{Paper-based laser-induced graphene for sustainable and flexible microsupercapacitor applications}

Coelho, J., R. F. Correia, S. Silvestre, T. Pinheiro, A. C. Marques, R. M. P. Correia, J. V. Pinto, E. Fortunato, and R. Martins, "{Paper-based laser-induced graphene for sustainable and flexible microsupercapacitor applications}", Microchimica Acta, vol. 190, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2023.


Laser-induced graphene (LIG) is as a promising material for flexible microsupercapacitors (MSCs) due to its simple and cost-effective processing. However, LIG-MSC research and production has been centered on non-sustainable polymeric substrates, such as polyimide. In this work, it is presented a cost-effective, reproducible, and robust approach for the preparation of LIG structures via a one-step laser direct writing on chromatography paper. The developed strategy relies on soaking the paper in a 0.1 M sodium tetraborate solution (borax) prior to the laser processing. Borax acts as a fire-retardant agent, thus allowing the laser processing of sensitive substrates that other way would be easily destroyed under the high-energy beam. LIG on paper exhibiting low sheet resistance (30 $Ømega$ sq−1) and improved electrode/electrolyte interface was obtained by the proposed method. When used as microsupercapacitor electrodes, this laser-induced graphene resulted in specific capacitances of 4.6 mF cm−2 (0.015 mA cm−2). Furthermore, the devices exhibit excellent cycling stability (> 10,000 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2) and good mechanical properties. By connecting the devices in series and parallel, it was also possible to control the voltage and energy delivered by the system. Thus, paper-based LIG-MSC can be used as energy storage devices for flexible, low-cost, and portable electronics. Additionally, due to their flexible design and architecture, they can be easily adapted to other circuits and applications with different power requirements. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]