Publications

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2023
Moniz, António B., Marta Candeias, and Nuno Boavida. "Artificial Generative Intelligence and Work – Portugal." In Generative Artificial Intelligence – Opportunities, Risks, and Policy Challenges, edited by Bjørn Bedsted, Nicklas Bang Bådum, Reinhard Grünwald, Steffen Albrecht, Tore Tennøe, Ferran Domínguez and Clara Marsan, 70-77. Barcelona: EPTA, 2023.report_en_2.pdf
Boavida, Nuno, Isabel Roque, and António B. Moniz. "Collective Voice and Organizing in Digital Labour Platforms in Portugal." Journal of Labor and Society (2023): 1-25.Website
Moniz, António B., Nuno Boavida, Csaba Makó, Bettina-Johanna Krings, and Pablo Sanz de Miguel. "Conclusion: Where is worker representation going? Diverse pathways for platform workers' collective strategies." In Digital labour platforms: Representing workers in Europe , edited by A. B. Moniz and et al, 231-244. Famalicão: Humus/CICS.NOVA, 2023.
Moniz, António B., and Nuno Boavida. "Contextualising digital platform work in Portugal." In Digital labours platforms: Representing workers in Europe, edited by A. B. Moniz and et al, 29-34. Famalicão: Humus/CICS.NOVA, 2023.
Moniz, António B., Nuno Boavida, Bettina-Johanna Krings, Pablo Sanz de Miguel, and Csaba Makó. Digital labour platforms: Representing workers in Europe. Lisboa: Humus/CICS.NOVA, 2023. AbstractWebsite

"This book reflects the diversity of platform workers and their strategies to improve their work and organize collectively. It offers an insight on the cultural and institutional frameworks of the gig economy and the varieties of platform work in different sectors, locals, skills and complexity level. At the same time, it provides a range of policy options to ensure labour rights and social protections for these workers. Although a common European policy is still missing, critical debates have been raised to foster socially acceptable platform work. It presents new pathways for exploiting the potential positive effects of platform economy and platform-based work." (from the Introduction)

“It is therefore not surprising that new initiatives are arising both among traditional trade unions and in new types of organisation and, in the process, innovative new demands are being raised and placed on the negotiating agenda. These are documented in this timely publication, which adds indispensably to our knowledge about labour responses to platformisation in Europe.” (from the Preface by Ursula Huws)

Moniz, António B., Nuno Boavida, Csaba Makó, Bettina Krings, and Pablo Sanz de Miguel. "Introduction." In Digital labours platforms: Representing workers in Europe, edited by A. B. Moniz and et al, 1-6. Famalicão: Humus/CICS.NOVA, 2023.
Boavida, Nuno, and António B. Moniz. "Transformações tecnológicas em Portugal: O papel dos parceiros laborais na prevenção dos seus riscos." In Populações, desigualdades e ação pública, 119-129. Lisboa: Humus/CICS Nova, 2023. Abstracttransform_tecnol_portugal_nb_abm.pdf

Este capítulo pretende contribuir para a análise das principais fontes de ansiedade social causada pela crescente automação em Portugal. O capítulo foi baseado na revisão de literatura internacional e nacional, bem como na análise secundária de dados. Para além disso, durante o projeto DEEP VIEW foram realizadas duas entrevistas não estruturadas a especialistas em relações laborais e 13 entrevistas semiestruturadas a representantes do mundo sindical e de entidades patronais (federações e confederações), em setores particularmente relevantes para as questões associadas ao risco tecnológico.

Moniz, António B. "«Indústria 5.0» como conceito de um novo tipo de interação humano-máquina?" In Indústria 5.0 - Pessoas, Tecnologia e Sustentabilidade, 15-34. Lisbon: Almedina/Actual, 2023.
2022
Candeias, Marta, António B. Moniz, and Nuno Boavida. "Automation trends in Portugal: implications in productivity and employment." GEE Paper (2022): 34. AbstractWebsite

Recent developments in automation and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are leading to a wave of innovation in organizational design and changes in the workplace. Techno-optimists even named it the ‘second machine age’, arguing that it now involves the substitution of the human brain. Other authors see this as just a continuation of previous ICT developments. Potentially, automation and AI can have significant technical, economic, and social implications in firms. The paper will answer the question: what are the implications on industrial productivity and employment in the automotive sector with the recent automation trends, including AI, in Portugal? Our approach used mixed methods to conduct statistical analyses of relevant databases and interviews with experts on R&D projects related to automation and AI implementation. Results suggest that automation can have widespread adoption in the short term in the automotive sector, but AI technologies will take more time to be adopted. Findings show that adoption of automation and AI increases productivity in firms and is dephased in time with employment implications. Investments in automation are not substituting operators but rather changing work organization. Thus, negative effects about technology and unemployment were not substantiated by our results

https://ideas.repec.org/p/mde/wpaper/0165.html

Moniz, António B., Marta Candeias, and Nuno Boavida. "Changes in productivity and labour relations: artificial intelligence in the automotive sector in Portugal." Int. J. Automotive Technology and Management 22 (2022): 222-244. AbstractWebsite

New technologies, sustainability policies, protectionism and consumers preferences are pushing for the reorganisation of the automotive cluster. The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to create disruptive effects in the employment systems across the world. The future deployment of broad-spectrum algorithms capable of being used in wide areas of application (e.g., industrial robotics, software and data communication) can lead to considerable changes in current work patterns, swiftly render many unemployed across the globe and profoundly destabilise labour relations. In this paper, we identify the probable penetration of AI in the automotive sector and to study its effects on work organisation, employment, and industrial relations systems, in Portugal. These changes are put in place to enhance the product quality, control costs, and improve productivity. We study these implications on productivity and industrial relations collecting new data and obtain results based on secondary statistical analyses and case studies in the automotive industry. Finally, changes in the productivity and labour market will be discussed considering the employment and skills changes in the automotive sector when investment on automation becomes a clear trend in the automotive sector.

Moniz, António B. "Forecasting and Responsible Innovation: A Book Review." Frontiers in sociology 7 (2022): 1-5. AbstractWebsite

The new book edited by Rodríguez and colleagues focuses on the topic of forecasting and responsible innovation. The original title is “Anticipación e Innovación Responsible: La construcción de futuros alternativos para la ciencia y la tecnologia” (Forecasting and Responsible Innovation: The construction of alternative futures for science and technology), and was published by Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid. Throughout this text, the reviewer is using the term forecasting instead of anticipation to convey the Spanish concept of “anticipación.” Both concepts are usually applied to “the act of looking forward” (Merriam-Webster dictionary1) or “the act of expecting or foreseeing something; expectation or presentiment” (Farlex free dictionary2) The concept of forecasting is usually used in scientific debate to mean “to estimate or predict in advance” (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2016) or “the process of making predictions based on past and present data and most commonly by analysis of trends” (Wikipedia3) (Glenn, 1994, p. 4) expressed this definition well by saying that “studying the future is not simply economic projections or sociological analysis or technological forecasting, but a multi-disciplinary examination of change in all major areas of life to find the interacting dynamics that are creating the next age.” The concept has been developed mainly by Armstrong (2001) and followed by Farrukh and Holgado (2020), Schnaars (2009), and Marinakis (2012), among others. The editors are professors and researchers from the University of Basque Country (EHU) and from the University of Mondragon (MU). The book involves a whole set of experts on the topic, including the editors themselves (Hannot Rodríguez, Sergio Urueña, Andoni Eizagirre, and Oier Imaz), and Armin Grunwald, René von Schomberg, Javier Garcia Fronti, Domingo García Marzá, Andoni Ibarra, and others. Although still published just in Spanish, it is an important contribution to the social sciences and philosophy of sciences regarding the analysis of alternative sociotechnical futures with strong ethical principles, which delineates an innovative approach in an era when the formation of public opinion largely suffers from systematic distortions based on vested interests.

Boavida, Nuno, and António Brandão Moniz. "Perfil e representação de trabalhadores de plataformas digitais em Portugal." Sociologia: Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto (2022): 32-61. AbstractWebsite

O trabalho em plataformas digitais é uma nova forma de trabalho que, em Portugal, não tem ainda definido um modelo regulado de relações de trabalho. Este artigo analisa os perfis de trabalhadores de várias plataformas digitais de trabalho e a sua representação coletiva em Portugal. A diversidade encontrada nos estudos de caso dos perfis dos trabalhadores de cada plataforma explica, em parte, a falta de interesse de movimentos laborais em os representar. O tipo de tarefas e o local de trabalho contribuem para o desinteresse na procura de representantes coletivos, e demonstra os (des)alinhamentos que ocorreram entre trabalhadores e possíveis representantes. Observa-se ainda potencial para outros alinhamentos entre os interesses de diferentes trabalhadores, movimentos sindicais e associações de representação alternativa.

de Miguel, Pablo Sanz, António B. Moniz, Nuno Boavida, Joan Antoni Serra, M. Pańków, G. Karoulas, Marina Peliz, and I. Papageorgiou. Social partners’ involvement in dual vocational education and training (VET): a comparison of Greece, Spain, Poland and Portugal. Barcelona: Notus, 2022. Abstractsocial_partners_involvement_in_dual_vocatioanl_education_and_training_vet._a_comparison_of_greece_spain_poland_and_portugal.pdfWebsite

The research report presents the key findings from the INVOLVE project (VS/2020/0145). It contributes to the debates on the participation of social partners in dual VET governance under countries generally classified as state-centred, skills-formation regimes (Spain, Greece, Portugal and Poland). The research report analysed the actual role played by social partners in the dual VET systems in the selected countries at different governance levels and the extent to which trade unions and employer organisations are involved on an equal footing. It also formulates policy recommendations supporting collective responses to dual VET systems in the selected countries. Findings are based on desk research, fieldwork consisting of semi-structured interviews and mini-case studies and national scenarios developed by INVOLVE partners, on the basis of a scenario workshop methodology

2021
Bučiūnienė, Ilona, B. Goštautaitė, António Brandão Moniz, and Irina Liubertė. "Hiring robots: How HRM shapes the development of human capital." In 36th EIASM workshop on strategic human resource management. online: EIASM, 2021.
Moniz, António Brandão. "Robótica e trabalho: O futuro hoje (Robotics and work: The future today)." In 2021. International Meeting of Sociology : Work, (In)equalities and Social Relations in the Digital Economy (ISSOW 2021). online: APSIOT, 2021.
Boavida, Nuno, António Brandão Moniz, R. Naumann, and Isabel Roque. "How is labour organised in Portuguese digital platforms?." In Final International Conference of the Project Crowdwork: Platform work – Finding new strategies to organize in Europe. online: European Commission, 2021.
Boavida, Nuno, António B. Moniz, Reinhard Naumann, Isabel Roque, and Raquel Azevedo. Case studies on digital labour platforms in Portugal: 2nd National Report of Project Crowdwork. Lisbon: CICS.NOVA, 2021. Abstract

The so called “crowd work” is an employment form that uses a digital platform to enable organisations or individuals to access other organisations or individuals to solve specific problems or to provide specific services in exchange for payment (Valenduc and Vendramin, 2016). There are many alternative terms for crowd work used in European member states, such as crowd sourcing, crowd employment, sharing economy, platform economy, gig economy, on-demand economy, collaborative economy, Peer-to-peer economy, among others (Eurofound 2018). Recently, the term “digital platform work” has developed recently to be dominant in the literature to refer to sectors where this technology has arrived. Accordingly, this report will proceed using the latter term. These forms of online intermediation have expanded from creative and high-skilled professional activities that became virtualised as a result of digitalisation to a variety of other services and activities, traditionally delivered by self-employed, that involve the maintenance or repair of material commodities or the delivery of services in person, such as cleaning, gardening, household maintenance and transport (Huws, 2017). As a result of this, workers profiles vary from highly skilled IT and creative professionals to very unskilled workers. It has been also noted that many digital platform workers are young people looking for extra income such as students, unemployed or carers (Valenduc and Vendramin, 2016). The main Portuguese reference about work in digital platforms is fused with the Uber app. Its controversial arrival in 2014 triggered fierce responses from several groups. The main legislative reference on digital platform work is the ‘Uber law’. The symbolism of the app expressed as ‘Uberization’ became synonymous of the ‘new’ precariat, seen as a hassle of technology and an attack to organized labour in the country. There are also regulations for Airbnb at state, regional and municipal level intended to limit the number of lodgings in certain areas where touristic activities are very intense. In general, the other platforms are not covered by specific regulations.

Baumann, Manuel, Jen Peters, H. Ersoy, Marcel Weil, Guy Fournier, António Brandão Moniz, and Nelson C. Martins. "Decision making support for the selection of stationary batteries." In Energy Transition and Sustainability Conference (APEEN 2021). online: CENSE, 2021.
Boavida, Nuno, António Brandão Moniz, Reinhard Naumann, Raquel Azevedo, Isabel Roque, Yuliya Kuznetsova, and Marina Peliz. "Digital work platforms – The diversity of collective representation in Portugal." In Working on Platforms – Fighting for Labour and Social Rights. online: Práxis - Trabalho e Sindicalismo, 2021.
Buciuniene, Ilona, Bernadeta Goštautaitė, António B. Moniz, and Irina Liubertė. "Hiring robots: How HRM shapes the development of human capital." In 36th Workshop on Strategic Human Resource Management. online: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, 2021.programme_may_27-28_2021_eism.pdf
Baumann, Manuel, Jens Peters, Hüseyin Ersoy, Marcel Weil, Guy Fournier, António B. Moniz, and Nelson Chibeles Martins. "Decision making support for the selection of stationary batteries." In Energy Transition and Sustainability Conference (APEEN 2021). online: CENSE, 2021.
Boavida, Nuno, António Brandão Moniz, and Marta Candeias. "Changes in productivity and labour relations: AI in the automotive sector in Portugal." In International Colloquium GERPISA - Le Réseau International de L’Automobile. online: ENS Paris-Saclay, 2021. Abstract

New technologies, sustainability policies, protectionism and consumers preferences are pushing for the reorganization of the automotive cluster. (ILO, 2020) Due to recent technological advances derived from the application of AI in the domains of autonomous driving, connectivity, automation, and robotics, the automotive sector is evolving from the traditional, linear, product-oriented value chain to a mobility, service oriented one including new players (ILO, 2020). In fact, in the last years, several digital competences centers are supplying the automotive sector and have been installed in Portugal. These changes are put in place to enhance the product quality, to control costs and to improve productivity. The product shift is done to respond to new regulations on environmental protection, and to enable the control of some emergent market niches.
The paper will contribute to answer the question: what are the expectable changes in productivity due to the introduction of AI in the automotive sector and at new players in the automotive value chain in Portugal? Do they have impacts in traditional labour relations in the sector? Did the COVID-19 had an effect in the acceleration of such changes? Does the employment in the automotive sector changed with the recent automation trends in Portugal? Are there signs of improvement in qualifications with increases in automation? Or can we observe a clear job precarity in the automotive labour market with increased application of cyber physical systems in this sector? We want to develop this framework of questions to collect new data and obtain results that will be based on case studies from the automotive cluster. We will use, as well, secondary statistical analysis. Finally, changes in the productivity and labour market will be discussed in relation to the employment volume and skills in the automotive sector.
In this recently approved national project, we will focus on AI (cyber-physical systems, intelligent automation, robotics, IoT) as the most relevant emergent technology to understand the development of automation in this manufacturing sector (Geels et al., 2012; Moniz 2018). R&D investments in industrial processes in general may reflect productivity improvements derived from the increased automation process, but that may not be the general trend. Our empirical data are based until now on initial case studies from the automotive and components sector combined with database search by keywords that sign intelligence automation developments and AI applications selected from national R&D projects on robotics, machine learning, collaborative tools, human-machine interaction and autonomous systems, supported by European structural funds. The implications on industrial productivity and employment will be discussed in relation to automation trends in the automotive sector.