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V., Raphaela, Carvalho H., and Cruz-Machado and V. "Strategic resilience development a study using delphy.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
SG, Azevedo, Govindan K, Carvalho H, and Cruz-Machado V. "Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain." 56 (2013): 131-146. Abstract
S, Azevedo, Carvalho H, and Cruz-Machado V. "Trade-offs among Lean, Agile, Resilient and Green Paradigms in Supply Chain Management: A Case Study Approach.", N/A. International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management 2013, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering., 2013. Abstract
K., Govindan, Azevedo S. G., Carvalho H., and Cruz-Machado V. "Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability." Journal of Cleaner Production 85 (2014): 212-225.
K., Chantarachalee, Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "Designing lean supply chains a case study.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
H., Carvalho, Azevedo S. G., and Cruz-Machado and V. "Supply chain management resilience: a theory building approach." 1 (2014): 3-37. Abstract
H, Carvalho, Azevedo S, and Cruz-Machado V. "An Innovative Agile and Resilience Index for the Automotive Supply Chain." 6 (2013): 259-283. Abstract
Govindan, K., Azevedo, S. G., Carvalho, H., and V. and Cruz Machado. "Lean, green and resilient practices influence on supply chain performance: interpretive structural modeling approach." International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12 (2015): 15-34.
G., Azevedo S., Carvalho H., and Cruz-Machado V. "LARG index: a benchmarking tool for improving the leanness, agility, resilience and greenness of the automotive supply chain." Benchmarking: an International Journal (In Press).
Duarte, Susana, Helena Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Exploring relationships between supply chain performance measures." In Proceedings of The Fourth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management, 3-7. Chungli, Taiwan, 2010. Abstract
Duarte, Susana, Helena Carvalho, and V. Cruz Machado. "The Commitments Between Lean, Agile, Resilient and Green Supply Chain Paradigms.", 68-82. GLASGOW, SCOTLAND: UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE, 2011. Abstract


Carvalho, H., S. G. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Agile and resilient approaches to supply chain management: influence on performance and competitiveness." Logistics Research 4 (2012): 49-62. AbstractWebsite

Supply chain management must adopt different and more innovative strategies that support a better response to customer needs in an uncertain environment. Supply chains must be more agile and be more capable of coping with disturbances, meaning that supply chains must be more resilient. The simultaneous deployment of agile and resilient approaches will enhance supply chain performance and competitiveness. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework for the analysis of relationships between agile and resilient approaches, supply chain competitiveness and performance. Operational and economic performance measures are proposed to facilitate the monitoring of the influence of these practices on supply chain performance. The influence of the proposed agile and resilient practices on supply chain competitiveness is also examined in terms of time to market, product quality and customer service.

Carvalho, Helena, Susana Duarte, and Cruz V. Machado. "Lean, agile, resilient and green: divergencies and synergies." International Journal of Lean Six Sigma 2 (2011): 151-179. AbstractWebsite

Purpose – This paper aims to explore the divergences and commitments between the lean, agile, resilient and green paradigms while investigating the effect of paradigms' practices within supply chain attributes.
Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model with lean, agile, resilient and green practices and supply chain management attributes is proposed. Causal diagrams were used to represent the relationships between paradigm practices and supply chain attributes. The four diagrams were aggregated to build the conceptual model.
Findings – The conceptual model allows for the identification of synergies and divergences resulting from the paradigms practices implementation. The synergies between paradigms are related to “information frequency” and “integration level” increasing as well as reduction of “production lead time” and “transportation lead time”. However, other supply chain attributes such as “capacity surplus”, “inventory level” and “replenishment frequency” are affected in opposite directions by some paradigms creating divergences.
Research limitations/implications – The model relationships were established using an anecdotal approach derived from the literature review, reflecting only a partial view of supply chain dynamics. More research related to other supply chain attributes and/or paradigm practices, and validation of the proposed relationships is suggested.
Practical implications – The proposed model can be the basis for further research in lean, agile, resilient and green paradigms, contributing to a more sustainable and competitive lean supply chain with the necessary agility toward a quick response, resiliency to disruptions, and harmonization with the ecologic and environmental aspects. Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge this paper is the first to provide an understanding about the tradeoffs among lean, agile, resilient and green supply chain paradigms.

Carvalho, H., S. A. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Supply chain resilience: an empirical model." In Euroma 2012. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2012. Abstract

This paper proposes a model for management of supply chain resilience. To this end the structured content analysis of media news is used to analyze a sample constituted by sixty two documents containing evidences of seventy seven companies that were affected by the Japan 2011 earthquake. The sample provides evidences that companies failed to sustain their operations mainly because capacity shortages and material shortages. Also provides empirical evidence of twelve resilience practices to reduce the disturbance severity and the recovery time. Based on these findings four propositions were made and aggregated to propose a model for supply chain resilience management.

Carvalho, H., M. Maleki, V. Trajkovski, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Supply chain disturbances and resilience strategies: a secondary data study." In Proceedings of The Fifth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management, 3-9. Macau, China, 2011. Abstract

This paper is a review over a variety of events which lead to disruption conditions in supply chains and identifies correspondent resilient strategies for each condition. The paper objective is to make a link between the problems created by events and strategies that managers can use to avoid or mitigate the negative aspects of those problems and improve post- event recovery. To attain the paper objectives it was use archived media news to collect empirical data about disturbances (events), their negative effects (problems), and resilience strategies. In the data collection phase, the aim was to keep diversities and be comprehensive. Using empirical evidences from the sample is developed a graph to show the links between supply chain disturbances, problems and resilience. This research provides supply chain managers with some alternative strategies to opt for the best available decision, improving the post-event management process.

Carvalho, H., V. Cruz-Machado, V. H. Machado, A. P. Barroso, and S. G. Azevedo. "Supply Chain Management: Design For Resilient Systems." In Actas das Conferências "Engenharias'07"- Inovação & Desenvolvimento, 256-261. Vol. I. Covilhã, Portugal: Universidade da Covilhã, 2007. Abstract

In this paper, a research project intituled {“Supply} chain management: design for resilient systems” is presented. The project aim is to develop a Management Support System prototype to help managers to react quickly and efficiently to the effects of disruptions that can occur in supply chain. The research project is presented; including the current state of the art in Supply Chain disruptions, the research project objectives and main tasks. Preliminary research findings are presented and discussed.

Carvalho, H., and V. Cruz-Machado. "A Supply Chain Mapping Framework for Resilience Modeling." In 17th International Annual {EurOMA} Conference. Porto, Portugal, 2010. Abstract
Carvalho, H., and V. Cruz-Machado. "Resilient Supply Chains." In Actas das Conferências "Engenharias'07"- Inovação & Desenvolvimento, 304-309. Vol. I. Covilhã, Portugal: Universidade da Covilhã, 2007. Abstract

This paper explores the designing principles to create resilient Supply Chains ({SC’s)} with the ability to return, rapidly, to the initial stage or to an improved one after a disturbance occurrence. {SC} disturbances and failure modes are identified and discussed. The concept of {SC} resilience is defined and explored; a conceptual {SC} Resilience Index and a {SC} Resilience Indicator are proposed. A framework for the design of resilient {SC’s} is introduced, identifying main {SC} characteristic that can be modified to increase {SC} resilience and to mitigate its vulnerability

Carvalho, H., S. G. Azevedo, S. Duarte, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Green and Lean Paradigms Influence on Sustainable Business Development of Manufacturing Supply Chains." International Journal of Green Computing 2 (2011): 45-62. AbstractWebsite