{Formation of oriented nickel aggregates in rutile single crystals by Ni implantation}

Cruz, M. M., R. C. Silva, J. V. Pinto, R. P. Borges, N. Franco, and A. Casaca, "{Formation of oriented nickel aggregates in rutile single crystals by Ni implantation}", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol. 340: Elsevier, pp. 102–108, 2013.


The magnetic and electrical properties of Ni implanted single crystalline TiO2 rutile were studied for nominal implanted fluences between 0.5?1017 cm−2 and 2.0?1017 cm−2 with 150 keV energy, corre- sponding to maximum atomic concentrations between 9 at{%} and 27 at{%} at 65 nm depth, in order to study the formation of metallic oriented aggregates. The results indicate that the as implanted crystals exhibit superparamagnetic behavior for the two higher fluences, which is attributed to the formation of nanosized nickel clusters with an average size related with the implanted concentration, while only paramagnetic behavior is observed for the lowest fluence. Annealing at 1073 K induces the aggregation of the implanted nickel and enhances the magnetization in all samples. The associated anisotropic behavior indicates preferred orientations of the nickel aggregates in the rutile lattice consistent with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry—channelling results. Electrical conductivity displays anisotropic behavior but no magnetoresistive effects were detected.



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