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2010
ER, Neagu, Dias CJ, Lança MC, Igreja R, and Marat-Mendes JN. "Medium Electric Field Electron Injection/Extraction at Metal-Dielectric Interface." Vol. 636-637. Materials Science Forum, 636-637. 2010. 437-443. Abstract
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ER, Neagu, Dias CJ, Lanca MC, Igreja R, Inacio P, and Marat-Mendes JN. "On the width of the thermally stimulated discharge current peak." IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics-ICSD. 2010. Abstract
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ER, Neagu, Dias CJ, Lanca MC, Igreja R, Inacio P, and Marat-Mendes JN. "The study of the molecular movements in the range of glass transition by the final thermally stimulated discharge current technique." IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics-ICSD. 2010. Abstract
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Neagu, E. R., R. M. Neagu, C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "The analysis of isothermal current in terms of charge injection or extraction at the metal-dielectric contact." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 356 (2010): 833-837. AbstractWebsite

The measured isothermal charging and discharging currents are analyzed either in terms of polarization mechanisms or in terms of charge injection/extraction at the metal-dielectric interface and the conduction current through the dielectric material. We propose to measure the open-circuit isothermal charging and discharging currents just to overpass the difficulties related to the analysis of the conduction mechanisms through the dielectric materials. Besides a polarization current, there is a current related with charge injection or extraction at the metal-dielectric contact and a reverse current related to the charge trapped into the superficial trap states of the dielectric and that can jump at the interface in a reverse way. By fitting the experimental data, two important parameters can be determined (i) the highest value of the relaxation time for the polarization mechanisms still involved into the transient current and (ii) the height W-0 of the potential barrier at the metal-dielectric interface immediately after the step voltage is applied. Only the initial part of the measured isothermal charging or discharging current can be used to obtain information about the polarization processes. By transforming the time-domain data into the frequency domain, a maximum for the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity is obtained, in good agreement with the data obtained from AC dielectric measurements and the finally thermally stimulated discharge current measurements. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, R. Igreja, P. Inacio, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "Charge Carriers Injection/Extraction at the Metal-Polymer Interface and Its Influence in the Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems-Switches Actuation Voltage." Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 10 (2010): 2503-2511. AbstractWebsite

Opposite results concerning the sign of the parasitic charge accumulated at the metal dielectric contact in RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive switches are found in the literature. The mechanism concerning charge injection/extraction at the metal-dielectric contact and its influence on the pull-in voltage needs to be further clarified. A model-switch, for which only one dimension is in the microns range, is used to study the behaviour of a capacitive RF MEMS switch. The aim is to analyze how the electric charge is injected/extracted into or from the dielectric material under the applied field and to obtain realistic data to understand how this parasitic charge influences the pull-in voltage V-pi and the pull-off voltage V-po. A triangle voltage is employed to measure V-pi and V-po by measuring the isothermal charging/discharging currents. Our results demonstrate that V-pi is strongly dependent on the injected/extracted charge on the free surface of the dielectric. The charge injected/extracted at the bottom side of the dielectric has no influence on the actuation voltage. The charge injected/extracted on the free surface of the dielectric determines an increase of the modulus of V-pi and, eventually, the switch can fail to actuate. An estimation of the charge stored into the material was obtained (i) by measuring the charging current and the discharging current and (ii) from the value of the V-pi. The parasitic charge necessary to keep the bridge stick to the insulator is 5.3 x 10(-4) cm(-2) for our experimental conditions. The modification of the V-pi determined by the stored charge in the dielectric is analyzed. An increase of the relative dielectric permittivity by a factor of 2 produces a decrease of the actuation voltage of 10%. A variation of 30% in the elastic constant determines a variation of about 20% in the V-pi. A voltage threshold for charge injection/extraction was not observed.

Lanca, M. C., M. Brandt, E. R. Neagu, C. J. Dias, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "Dielectric spectra of natural cork and derivatives." Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 356 (2010): 763-767. AbstractWebsite

Cork is a cellular biomaterial that has unique characteristics that make it suitable for many types of applications. Since it is also an electrical insulator, the study of its electrical and dielectric properties can lead to new interesting applications. The moisture present in cork and derivatives has a very important role on the dielectric properties. In this work a composite made of both recycled cork and TetraPak (R) used containers was studied and compared with other cork products. The dielectric relaxation spectra of natural cork (as received), commercial cork agglomerate and of a composite cork/Tetrapak (R) was investigated in the temperature range of -50 to 120 degrees C and in the frequency range of 10(-1) Hz-2 MHz. For some samples of the composite a small amount of paraffin was added. The highest values for the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity were found for the commercial material and the composite without paraffin. The lowest was found for the cork/TetraPak (R)/paraffin composite. The influence of humidity content was investigated for the composite with wax. Natural cork shows a peak around 80 degrees C (not seen in the derivative materials). The commercial agglomerate and the cork/TetraPak (R)/paraffin composite show a peak around 40-50 degrees C. In the composite this peak becomes smaller as humidity is removed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Neagu, E. R., R. M. Neagu, C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, P. Inacio, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "Electrical Method to Study the Weak Molecular Movements at Nanometric Scale in Low Mobility Materials." Advanced Materials Forum V, Pt 1 and 2. Eds. L. G. Rosa, and F. Margarido. Vol. 636-637. Materials Science Forum, 636-637. 2010. 430-436. Abstract

For the characterization of the new materials and for a better understanding of the connection between structure and properties it is necessary to use more and more sensible methods to study molecular movement at nanometric scale. This paper presents the experimental basis for a new electrical method to study the fine molecular movements at nanometric scale in dielectric materials. The method will be applied for polar and non-polar materials characterization. Traditionally, the electrical methods used to study the molecular movements are based on the movements of the dipoles that are parts of the molecules. We have proposed recently a combined protocol to analyze charge injection/extraction, transport, trapping and detrapping in low mobility materials. The experimental results demonstrate that the method can be used to obtain a complex thermogram which contains information about all molecular movements, even at nanoscopic level. Actually during the charging process we are decorating the structure with space charge and during the subsequent heating we are observing an apparent peak and the genuine peaks that are related to charge de-trapping determined by the molecular movement. The method is very sensitive, very selective and allows to determinate the parameters for local and collective molecular movements, including the temperature dependence of the activation energy and the relaxation time.

Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, R. Igreja, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "Medium Electric Field Electron Injection/Extraction at Metal-Dielectric Interface." Advanced Materials Forum V, Pt 1 and 2. Eds. L. G. Rosa, and F. Margarido. Vol. 636-637. Materials Science Forum, 636-637. 2010. 437-443. Abstract

The isothermal charging current and the isothermal discharging current in low mobility materials are analyzed either in terms of polarization mechanisms or in terms of charge injection/extraction at the metal-dielectric interface and the conduction current through the dielectric material. We propose to measure the open-circuit isothermal charging and discharging currents just to overpass the difficulties related to the analysis of the conduction mechanisms in dielectric materials. We demonstrate that besides a polarization current there is a current related to charge injection or extraction at the metal-dielectric interface and a reverse current related to the charge trapped into the shallow superficial or near superficial states of the dielectric and which can move at the interface in the opposite way that occurring during injection. Two important parameters can be determined (i) the highest value of the relaxation time for the polarization mechanisms which are involved into the transient current and (ii) the height of the potential barrier W-0 at the metal-dielectric interface. The experimental data demonstrate that there is no threshold field for electron injection/extraction at a metal-dielectric interface.

Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, R. Igreja, P. Inacio, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee. "On the Width of the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current Peak." Proceedings of the 2010 Ieee International Conference on Solid Dielectrics (Icsd 2010) (2010). Abstract
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Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, R. Igreja, P. Inacio, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee. "On the Width of the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current Peak." Proceedings of the 2010 Ieee International Conference on Solid Dielectrics. IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics-ICSD. 2010. Abstract

The Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current (TSDC) method is a very sensitive technique to analyze the movement of dipoles and of space charge (SC). To increase the selectivity of the method we have proposed a variant of the TSDC method, namely the final thermally stimulated discharge current (FTSDC) technique. The experimental conditions can be selected so that the FTSDC is mainly determined by SC de-trapping. The aim of this paper is to analyze if the elementary peaks obtained by using the two methods can be assumed as elementary Debye peaks and to determine the best experimental conditions to obtain a narrow experimental peak which means to increase the selectivity of the method.

Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, R. Igreja, P. Inacio, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee. "The Study of the Molecular Movements in the Range of Glass Transition by the Final Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current Technique." Proceedings of the 2010 Ieee International Conference on Solid Dielectrics (Icsd 2010) (2010). Abstract
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Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, R. Igreja, P. Inacio, J. N. Marat-Mendes, and Ieee. "The Study of the Molecular Movements in the Range of Glass Transition by the Final Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current Technique." Proceedings of the 2010 Ieee International Conference on Solid Dielectrics. IEEE International Conference on Solid Dielectrics-ICSD. 2010. Abstract

The electrical methods used to study the molecular movements are based on the movement of the dipoles under DC or AC electric field. We have proposed recently a combined measuring protocol to analyze charge injection/extraction, transport, trapping and de-trapping in polar or non-polar dielectric materials. The method is used here to analyze the molecular movements in polyimide in the temperature range from 293 to 572 K. A strong relaxation was observed around 402 K and a very weak relaxation around 345 K. This is the beta relaxation which is quite complex. As concern the behavior at high temperatures, above the beta relaxation, a high peak was observed that shifts continuously to higher temperatures as the charging temperature and/or the charging field increase. The maximum current of the peak increases and the temperature corresponding to the maximum current increases as the charging temperature and/or the charging field increase, given a direct observation of the so called cross-over effect related to current decay for sample charged at high fields and/or high temperatures.

2009
Neagu, E. R., C. J. Dias, MC Lança, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "The study of molecular movements in dielectrics using isothermal and non- isotehermal current measurements." 183 (2009): –-. Abstract
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2008
ER, Neagu, Neagu RM, Dias CJ, Lanca MC, and Marat-Mendes JN. "The determination of the metal-dielectric interface barrier height from the open-circuit isothermal charging current." Journal of Applied Physics. 104 (2008). AbstractWebsite
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MC, Lanca, Peuckert S, Neagu ER, Gil L, Silva PC, and Marat-MendeS J. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Ed. Baptista APM Sa Alves Malheiros LF Vieira C. F. M. Marques AT, Silva AF. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 613-617. Abstract
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RM, Neagu, Neagu ER, Lanca MC, and Marat-Mendes JN. "New Experimental Facts Concerning the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current in Dielectric Materials." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Ed. Baptista APM Sa Alves Malheiros LF Vieira C. F. M. Marques AT, Silva AF. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 328-332. Abstract
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Neagu, E. R., R. M. Neagu, C. J. Dias, M. C. Lanca, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "The determination of the metal-dielectric interface barrier height from the open-circuit isothermal charging current." Journal of Applied Physics. 104 (2008). AbstractWebsite

There is a sustained interest both from theoretical and from practical points of view to understand the isothermal charging and the isothermal discharging currents in dielectrics. The measured currents are analyzed either in terms of polarization mechanisms or in terms of charge injection/extraction at the metal-dielectric interface and the conduction current through the dielectric material. As long as we do not know the nature of the origin of the current, it is not clear what information we can get by analyzing the experimental data. We propose to measure the open-circuit isothermal charging and discharging currents just to overpass the difficulties related to the analysis of the conduction mechanisms in dielectric materials. We demonstrate that besides a polarization current, there is a current related with charge injection or extraction at the metal-dielectric contact and a reverse current related to the charge trapped into the superficial trap states of the dielectric and that can jump at the interface in a reverse way. An analytical expression for the current is proposed. By fitting the experimental data to this analytical equation, two important parameters can be determined: (i) the highest value of the relaxation time for the polarization mechanisms still involved into the transient current and (ii) the height of the potential barrier W-0 at the metal-dielectric interface at the initial time when the step voltage is applied. The value obtained for Al-polyethylene terephthalate interface is (0.43 +/- 0.02) eV. For a charging voltage of 220 V there are 6x10(14) trapped electrons/m(2). (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Neagu, E. R., R. M. Neagu, C. J. Dias, Carmo M. Lanca, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "The determination of the metal-dielectric interface barrier height from the open-circuit isothermal charging current." Journal of Applied Physics. 104 (2008). Abstract
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Lanca, M. C., S. Peuckert, E. R. Neagu, L. Gil, P. C. Silva, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Eds. AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 613-617. Abstract

Lately the electrical and dielectric properties of cork and some cork-based materials (commercial and non-commercial) have been studied in order to understand their ability to store electrical charge. The main problem found so far is related to the water content in cork, only of a few % weight. but large enough to influence greatly the conductivity of cork and, consequently, the charge storage capability. To overcome this problem cork has been combined with hydrophobic materials. In this work a commercial wax (paraffin wax) was used to produce a cork/paraffin composite by hot pressing. After milled and mixed natural cork. TetraPak (R) containers waste and paraffin were pressed to make plaques of a new composite. Different concentrations of cork. TetraPak (R) and paraffin, different granules sire, different temperature and pressure were used to produce the samples. The electrical properties of the new composite were measured by the isothermal charging and discharging current method and the results compared to previously ones obtained for natural cork and other derivative products. The new composite has shown to have lower conductivity than the commercial agglomerate. which makes it a better material for charge storage.

Lanca, M. C., S. Peuckert, E. R. Neagu, L. Gil, P. C. Silva, and J. Marat-Mendes. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. 587-588 (2008): 613-617. AbstractWebsite

Lately the electrical and dielectric properties of cork and some cork-based materials (commercial and non-commercial) have been studied in order to understand their ability to store electrical charge. The main problem found so far is related to the water content in cork, only of a few % weight. but large enough to influence greatly the conductivity of cork and, consequently, the charge storage capability. To overcome this problem cork has been combined with hydrophobic materials. In this work a commercial wax (paraffin wax) was used to produce a cork/paraffin composite by hot pressing. After milled and mixed natural cork. TetraPak (R) containers waste and paraffin were pressed to make plaques of a new composite. Different concentrations of cork. TetraPak (R) and paraffin, different granules sire, different temperature and pressure were used to produce the samples. The electrical properties of the new composite were measured by the isothermal charging and discharging current method and the results compared to previously ones obtained for natural cork and other derivative products. The new composite has shown to have lower conductivity than the commercial agglomerate. which makes it a better material for charge storage.

Lanca, Carmo M., Stefan Peuckert, Eugen R. Neagu, Luis Gil, Paulo C. Silva, and Jose Marat-Mendes. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Eds. AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 613-617. Abstract

Lately the electrical and dielectric properties of cork and some cork-based materials (commercial and non-commercial) have been studied in order to understand their ability to store electrical charge. The main problem found so far is related to the water content in cork, only of a few % weight. but large enough to influence greatly the conductivity of cork and, consequently, the charge storage capability. To overcome this problem cork has been combined with hydrophobic materials. In this work a commercial wax (paraffin wax) was used to produce a cork/paraffin composite by hot pressing. After milled and mixed natural cork. TetraPak (R) containers waste and paraffin were pressed to make plaques of a new composite. Different concentrations of cork. TetraPak (R) and paraffin, different granules sire, different temperature and pressure were used to produce the samples. The electrical properties of the new composite were measured by the isothermal charging and discharging current method and the results compared to previously ones obtained for natural cork and other derivative products. The new composite has shown to have lower conductivity than the commercial agglomerate. which makes it a better material for charge storage.

Lanca, Carmo M., Stefan Peuckert, Eugen R. Neagu, Luis Gil, Paulo C. Silva, Jose Marat-Mendes, AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. "Electrical Properties Studies of a Cork/TetraPak (R)/Paraffin Wax Composite." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Vol. 587-588. 2008. 613-617. Abstract
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Neagu, R. M., E. R. Neagu, M. C. Lanca, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "New Experimental Facts Concerning the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current in Dielectric Materials." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Eds. AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 328-332. Abstract

The thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC.) method is a very sensitive and a very selective technique to analyze dipole disorientation and the movement of de-trapped space charge (SC). We have proposed a variant of the TSDC method, namely the final thermally stimulated discharge current (FTSDC) technique. flee experimental conditions can be selected so that the FTSDC is mainly determined by the SC de-trapping. The temperatures of the maximum intensity of the fractional polarization peaks obtained at low temperature, in the range of the local (secondary) relaxation, are in general about 10 to 20 K above the poling temperature. Measurements of the FTSDC in a wide temperature range demonstrate the existence of an apparent peak at a temperature T-ma shifted with about 10 to 30 K above the charging temperature T-c. The shift of T-ma with respect to T-c depends on the experimental conditions. The peak width at the half maximum intensity decreases as T-c increases and the thermal apparent activation energy increases. The variations are not monotonous revealing the temperature range where the molecular motion is stronger and consequently the charge trapping and de-trapping processes are affected. Our results demonstrate that there is a strong similarity between the elementary peaks obtained by the two methods, and the current is mainly determined by SC de-trapping. Even the best elementary peaks are not fitted very well by the analytical equation, indicating that the hypothesis behind this equation have to be reconsidered.

Neagu, R. M., E. R. Neagu, Carmo M. Lanca, and J. N. Marat-Mendes. "New Experimental Facts Concerning the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current in Dielectric Materials." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Eds. AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. Vol. 587-588. Materials Science Forum, 587-588. 2008. 328-332. Abstract

The thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC.) method is a very sensitive and a very selective technique to analyze dipole disorientation and the movement of de-trapped space charge (SC). We have proposed a variant of the TSDC method, namely the final thermally stimulated discharge current (FTSDC) technique. flee experimental conditions can be selected so that the FTSDC is mainly determined by the SC de-trapping. The temperatures of the maximum intensity of the fractional polarization peaks obtained at low temperature, in the range of the local (secondary) relaxation, are in general about 10 to 20 K above the poling temperature. Measurements of the FTSDC in a wide temperature range demonstrate the existence of an apparent peak at a temperature T-ma shifted with about 10 to 30 K above the charging temperature T-c. The shift of T-ma with respect to T-c depends on the experimental conditions. The peak width at the half maximum intensity decreases as T-c increases and the thermal apparent activation energy increases. The variations are not monotonous revealing the temperature range where the molecular motion is stronger and consequently the charge trapping and de-trapping processes are affected. Our results demonstrate that there is a strong similarity between the elementary peaks obtained by the two methods, and the current is mainly determined by SC de-trapping. Even the best elementary peaks are not fitted very well by the analytical equation, indicating that the hypothesis behind this equation have to be reconsidered.

Neagu, R. M., E. R. Neagu, Carmo M. Lanca, J. N. Marat-Mendes, AT Marques, AF Silva, APM Baptista, C. Sa, FJLA Alves, LF Malheiros, and M. Vieira. "New Experimental Facts Concerning the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Current in Dielectric Materials." Advanced Materials Forum Iv. Vol. 587-588. 2008. 328-332. Abstract
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