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Viseu, F., and H. Rocha. "Perceptions of mathematics teachers on the teaching of functions and on the use of technological materials - Perceções de professores de matemática sobre o ensino de funções e sobre o uso de materiais tecnológicos." Educação Matemática Pesquisa. 20.2 (2018): 113-139. AbstractWebsite

This study intends to understand the perceptions of mathematics teachers from lower and upper secondary regarding the teaching of Functions and the use of technological materials. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire and four teachers through an interview. The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the teaching level of lower or upper secondary. In the teaching of Functions, textbooks are widely used, but differently depending on the level being taught. The same happens with the representations and with the use that is made of the technologies. Involvement of students in work is another aspect considered important, but again there are differences. The assessment also has similarities, but differs in the valuation ascribed to group work.

Rocha, H. A perspectiva de futuros professores sobre a demonstração matemática. XV Congresso Internacional Galego-Portugués de Psicopedagogia. Corunha, Espanha: Asociación Científica Internacional de Psicopedagogía, 2019. Abstract

The mathematical proof is assumed as a central element in the development of Mathematics. However, proof is conceived in different ways and assumed as having different functions in Mathematics. And when we move from mathematics to its teaching, the multiplicity of perspectives becomes even more significant. This diversity can have an impact on the students and on the relationship they establish with Mathematics. In these circumstances, this study seeks knowledge over the perspectives of future teachers regarding the mathematical demonstration. Specifically, it intends to achieve a deeper knowledge over the future teachers’ perspectives about what is a mathematical proof and about its functions. The study adopts a qualitative approach and uses interviews to collect data. The conclusions reached point to a traditional perspective of mathematical proof, closely tied to mathematical formalism and the validation function, where the teaching context introduces some changes, adjusting the formalism to the level of the students and highlighting the understanding function of proof, but maintaining the dominant character of the algebraic language.

Sacristán, A., E. Faggiano, M. Santacruz-Rodríguez, and H. Rocha. "Policies and implementations for technology use in mathematics education: perspectives from around the world." Handbook of digital resources in mathematics education. Springer, 2024. 1-35. Abstract

In this chapter, we examine the role of policies and other factors affecting digital technology (DT) integration in mathematics education. In particular, we develop a cross-national analysis of the impact on DT implementation in four countries: two countries in Europe (Italy and Portugal) and two countries in Latin America (Colombia and Mexico). We analyze the role that policies, political changes, reforms, curricula, educational organization and systems, sociocultural aspects, and teachers’ training, knowledge, and beliefs play toward possible DT implementations. We observe that there is a discourse in policies to promote digital technologies’ use, but in practice the availability and integration of such resources in mathematics classrooms is still scarce. We also note that the efforts done during the pandemic did not change this, promoting general ICT use, rather than DT resources that might enhance mathematics teaching and learning.

Rocha, H. Práticas de avaliação sumativa na disciplina de Matemática Aplicada de um Curso de Educação e Formação. Atas do VI Seminário Luso-Brasileiro Educação, Trabalho e Movimentos Sociais. Lisboa, Portugal: IE-UL, 2014. Abstractpaper.pdf

Os Cursos de Educação e Formação (CEF) foram concebidos tendo presente o elevado número de jovens em situação de abandono escolar, alunos usualmente marcados por experiências de insucesso, em particular a Matemática. O programa de Matemática Aplicada tem em conta esta realidade, tanto ao nível das aprendizagens como das metodologias e das características da avaliação a implementar. Relativamente à avaliação sumativa, é valorizado o trabalho desenvolvido pelo aluno, a sua apresentação, discussão e melhoria. As indicações dadas ao professor afastam-se da opção tradicional do teste de avaliação. O papel do professor na gestão curricular não é contudo negligenciado, sendo valorizada a adequação das propostas às características dos alunos. Este estudo pretende analisar as concepções de alunos e professores relativamente à avaliação sumativa, procurando compreender a forma como se influenciam mutuamente e como afectam a prática de avaliação do professor. Foram realizados três estudos de caso, incidindo sobre alunos e respectivo professor. Os dados foram recolhidos através de entrevistas, observação de aulas e recolha documental. Os resultados alcançados sugerem uma forte valorização dos testes por parte dos alunos, sendo notória a influência sobre as opções assumidas pelo professor. Determinantes parecem ser as concepções dos alunos relativamente ao papel de alunos e professores no que à avaliação respeita.

Rocha, H. "Pre-service teachers’ knowledge and the use of different technologies to teach Mathematics." Perspectives and Trends in Education and Technology. Springer, 2022. 505-515. Abstract

Teachers are central to the choice of tasks proposed to the students. And the teachers’ knowledge is one of the important elements guiding these choices. Despite the different models that conceptualize the teachers’ knowledge to integrate technology in their practices, research has focused essentially on the integration of a single technology. Little is known about how the work with different technologies can contribute to promote the development of the professional knowledge of pre-service teachers (PTs) or how the use of different technologies mobilizes different domains of the PTs’ knowledge. The main goal of this study is to deepen the understanding about the relation between the PTs’ Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) and their choice of tasks. The study adopts a qualitative and in-terpretative methodology based on one case study. The main conclusions suggest a strong impact of the PTs’ Learning and Teaching Technology Knowledge (a knowledge related to the impact of technology on the teaching and learning process) and a not so strong impact of their Mathematical and Technological Knowledge (a knowledge related to the impact of technology on the mathematical knowledge). The conclusions also point to the potential of the work with different technologies to deepen the PTs reflections and analysis of tasks.

Rocha, H. "Pre-service teachers’ knowledge: impact on the integration of mathematical applications on the teaching of mathematics." Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Eds. L. Leite, and et al. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. 26-37. Abstract

Mathematics is present everywhere. However, uncovering the relevance of Mathematics requires, from the teachers, a special kind of knowledge. This study tries to characterize the knowledge used by pre-service teachers when developing a mathematical task intending to promote the students’ exploration of barcodes. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology and the data were collected using class observation and interviews. The analysis is guided by the Application and Pedagogical Content Knowledge, a model inspired on TPACK (from Mishra and Koehler) and MKT (from Ball and colleagues). The conclusions point to some difficulties to see the potential of the situation to promote mathematical learning. The knowledge on the mathematical content seems to be dominant on the options assumed and operated in a rigid way that prevent the pre-service teachers from exploring the richness of the situation on the tasks they developed.

Rocha, H., F. Viseu, and S. Matos. "Problem solving in a real-life context: an approach during the learning of inequalities." European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 12.1 (2024). AbstractWebsite

This study was conducted while 9th grade students learn to solve inequalities and seeks to understand their approach to solving problems with a real-life context. Specifically, the aim is to understand: (1) What are the main characteristics of the students’ approaches to the proposed problems? (2) What is the impact of the real context on the students’ resolutions? A qualitative and interpretative methodology is adopted, based on case studies, with data collected through documentary collection and audio recording of discussions between a pair of students while solving problems. The main conclusions suggest a trend to approach problems without establishing immediate connections with what was being done in the classroom, with students’ decisions being essentially guided by criteria of simplicity. The real context of the problems seems to have the potential to develop in students a more integrated mathematics, focused on understanding and not so much on the repetition of mechanical and meaning-independent procedures. The students’ familiarization with the context in question is one of the aspects highlighted by this study.

Babo, A., and H. Rocha. "Problem solving in linear programming: a study in a vocational course - Resolução de problemas de Programação Linear: um estudo no ensino profissional." Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación. E.1 (2017): 41-46. Abstract

The development of meaningful learning becomes possible when students are actively involved in solving real problems. Thus, this study intends to investigate how students of the 11th grade of a vocational course solve problems of Linear Programming, using the graphing calculator. The conclusions reached indicate that: the interpretation of the conditions of the problems is the most delicate point; the graphical approach using technology is dominant; and the difficulties raised by the problem as well as the need to discuss the results achieved are the basis for the interactions both among the students and between them and the teacher.

Rocha, H., and A. Babo. "Problem-solving and mathematical competence: a look to the relation during the study of Linear Programming." Thinking Skills and Creativity. 51 (2024): 1-14. AbstractWebsite

This study seeks reflection on the approaches of 11th grade students to Linear Programming problems, discussing the approaches taken at different moments of the teaching process. It aims to analyze:
How is the students’ mathematical competence characterized in relation to problemsolving;
What differences can be identified in the resolutions at different moments of the teaching and learning process.
We adopt a qualitative and interpretative methodology, analyzing the approaches of two pairs of students with different mathematical backgrounds. The analysis is guided by P´olya’s stages of solving a problem and aspects of the understanding of mathematical competence. The results show different approaches to the problems depending on the teaching moment and different competences. The mathematical background impacts the students’ success when they implement routine procedures, however it does not seem to determine the students’ competence to reason about a problem.

Rocha, H. Processos de mudança associados às práticas de avaliação nos Cursos de Educação e Formação de Adultos. Atas do XII Congresso da SPCE. Vila Real, Portugal: UTAD e SPCE, 2014. Abstractpaper.pdf

Os cursos de Educação e Formação de Adultos prevêem uma avaliação que se afasta do tradicionalmente implementado nas escolas, propiciando o emergir de processos de mudança. Neste estudo analisa-se a forma como um formador concretiza a avaliação, ponderando continuidades e descontinuidades relativamente a práticas anteriores, com a intenção de caracterizar o inerente processo de mudança e os factores que o influenciam.
As conclusões obtidas sugerem um processo de mudança complexo, cuja necessidade não é verdadeiramente reconhecida, e onde parece ser determinante a reflexão do formador sobre os formandos, o contexto existente e algumas opções ao nível local da escola.

Rocha, H., E. Faggiano, A. Sacristan, and M. Santacruz-Rodríguez Professional development for the integration of technology in the teaching of Mathematics: in search of pragmatic theories - Desenvolvimento profissional para a integração da tecnologia no ensino da Matemática: em busca de teorias pragmáticas. XXXI Seminário de Investigação em Educação Matemática. Santarém: APM, 2021. Abstractsiem_2021.pdf

This paper presents part of a study that aimed to make more explicit the pragmatic theories that inform the design of professional development programs with an emphasis on the integration of digital technologies in the practices of mathematics teachers. The analysis carried out was based on a set of projects considered representative and implemented in four countries – Colombia, Italy, Mexico and Portugal. Based on this analysis, we identify relevant elements (e.g., similarities and differences, barriers and opportunities) and develop recommendations to be taken into account in the design of future professional development programs. In this process, we identified a set of aspects and sub-aspects, as well as several interconnections between them, which emerged in relation to five main themes and allowed us to reveal our pragmatic theories. Thus, this work provides a framework to support the design of future projects for the professional development of mathematics teachers regarding the use of digital technology.