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Smelling Faults in Spreadsheets, Abreu, Rui, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Martins Pedro, Perez Alexandre, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution, Washington, DC, USA, p.111–120, (2014) Abstracticsme14.pdf

Despite being staggeringly error prone, spreadsheets are a highly flexible programming environment that is widely used in industry. In fact, spreadsheets are widely adopted for decision making, and decisions taken upon wrong (spreadsheet-based) assumptions may have serious economical impacts on businesses, among other consequences. This paper proposes a technique to automatically pinpoint potential faults in spreadsheets. It combines a catalog of spreadsheet smells that provide a first indication of a potential fault, with a generic spectrum-based fault localization strategy in order to improve (in terms of accuracy and false positive rate) on these initial results. Our technique has been implemented in a tool which helps users detecting faults. To validate the proposed technique, we consider a well-known and well-documented catalog of faulty spreadsheets. Our experiments yield two main results: we were able to distinguish between smells that can point to faulty cells from smells and those that are not capable of doing so; and we provide a technique capable of detecting a significant number of errors: two thirds of the cells labeled as faulty are in fact (documented) errors.

Combining Smells and Fault Localization in Spreadsheets (in preparation), Abreu, Rui, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João P., Martins Pedro, Perez Alexandre, and Saraiva João , (Submitted) paper.pdf
SSaaPP: SpreadSheets as a Programming Paradigm – Project's Final Report, Abreu, Rui, Alves Tiago, Belo Orlando, Campos José C., Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Martins Pedro, Mendes Jorge, Pacheco Hugo, Peixoto Christophe, Pereira Rui, Perez Alexandre, Ribeiro Hugo, Riboira André, Saraiva João, Silva André, Silva João Carlos, and Visser Joost , Number TR-HASLab:02:2014, (2014) Abstracttr_ssaapp.pdf

This technical report describes the research goals and results of the SpreadSheet as a Programming Paradigm research project. This was a project funded by Funda{\c c}ão para a Ciencia e Tecnologia – FCT: the Portuguese research foundation, under reference FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-010048, that ran from May 2010 till July 2013. This report includes the complete document reporting the results achieved during the project execution, which was submitted to FCT for evaluation on October 2013. It describes the goals of the project, and the different research tasks presenting the deliver- ables of each of them. It also presents the management and result dissemination work performed during the project's execution. The document includes also a self assess- ment of the achieved results, and a complete list of scientific publications describing the contributions of the project. Finally, this document includes the FCT evaluation report.

FaultySheet Detective: When Smells Meet Fault Localization, Abreu, Rui, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Martins Pedro, Perez Alexandre, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the 30th IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution, Washington, DC, USA, p.625–628, (2014) Abstracticsme14-td.pdf

This paper presents a tool, dubbed FaultySheet Detective, for aiding in spreadsheet fault localization, which combines the detection of bad smells with a generic spectrum-based fault localization algorithm.

A Type-Level Approach to Component Prototyping, Barbosa, Luís, Cunha Jácome, and Visser Joost , International Workshop on Synthesis and Analysis of Component Connectors: in Conjunction with the 6th ESEC/FSE Joint Meeting, New York, NY, USA, p.23–36, (2007) Abstractsyanco07.pdf

Algebraic theories for modeling components and their interactions offer abstraction over the specifics of component states and interfaces. For example, such theories deal with forms of sequential composition of two components in a manner independent of the type of data stored in the states of the components, and independent of the number and types of methods offered by the interfaces of the combinators. General purpose programming languages do not offer this level of abstraction, which implies that a gap must be bridged when turning component models into implementations. In this paper, we present an approach to prototyping of component-based systems that employs so-called type-level programming (or compile-time computation) to bridge the gap between abstract component models and their type-safe implementation in a functional programming language. We demonstrate our approach using Barbosa's model of components as generalized Mealy machines. For this model, we develop a combinator library in Haskell, which uses type-level programming with two effects. Firstly, wiring between components is computed during compilation. Secondly, the well-formedness of the component compositions is guarded by Haskell's strong type system.

End Users Productivity in Model-based Spreadsheets: An Empirical Study, Beckwith, Laura, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, and Saraiva João , Number DI-CCTC-10-10, (2010) Abstracttr_study.pdf

Spreadsheets are widely used by end users, and studies have shown that most end-user spreadsheets contain non-trivial errors. To improve end users productivity, recent research proposes the use of a model-driven engineering approach to spreadsheets. In this paper we conduct the first systematic empirical study to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of this approach. A set of spreadsheet end users worked with two different model-based spreadsheets, and we present and analyze the results achieved.

QuerySheet: A Bidirectional Query Environment for Model-Driven Spreadsheets, Belo, Orlando, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Mendes Jorge, Pereira Rui, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, Washington, DC, USA, p.199–200, (2013) Abstractvlhcc2013-td.pdf

This paper presents a tool, named QUERYSHEET, to query spreadsheets. We defined a language to write the queries, which resembles SQL, the language to query databases. This allows to write queries which are more related to the spreadsheet content than with current approaches.

Type-Safe Evolution of Web Services, Campinhos, João, Seco João Costa, and Cunha Jácome , Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Variability and Complexity in Software Design (VACE 2017), a ICSE workshop, Buenos Aires, Argentina, (2017) main.pdf
Evolução Controlada de Arquitecturas de Serviços Web, Campinhos, João, Seco João Costa, and Cunha Jácome , (2016) poster6.1.pdfmain.pdf
SpreadsheetDoc: An Excel Add-in for Documenting Spreadsheets, Canteiro, Diogo, and Cunha Jácome , Proceedings of the 6th National Symposium of Informatics (INForum’15), Covilhã, Portugal, (2015) inforum2015.pdf
Detecting Anomalous Energy Consumption in Android Applications, Carção, Tiago, Couto Marco, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the 18th Brazilian Symposium on Programming Languages, p.77-91, (2014) Abstractsblp14.pdf

The use of powerful mobile devices, like smartphones, tablets and laptops, are changing the way programmers develop software. While in the past the primary goal to optimize software was the run time optimization, nowadays there is a growing awareness of the need to reduce energy consumption. This paper presents a technique and a tool to detect anomalous energy consumption in Android applications, and to relate it directly with the source code of the application. We propose a dynamically calibrated model for energy consumption for the Android ecosystem, and that supports different devices. The model is then used as an API to monitor the application execution: first, we instrument the application source code so that we can relate energy consumption to the application source code; second, we use a statistical approach, based on fault-localization techniques, to localize abnormal energy consumption in the source code.

Modeling the Impact of UAVs in Sustainability, Conejero, José, Brito Isabel, Moreira Ana, Cunha Jácome, and Araújo João , 5th International Workshop on Requirements Engineering for Sustainable Systems (RE4SuSy) @RE16, Beijing, China, (2016) 2016-modeling-impact.pdf
Products go Green: Worst-Case Energy Consumption in Software Product Lines, Couto, Marco, Borba Paulo, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João P., Pereira Rui, and Saraiva João , 21st International Systems and Software Product Line Conference, Sept 25-29, Sevilla, Spain, (2017) paper.pdf
Static Energy Consumption Analysis in Variability Systems, Couto, Marco, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Pereira Rui, and Saraiva João Alexandre , 2nd Green in Software Engineering Workshop (GInSEng’16), an event of the 4th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S), 29 Aug. - 1 Sep., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, (2016) Abstractginseng_2016_paper_1-2.pdf

Energy consumption is becoming an evident concern to software developers. This is even more notorious due to the propagation of mobile devices. Such propagation of devices is also influencing software development: a software system is now developed has a set of similar products sharing common features.
In this short paper, we describe our methodology aim at static and accurately predict the energy consumption of software products in such variability systems, typically called software product lines.

GreenDroid: A Tool for Analysing Power Consumption in the Android Ecosystem, Couto, Marco, Cunha Jácome, and Fernandes João Paulo , Proceedings of the 13th International Conference Informatics’2015, Propad, Slovakia, p.73-78, (2015) informatics2015.pdf
Analyzing and Classifying Energy Consumption in Android Applications (in preparation), Couto, Marco, Cunha Jácome, Fernandes João P., Pereira Rui, and Saraiva João , (Submitted) paper.pdf
Model-Based Programming Environments for Spreadsheets, Cunha, Jácome, Mendes Jorge, Saraiva João, and Visser Joost , Journal of Science of Computer Programming (SCP), Volume 96, p.254–275, (2014) Abstractscp14.pdfWebsite


Graphical Querying of Model-Driven Spreadsheets, Cunha, Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Pereira Rui, and Saraiva João , Human Interface and the Management of Information. Information and Knowledge Design and Evaluation, Volume 8521, p.419–430, (2014) Abstracthci14.pdf

This paper presents a graphical interface to query model-driven spreadsheets, based on experience with previous work and empirical studies in querying systems, to simplify query construction for typical end-users with little to no knowledge of SQL. We briefly show our previous text based model-driven querying system. Afterwards, we detail our graphical model-driven querying interface, explaining each part of the interface and showing an example. To validate our work, we executed an empirical study, comparing our graphical querying approach to an alternative querying tool, which produced positive results.

From Spreadsheets to Relational Databases and Back, Cunha, Jácome, Saraiva João, and Visser Joost , Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on Partial Evaluation and Program Manipulation, New York, NY, USA, p.179–188, (2009) Abstractpepm09.pdf

This paper presents techniques and tools to transform spreadsheets into relational databases and back. A set of data refinement rules is introduced to map a tabular datatype into a relational database schema. Having expressed the transformation of the two data models as data refinements, we obtain for free the functions that migrate the data. We use well-known relational database techniques to optimize and query the data. Because data refinements define bidirectional transformations we can map such database back to an optimized spreadsheet. We have implemented the data refinement rules and we have constructed tools to manipulate, optimize and refactor Excel-like spreadsheets.

A Structured Approach to Document Spreadsheets (in preparation), Cunha, Jácome, and Canteiro Diogo , (Submitted) jvlc.pdf
From Relational ClassSheets to UML+OCL, Cunha, Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the Software Engineering Track at the 27th Annual ACM Symposium On Applied Computing (SAC 2012), p.1151–1158, (2012) Abstractsac-se12.pdf

Spreadsheets are among the most popular programming languages in the world. Unfortunately, spreadsheet systems were not tailored from scratch with modern programming language features that guarantee, as much as possible, program correctness. As a consequence, spreadsheets are populated with unacceptable amounts of errors. In other programming language settings, model-based approaches have been proposed to increase productivity and program effectiveness. Within spreadsheets, this approach has also been followed, namely by ClassSheets. In this paper, we propose an extension to ClassSheets to allow the specification of spreadsheets that can be viewed as relational databases. Moreover, we present a transformation from ClassSheet models to UML class diagrams enriched with OCL constraints. This brings to the spreadsheet realm the entire paraphernalia of model validation techniques that are available for UML.

ES-SQL: Visually Querying Spreadsheets, Cunha, Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Mendes Jorge, Pereira Rui, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, Washington, DC, USA, p.203–204, (2014) Abstractvlhcc14-td.pdf

This paper presents ES-SQL, an embedded tool for visually constructing queries over spreadsheets. This tool provides an expressive query environment which has knowledge on the business logic of spreadsheets, and by this knowledge it assists the user in defining the intended queries.

Querying Model-Driven Spreadsheets, Cunha, Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Mendes Jorge, Pereira Rui, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, Washington, DC, USA, p.83–86, (2013) Abstractvlhcc2013-query.pdf

Spreadsheets are being used with many different purposes that range from toy applications to complete information systems. In any of these cases, they are often used as data repositories that can grow significantly. As the amount of data grows, it also becomes more difficult to extract concrete information out of them. This paper focuses on the problem of spreadsheet querying. In particular, we propose an expressive and composable technique where intuitive queries can be defined. Our approach builds on a model-driven spreadsheet development environment, and queries are expressed referencing entities in the model of a spreadsheet instead of in its actual data. Finally, the system that we have implemented relies on Google's query function for spreadsheets.

A Quality Model for Spreadsheets, Cunha, Jácome, Fernandes João Paulo, Peixoto Christophe, and Saraiva João , Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Quality of Information and Communications Technology, Quality in ICT Evolution Track, p.231–236, (2012) Abstractquatic2012.pdf

In this paper we present a quality model for spreadsheets, based on the ISO/IEC 9126 standard that defines a generic quality model for software. To each of the software characteristics defined in the ISO/IEC 9126, we associate an equivalent spreadsheet characteristic. Then, we propose a set of spreadsheet specific metrics to assess the quality of a spreadsheet in each of the defined characteristics. In order to obtain the normal distribution of expected values for a spreadsheet in each of the metrics that we propose, we have executed them against all spreadsheets in the large and widely used EUSES spreadsheet corpus. Then, we quantify each characteristic of our quality model after computing the values of our metrics, and we define quality scores for the different ranges of values. Finally, to automate the atribution of a quality score to a given spreadsheet, according to our quality model, we have integrated the computation of the metrics it includes in both a batch and a web-based tool.

Automatically Inferring Models from Spreadsheets, Cunha, Jácome, Erwig Martin, Mendes Jorge, and Saraiva João , Automated Software Engineering (ASE), Volume 23, Issue 3, p.361-392, (2016) Abstractase14.pdfWebsite

Many errors in spreadsheet formulas can be avoided if spreadsheets are built automatically from higher-level models that can encode and enforce consistency constraints in the generated spreadsheets. Employing this strategy for legacy spreadsheets is difficult, because the model has to be reverse engineered from an existing spreadsheet and existing data must be transferred into the new model-generated spreadsheet. We have developed and implemented a technique that automatically infers relational schemas from spreadsheets. This technique uses particularities from the spreadsheet realm to create better schemas. We have evaluated this technique in two ways: First, we have demonstrated its applicability by using it on a set of real-world spreadsheets. Second, we have run an empirical study with users. The study has shown that the results produced by our technique are comparable to the ones developed by experts starting from the same (legacy) spreadsheet data. Although relational schemas are very useful to model data, they do not fit well spreadsheets as they do not allow to express layout. Thus, we have also introduced a mapping between relational schemas and ClassSheets. A ClassSheet controls further changes to the spreadsheet and safeguards it against a large class of formula errors. The developed tool is a contribution to spreadsheet (reverse) engineering, because it fills an important gap and allows a promising design method (ClassSheets) to be applied to a huge collection of legacy spreadsheets with minimal effort.