Publications

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1990
Freitas, M. C., M. C. Lanca, A. M. Carvalho, and F. Decorte. "CODES TO COMPUTE RELEVANT GAMMA-GAMMA AND GAMMA-X TRUE-COINCIDENCE LINES IN ABSOLUTE COUNTING OF GAMMA-RAYS WITH A LEPD." Biological Trace Element Research. 26-7 (1990): 33-41. AbstractWebsite
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Freitas, M. C., M. C. Lanca, A. M. Carvalho, and F. Decorte. "CODES TO COMPUTE RELEVANT GAMMA-GAMMA AND GAMMA-X TRUE-COINCIDENCE LINES IN ABSOLUTE COUNTING OF GAMMA-RAYS WITH A LEPD." Biological Trace Element Research. 26-7 (1990): 33-41. AbstractWebsite
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1992
Lanca, M. C., I. Franco, J. M. Mendes, and Ieee SIMULATION OF THE FERROELECTRIC SWITCHING OF PVDF AND ITS COPOLYMERS., 1992. AbstractWebsite
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Lanca, M. C., I. Franco, J. M. Mendes, and Ieee SIMULATION OF THE FERROELECTRIC SWITCHING OF PVDF AND ITS COPOLYMERS., 1992. AbstractWebsite
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1995
Lanca, M. C., J. Domingues, and I. Franco Study of fractal properties in Lichtenberg figures., 1995. AbstractWebsite
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Lanca, M. C., J. Domingues, and I. Franco Study of fractal properties in Lichtenberg figures., 1995. AbstractWebsite
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2000
Judeinstein, P., M. C. Lanca, J. Marat-Mendes, and J. Rault. "Pore dimension of water trees in PE: NMR studies." Polymer. 41 (2000): 8151-8154. AbstractWebsite

In PE films aged under electric field the crystallisation of water (and melting of ice) has been studied by quadrupolar NMR, this technique allows one to determine the concentration of water as low as 10(-4). It is shown that the pore dimensions of the tracks forming the water trees of the order of 2.5 nm, are independent of the ageing time. The mobility of water in these water trees and in porous glass, of similar pore dimensions, are compared. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Judeinstein, P., M. C. Lanca, J. Marat-Mendes, and J. Rault. "Pore dimension of water trees in PE: NMR studies." Polymer. 41 (2000): 8151-8154. AbstractWebsite

In PE films aged under electric field the crystallisation of water (and melting of ice) has been studied by quadrupolar NMR, this technique allows one to determine the concentration of water as low as 10(-4). It is shown that the pore dimensions of the tracks forming the water trees of the order of 2.5 nm, are independent of the ageing time. The mobility of water in these water trees and in porous glass, of similar pore dimensions, are compared. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

P, Judeinstein, Lanca MC, Marat-MendeS J, and Rault J. "Pore dimension of water trees in PE: NMR studies." POLYMER. 41 (2000): 8151-8154. Abstract
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2001
Lanca, M. C., J. N. Marat-Mendes, and L. A. Dissado. "The fractal analysis of water trees - An estimate of the fractal dimension." Ieee Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 8 (2001): 838-844. AbstractWebsite

Water trees result from ac electrical aging of the polymeric insulation of medium and HV power cables in a humid or wet environment. As suggested by their name, they arise from penetration of water in the polymer. Visual observation with the help of an optical microscope shows tree (bush) type structures. This suggests that water trees might be fractal objects. Calculation of the fractal dimension from experimental samples may confirm the fractal characteristics and also give information on the damage caused to the polymer. In this work images of water trees taken under the optical microscope, dyed by methylene blue and etched for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were studied in order to estimate the fractal dimension using a box-counting algorithm. The photographs, made using an optical microscope (scale of 100 mum), of the dyed samples were obtained from laboratory-aged low-density polyethylene (LDPE) specimens using accelerated techniques. Different field amplitude and frequency and also time of aging were used and the dimension values were compared. SEM images resulting from aged cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables revealed a structure at a different scale (similar to 3 mum). Each photograph was analyzed to compare regions with and without water trees.

Lanca, M. C., J. N. Marat-Mendes, and L. A. Dissado. "The fractal analysis of water trees - An estimate of the fractal dimension." Ieee Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 8 (2001): 838-844. AbstractWebsite

Water trees result from ac electrical aging of the polymeric insulation of medium and HV power cables in a humid or wet environment. As suggested by their name, they arise from penetration of water in the polymer. Visual observation with the help of an optical microscope shows tree (bush) type structures. This suggests that water trees might be fractal objects. Calculation of the fractal dimension from experimental samples may confirm the fractal characteristics and also give information on the damage caused to the polymer. In this work images of water trees taken under the optical microscope, dyed by methylene blue and etched for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were studied in order to estimate the fractal dimension using a box-counting algorithm. The photographs, made using an optical microscope (scale of 100 mum), of the dyed samples were obtained from laboratory-aged low-density polyethylene (LDPE) specimens using accelerated techniques. Different field amplitude and frequency and also time of aging were used and the dimension values were compared. SEM images resulting from aged cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables revealed a structure at a different scale (similar to 3 mum). Each photograph was analyzed to compare regions with and without water trees.

MC, Lanca, Marat-Mendes JN, and Dissado LA. "The fractal analysis of water trees - An estimate of the fractal dimension." IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION. 8 (2001): 838-844. Abstract
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2002
Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "Combined isothermal and non-isothermal current measurements applied to space charge studies in low-density polyethylene." Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics. 35 (2002): L29-L32. AbstractWebsite

A new experimental procedure combining usual isothermal DC charging and discharging with non-isothermal current measurements has been recently proposed. It is mainly suitable for very high insulating polymers and it was successfully applied to the study of space charge trapping and transport in low-density polyethylene. The analysis of the isothermal currents revealed the presence of different traps whose characteristic (de)trapping times can be deduced. The isothermal procedures allowed the selective charging of the sample. By choosing the charging field and the ratio of charge/discharge times, non-isothermal analysis permitted the differentiation of three or four peaks (at approximate to50degreesC, approximate to65degreesC, approximate to70degreesC and approximate to85degreesC) associated with charge detrapping from surface or near-surface (<20 mum) traps. These traps have activation energies between 0.21 and 1.54 eV. The mobility at 30degreesC is around 5 x 10(-16) m(2) V-1 s(-1). Samples had to be conditioned before each experiment in order to obtain reproducible results.

Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "Combined isothermal and non-isothermal current measurements applied to space charge studies in low-density polyethylene." Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics. 35 (2002): L29-L32. AbstractWebsite

A new experimental procedure combining usual isothermal DC charging and discharging with non-isothermal current measurements has been recently proposed. It is mainly suitable for very high insulating polymers and it was successfully applied to the study of space charge trapping and transport in low-density polyethylene. The analysis of the isothermal currents revealed the presence of different traps whose characteristic (de)trapping times can be deduced. The isothermal procedures allowed the selective charging of the sample. By choosing the charging field and the ratio of charge/discharge times, non-isothermal analysis permitted the differentiation of three or four peaks (at approximate to50degreesC, approximate to65degreesC, approximate to70degreesC and approximate to85degreesC) associated with charge detrapping from surface or near-surface (<20 mum) traps. These traps have activation energies between 0.21 and 1.54 eV. The mobility at 30degreesC is around 5 x 10(-16) m(2) V-1 s(-1). Samples had to be conditioned before each experiment in order to obtain reproducible results.

Lanca, M. C., C. J. Dias, D. K. Dasgupta, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Dielectric properties of electrically aged low density polyethylene." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 396-399. Abstract

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films kept in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, were aged under a high AC electrical field. The films were prepared from press moulding of LDPE pellets with small amounts of antioxidants. The dielectric spectra at 30 degreesC in the range of 10(-5) Hz to 105 Hz were obtained prior and after ageing. Three different experimental techniques were used to obtain the full spectrum. For the low frequency (LF) region (10(-5) Hz to 10(-1) Hz) the time domain technique was used (charge and discharge currents were also measured). The measuring device used for the 10(-1) Hz to 10(1) Hz medium frequency (MF) region was a lock-in amplifier. While for the high frequency (HF), 10(-1) Hz to 10(5) Hz, RLC bridge measurements were performed. Differences can be seen between aged and unaged PE. The region showing less changes with ageing is the MF region where the peak of the unaged samples seems to become less defined with ageing time. This peak is probably due to additives and impurities (such as antioxidants) that will tend to slowly diffuse out with time. The LF peak is a broad peak related to localised space charge injection driven by the electric field. This peak increases in an earlier stage of ageing decreasing afterwards possibly when the polymer becomes more conductive. Finally the HF shows the beginning of a peak due to gamma and beta transitions. The later is related to dipolar rotation of carbonyl groups in amorphous polymer regions, while the former is associated to crankshaft motions in the main polymer chain. This peak decreases with ageing disappearing for the most aged samples. This could also be explained if the sample becomes more conductive.

Lanca, M. C., C. J. Dias, D. K. Dasgupta, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Dielectric properties of electrically aged low density polyethylene." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 396-399. Abstract

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films kept in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, were aged under a high AC electrical field. The films were prepared from press moulding of LDPE pellets with small amounts of antioxidants. The dielectric spectra at 30 degreesC in the range of 10(-5) Hz to 105 Hz were obtained prior and after ageing. Three different experimental techniques were used to obtain the full spectrum. For the low frequency (LF) region (10(-5) Hz to 10(-1) Hz) the time domain technique was used (charge and discharge currents were also measured). The measuring device used for the 10(-1) Hz to 10(1) Hz medium frequency (MF) region was a lock-in amplifier. While for the high frequency (HF), 10(-1) Hz to 10(5) Hz, RLC bridge measurements were performed. Differences can be seen between aged and unaged PE. The region showing less changes with ageing is the MF region where the peak of the unaged samples seems to become less defined with ageing time. This peak is probably due to additives and impurities (such as antioxidants) that will tend to slowly diffuse out with time. The LF peak is a broad peak related to localised space charge injection driven by the electric field. This peak increases in an earlier stage of ageing decreasing afterwards possibly when the polymer becomes more conductive. Finally the HF shows the beginning of a peak due to gamma and beta transitions. The later is related to dipolar rotation of carbonyl groups in amorphous polymer regions, while the former is associated to crankshaft motions in the main polymer chain. This peak decreases with ageing disappearing for the most aged samples. This could also be explained if the sample becomes more conductive.

Mateo, J., M. C. Lanca, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Infrared spectroscopy studies of aged polymeric insulators." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 384-387. Abstract

Thin films of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) were aged under an AC electric field while kept in sodium chloride aqueous solution. After aging the samples showed water trees (localized damaged with the appearance of hydrophilic ramified structures whose size ranges from a few microns to I mm). Some of the samples suffered dielectric breakdown showing small channels (1-2 mm. diameter) crossing the film and sometimes also signs of carbonization. In order to identify the oxidation mechanisms contributing to aging, FTIR was used to analyze both unaged and aged specimens. Comparing between unaged and aged LDPE an increase in the FTIR spectrum for bands at 1720 cm(-1), 1640 cm(-1) and 1590 cm(-1) was visible for the aged samples. The first region corresponds to carbonyl groups (C=O bonds) resulting from oxidation (most probably ketones). While the second one is related to carbon double bonds formed due to chain scission. Finally the third one is due to carboxylates. For the XLPE the analysis is more difficult. Besides aging it needs to be taken into account the by-products of crosslinking that will tend also to diffuse out with time. The main effect of aging is an increase in the concentration of 1640 cm(-1) band (C=C bonds). For the water treed regions dry and wet samples were compared. In the wet ones the absorbance is larger for the 3380 cm(-1) exhibiting, as expected, water absorption in the water treed regions (hydrophilic characteristics were increased).

Mateo, J., M. C. Lanca, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Infrared spectroscopy studies of aged polymeric insulators." Advanced Materials Forum I. Ed. T. Vieira. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 384-387. Abstract

Thin films of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) were aged under an AC electric field while kept in sodium chloride aqueous solution. After aging the samples showed water trees (localized damaged with the appearance of hydrophilic ramified structures whose size ranges from a few microns to I mm). Some of the samples suffered dielectric breakdown showing small channels (1-2 mm. diameter) crossing the film and sometimes also signs of carbonization. In order to identify the oxidation mechanisms contributing to aging, FTIR was used to analyze both unaged and aged specimens. Comparing between unaged and aged LDPE an increase in the FTIR spectrum for bands at 1720 cm(-1), 1640 cm(-1) and 1590 cm(-1) was visible for the aged samples. The first region corresponds to carbonyl groups (C=O bonds) resulting from oxidation (most probably ketones). While the second one is related to carbon double bonds formed due to chain scission. Finally the third one is due to carboxylates. For the XLPE the analysis is more difficult. Besides aging it needs to be taken into account the by-products of crosslinking that will tend also to diffuse out with time. The main effect of aging is an increase in the concentration of 1640 cm(-1) band (C=C bonds). For the water treed regions dry and wet samples were compared. In the wet ones the absorbance is larger for the 3380 cm(-1) exhibiting, as expected, water absorption in the water treed regions (hydrophilic characteristics were increased).

Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, and J. N. Marat-Mendes Studies of space charge in electrically aged low density polyethylene., 2002. AbstractWebsite

Space charge in electrically aged LDPE was studied using a recently developed technique combining isothermal charging and discharging with non-isothermal measurements. Samples were aged in a NaCl aqueous solution at 40degreesC for 1500h under an AC field of 6MV/m (50Hz). The samples were then isothermally DC charged and discharged (both currents recorded). Next a non-isothermal experiment with constant heating rate was performed. Finally the sample was kept at the highest temperature and the final isothermal discharge current registered. The last step has to be carried on for long time to ensure an almost complete discharge of the remnant charge so that results become reproducible and possible to analyze. Selective charging (careful choice of the field, temperature and the ratio of charging/discharging times) revealed the presence of different trapping sites. From the analysis of the isothermal and non-isothermal data the relaxation times and activation energies could be obtained.

Lanca, M. C., E. R. Neagu, and J. N. Marat-Mendes Studies of space charge in electrically aged low density polyethylene., 2002. AbstractWebsite

Space charge in electrically aged LDPE was studied using a recently developed technique combining isothermal charging and discharging with non-isothermal measurements. Samples were aged in a NaCl aqueous solution at 40degreesC for 1500h under an AC field of 6MV/m (50Hz). The samples were then isothermally DC charged and discharged (both currents recorded). Next a non-isothermal experiment with constant heating rate was performed. Finally the sample was kept at the highest temperature and the final isothermal discharge current registered. The last step has to be carried on for long time to ensure an almost complete discharge of the remnant charge so that results become reproducible and possible to analyze. Selective charging (careful choice of the field, temperature and the ratio of charging/discharging times) revealed the presence of different trapping sites. From the analysis of the isothermal and non-isothermal data the relaxation times and activation energies could be obtained.

MC, Lanca, Neagu ER, and Marat-Mendes JN. "Combined isothermal and non-isothermal current measurements applied to space charge studies in low-density polyethylene." Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics. 35 (2002): L29-L32. Abstract
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MC, Lanca, Dias CJ, Das Gupta DK, and Marat-MendeS J. "Dielectric properties of electrically aged low density polyethylene." Advanced Materials Forum I. Vol. 230-2. Key Engineering Materials, 230-2. 2002. 396-399. Abstract
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J, Mateo, Lanca MC, and Marat-MendeS J. "Infrared spectroscopy studies of aged polymeric insulators." Advanced Materials Forum I. Vol. 230-2. 2003 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, 230-2. 2002. 384-387. Abstract
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Lanca, M. C.;Neagu, E. R.;Marat-Mendes, and J. N. "Studies of space charge in electrically aged low density polyethylene." 11th International Symposium on Electrets. 2002. 19-22. Abstract
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2003
Lanca, M. C., C. J. Dias, D. K. Dasgupta, J. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee Ieee Comparative study of dielectric relaxation spectra of electrically and thermally aged low density polyethylene., 2003. AbstractWebsite

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were thermally aged in a sodium chloride aqueous solution at constant temperature (thermal aging). Some of the samples were simultaneously immersed in solution and subjected to an electric AC field (electrical aging). The dielectric relaxation spectra at 30 degreesC in the range of 10(-5) Hz to 10(5) Hz were obtained for unaged and aged samples. For the low frequency (LF) region (10(-5) Hz to 10(-1) Hz) the time domain technique was used. A lock-in amplifier was used for the 10(-1) Hz to 10(1) Hz medium frequency (MF) region. While for the high frequency (HF), 10(-1) Hz to 10(5) Hz, RLC bridge measurements were performed. The main differences can be seen between electrically, thermally aged and unaged LDPE in the HF and LF regions. The LF peak is a broad peak related to localized space charge injection driven by the electric field. For electrically aged samples this peak increases in an earlier stage of electrical aging, decreasing afterwards. While in thermally aged samples the peak amplitude always increases with aging time. Finally the HF shows the beginning of a peak due to the gamma and beta transitions. This peak decreases with aging disappearing for the most aged samples.