologies: Global Patterns of Trust and Distrust. Report on one session at the XVIII World Congress of Sociology." Technikfolgenabschätzung –{} Theorie und Praxis 24 (2015). AbstractWebsite

Technology assessment (TA) had never been treated as a relevant topic within the International Sociological Association (ISA) before. The first steps towards establishing this association were taken in 1948, at the initiative of the Social Science Department of UNESCO. Its formal foundation was in 1949. The World Congress of Sociology in Japan was hopefully the beginning of continuous integration of TA into the thematic sessions within the ISA.

Moniz, António. "Intuitive Interaction Between Humans and Robots in Work Functions at Industrial Environments: The Role of Social Robotics." In Social Robots from a Human Perspective, edited by Jane Vincent, Sakari Taipale, Bartolomeo Sapio, Giuseppe Lugano and Leopoldina Fortunati, 67-76. Heidelberg: Springer, 2015.
Böhle, Knud, and António Brandão Moniz. "No Countries for Old Technology Assessment? Sketching the Efforts and Opportunities to Establish Parliamentary TA in Spain and Portugal." EconStor Open Access Articles (2015): 29-44. AbstractWebsite

If the question is whether there is a parliamentary technology assessment (PTA) unit in Portugal or Spain, the clear answer is that there is still no such unit at the central state level at the present time, neither in Portugal nor in Spain. The question then has to be modified addressing previous and current efforts to establish PTA and the current framework conditions and opportunities. Practices of PTA are framed here as a democratic innovation in the context of changes in representative democracies. Against this backdrop, the efforts and opportunities to establish PTA in Spain and Portugal are studied. By sketching these developments and outlining the opportunities in these countries, our aim is to contribute to the debate about the likelihood of a new wave of PTA in Europe (Hennen/Nierling 2014).

Moniz, António B., and Michael Decker. "Robotics Technology Assessment: New Challenges, Implications and Risks." In The Next Horizon of Technology Assessment, 249-252. Prague: Technology Centre ASCR, 2015.
2014
Viegas, M. C., António Moniz, and P. T. Santos. "Artisanal fishermen contribution for the integrated and sustainable coastal management - application of strategic SWOT analysis." Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2014 (2014): 257-267.Website
Moniz, António Brandão. "Organisational challenges of human-robot interaction systems in industry: human resources implications." In Human Resource Management and Technological Challenges, 123-131. Heidelberg: Springer, 2014.
Moretto, S., António Moniz, and D. Robinson. The role of endogenous and exogenous FTA in the European High-Speed Railway Innovation System: CTA as the next step? In 5th JRC “Future-oriented technology analysis" (FTA) conference. Brussels: JRC, 2014.
Moniz, António B., and Bettina-Johanna Krings. Technology assessment approach to human-robot interactions in work environments In 7th International Conference on Human System Interaction (HIS). Costa de Caparica: IEEE Xplore, 2014.
Boavida, Nuno, António Moniz, and Manuel Laranja. "Towards an assessment of the Portuguese e-mobility case; The Mobi-E." In Technology assessment and policy areas of great transitions, edited by T. Michalek, L. Hebakova, L. Hennen, C. Scherz, L. Nierling and J. Hahn, 263-269. Prague: Technology Centre ASCR, 2014.
2013
Boavida, Nuno, Manuel Baumann, António Brandão Moniz, Jens Schippl, Marcel Weil, and Max Reichenbach. Technology transition towards e-mobility: technology assessment as a tool for policy design In International Colloquium of GERPISA - The International Network of the Automobile. Paris: GERPISA, 2013.
Moniz, António. "Human-Robot Interaction in Industrial Working Environments: Results from a Start-up Project." EconStor Open Access Articles (2013). AbstractWebsite

The social dimension of worker-robot interaction in industry is becoming a decisive aspect of robotics development. Many problems and difficulties of robotics research are not only related to technical issues but framed by social aspects. Human-robot interaction (HRI) as a specific research field of robotics tackles this issue. The debate on social involvement in HRI design of a few decades ago must be re-opened. A start-up project was initiated in 2012 at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to define a new research field and establish a conceptual framework on HRI. It was related to recent developments in the manufacturing industry and professional service robotics. The aim was to cooperate with other research teams to establish an expert network in this field. Special focus was placed on the design of work organisation models and issues of robotics technology design for worker (or operator) and robot interaction. In the current paper we present the most important conclusions from these research activities. –

Moniz, António Brandão. Organizational concepts and interaction between humans and robots in industrial environments In IROS 2013 "DRHE 2013 Dependable Robots in Human Environments". Tokyo: AIST - National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2013. Abstract

This paper is discussing the intuitive interaction with robotic systems and the conceptualisation connected with known organisational problems. In particular, the focus will be on the manufacturing industry with respect to its social dimension. One of the aims is to identify relevant research questions about the possibility of development of safer robot systems in closer human-machine intuitive interaction systems at the manufacturing shop-floor level. We try to contribute to minimize the cognitive and perceptual workload for robot operators in complex working systems. In particular that will be highly relevant when more different robots with different roles and produced by different companies or designers are to be used in the manufacturing industry to a larger extent. The social sciences approach to such technology assessment is of high relevance to understand the dimensions of the intuitive interaction concept.