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Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Using interpretive structural modeling to identify and ranking performance measures: an application in the automotive supply." Baltic Journal of Management in press (2013). Abstract

Purpose - The main objective of this paper is to identify and rank a set of performance measures using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach to support the automotive supply chain performance evaluation.
Design/methodology/approach - The paper develops a framework to analyze the interactions among a suggested set of performance measures using the {ISM} approach. To identify the contextual relationships among the suggested measures, five experts from the automotive industry were consulted.
Findings - Using the {ISM} approach the performance measures were clustered attending to their driving and dependence power. Inventory level and lead time are the two performance measures at the bottom level of the hierarchy, implying higher driving power. Also, operational costs, business wastage, environmental costs, delivery time and customer satisfaction are identified as autonomous measures. This means that they are relatively disconnected from the other suggested performance measures. It is also observed that the cash-to-cash cycle is a weak driver but strongly dependent on the other performance measures.
Practical implications - The proposed approach gives managers a better understanding on mutual influences of performance measures (driving performance measures) and also those measures which are most influenced by others (dependent performance measures). Using {ISM} managers can get insight on the order and direction of complex relations among the suggested performance measures. This kind of information is strategic for managers could identify which performance measures they should concentrate on, and how they can manage the tradeoffs between them.
Originality/value - This paper highlights the deployment of {ISM} as a manager' decision support tool in the identification and ranking of a set of performance measures to make part of a supply chain performance measurement system.

Azevedo, S. G., S., Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "RFID application infant security systems of healthcare organizations.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
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Azevedo, Susana, Elizabeth A. Cudney, António Grilo, Helena Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "The influence of eco-innovation supply chain practices on business eco-efficiency." (2012). AbstractWebsite

This paper aims to study the influence of eco-innovation practices on eco-efficiency of business, which embraces environmental and economic performance. Four hypotheses are drawn up based on the existing literature in green supply chain and considering the business innovation. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on a sample of {USA} and Portuguese innovative organizations. Multivariate statistics and Partial Least Squares ({PLS)} path modelling techniques were used to test the proposed hypothesis. The statistical analysis allows to conclude that there are differences between the eco-innovation practices deployed by organizations belonging to different sectors and with different sizes. Also, it was found that the level of implementation of the different eco-innovation practices by organizations influence the eco-efficiency of businesses.

Azevedo, S. G., K. Godivan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Deployment of radio frequency identification technology in healthcare organizations." In POMS 23rd Annual Conference. Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., 2012. Abstract

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a wireless technology that uses transmitted radio signals to tag, recognize, track and trace the movement of an item automatically. The study of this technology is actually considered a hot topic in all scientific areas and has been described as a major enabling technology for the automation of many processes. Although it is not a new technology it has only recently come to the awareness of the public and widely used in many sectors and particularly in the Healthcare. This paper aims to illustrate the deployment of RFID technology in Healthcare, more precisely in infant security systems. A case study about the experience of three hospitals and one RFID technology provider is presented to highlight the main architectural characteristics, functionality, and advantages associated to its deployment. After the case studies analysis it is possible to state that the infant security systems, using the RFID technology, are not so different among research case studies: they involve RFID tagging patients, they are easy to use not requiring an extensive training and also they are installed with an interface with others security systems.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Proposal of a conceptual model to analyse the influence of LARG practices on manufacturing." Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing 8 (2012): 174-184. AbstractWebsite

The main objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual model about the influence of lean, agile, resilient, and green ({LARG)} practices on supply chain operational, economic and environmental performance. This model is based on the literature review about the four supply chain management paradigms and also performance measurement systems. This paper contributes to the literature by introducing a new model to improve the leanness, agility, resilience, and greenness of manufacturing supply chains. Among the suggested {LARG} practices, the ones influencing more the supply chain performance are the just in time and also the supplier relationships. Also the supply chain performance measures with more {LARG} practices influencing them are the inventory levels and the time, that is, the supply chain’s operational performance is the most affected by the simultaneous paradigms deployment in the supply chain.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "The Influence of LARG Supply Chain Management Practices on Manufacturing Supply Chain Performance." In Proceeding of the International Conference on Economics, Business and Marketing Managemen -EBMM 2011. Shangai, China, 2011. Abstract

Supply chains in an attempt to be more competitive, are adopting new management paradigm. Among these paradigms there are four that deserve particular mention because of their importance to better {SC} performance: lean, agile, resilient and green. The main objective of this paper is to propose a set of supply chain management practices to become the {SC} more lean, agile, resilient and green, which were named {LARG} practices, and to suggest a conceptual model that makes possible to analyze the influence of these {LARG} practices on manufacturing supply chains performance. Also, a set of operational, economic and environmental performance measures are suggested.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Green Supply Chain Management: A Case Study Analysis of the Automotive Industry." In {APMS} 2010 International Conference Competitive and Sustainable Manufacturing, Products and Services. Cernobbio, Como, Italy: {PoliScript}, Politecnico di Milano, Italy, 2010. Abstract
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Azevedo, S. A., K. Govindan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "An integrated model to assess the leanness and agility of the automotive industry." Resources, Conservation and Recycling 66 (2012): 85-94. AbstractWebsite

The main objective of this paper is to propose an index to assess the agility and leanness of individual companies and the corresponding supply chain. The index is named Agilean and is obtained from a set of Agile and Lean supply chain practices integrated in an assessment model. The Delphi technique is used to develop a series of weighted Agile and Lean {SCM} practices and also the importance of paradigms through experts in automotive research topics. As a way to illustrate the application of the index and find out if it returns return meaningful values, a case study is presented. The case study results confirm the quite easy applicability of the suggested Agilean index in a supply chain real-world setting. This index makes it possible to assess the companies and corresponding supply chain Agile and Lean behaviour, which is translated into an index score to compare competing companies and supply chains.

Azevedo, Susana Garrido, and Helena Carvalho. "Contribution of RFID technology to better management of fashion supply chains." International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 40 (2012): 128-156. AbstractWebsite

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the deployment of RFID technology in fashion supply chain management (FSCM). It highlights the contribution of RFID to FSCM, supporting faster logistics activities, with greater products quality, cheaper and with more responsiveness, improving customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive theory building approach is used to develop a conceptual model for RFID deployment in the {FSCM} context. Secondary data analysis from a sample of six companies supports the identification and discussion of the real advantages, disadvantages and barriers felt by companies in a fashion supply chain when {RFID} technology is introduced. Findings – The logistics activities in the fashion supply chain where {RFID} technology is most widely deployed are: shipping operations, tracking of raw materials, semi-finished components and finished garments, collecting finished goods, handling processes, tracking containers, tracking products from factory to store, receiving operations, monitoring, and sorting of merchandise. In most cases, the tagging operation is performed at some stage in the production process and tag reading occurs at distribution centres or at stores. The main barrier identified to the deployment of {RFID} is the problem of interoperability. The costs associated with the technology are the main disadvantage pointed out by the companies. Practical implications – A conceptual framework is proposed exploring the {RFID} advantages and disadvantages across the fashion supply chain, the main barriers to its introduction and the fashion supply chain logistics activities in which {RFID} could be found. This represents an important contribution to companies in this industry to become more aware of {RFID.} Also, new companies which are thinking of introducing this technology could overcome its barriers easily, improving its advantages and minimizing its disadvantages. Originality/value – This paper explores the deployment of {RFID} in the fashion supply chain from the perspective of technology users.

Azevedo, S. G., K. Govindan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. GResilient index to assess the greenness and resilience of the automotive supply chain., 2011. Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest an Index entitled {GResilient} Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the automotive companies and corresponding supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: An integrated assessment model is proposed based on Green and Resilient practices. These practices are weighted according to their importance to the automotive supply chain competitiveness. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights for the focused supply chain paradigms and corresponding practices. The model is then tested using a case study approach in the automotive supply chain. Findings: The case study results confirmed the applicability of this Index in a real-world supply chain. The results show that the Resilient supply chain management paradigm is the one considered as the one that more contributes for the automotive supply chain competitiveness. Research limitations/implications: The proposed Index was developed in the automotive sector context therefore it could not be adjusted to a different one. Future research could consider other aggregation methods for the Index construction. Practical implications: Supply chain participants will be able to evaluate the performance of their companies or supply chain in terms of Green and Resilient paradigms. Also, the Index can be effectively employed for functional benchmarking among competing companies and supply chains.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, V. Cruz-Machado, and Fernando Grilo. "The influence of agile and resilient practices on supply chain performance: an innovative conceptual model proposal." In Innovative Process Optimization Methods in Logistics: Emerging trends, concepts and technologies, 265-281. Hamburg, Germany: Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, 2010. Abstract

Supply chain management must appeal to different and more innovative strategies that make possible a better responsiveness to customers’ requirements and needs. The supply chains must be more agile, and also improving its ability to cope with unexpected disturbances, that is, supply chains must be more resilient. The deployment of these two strategies simultaneously will contribute to enhance the supply chain performance and competitiveness. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to propose an innovative conceptual model to a better understanding the influence of agile and resilient strategies on supply chain performance and competitiveness. The conceptual model proposed considers a set of agile and resilient practices deployed with consideration for the upstream and downstream supply chain relationships, as well as for the firm inward. In this model a performance measurement system is also proposed which intends to monitor the influence of these practices on operational and economic performance of the supply chain.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Pathways Between Lean and Green Paradigms and Supply Chain Performance." In Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Economics, Business and Marketing Management - EBMM. Shangai, China: IEEE, 2011. Abstract

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Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Agile Index: Automotive Supply Chain." World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 79 (2011): 784-790. AbstractWebsite

The supply chains (SCs) have to appeal to new management paradigms to improve their ability to respond rapidly and cost effectively to unpredictable changes in markets and increasing levels of environmental turbulence, both in terms of volume and variety. In this highly demanded context, the Agile paradigm provides the capabilities to SC quickly adapt to changes in the market requirements. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an Agile Index to assess the agility of the automotive companies and corresponding SCs.The proposed integrated assessment model incorporates Agile practices weighted according to their importance to the automotive SC competitiveness and obtained from the Delphi technique.

Azevedo, S. G., and H. Carvalho. "RFID Technology in the Fashion Supply Chain: An Exploratory Analysis." In Fashion Supply Chain Management: Industry and Business Analysis, 302-326. Business Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global), 2011. Abstract

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new technology that has received considerable attention from academics and practitioners due to its large scope of application, advantages and potentialities. This chapter aims to highlight the potentialities associated with RFID in fast moving Fashion Supply Chain Management (FSCM). The research emphasizes the technological contribution to the Fashion Supply Chain (FSC) such as speed up logistics activities, increased quality, reduced prices, and more responsive improvements for customer satisfaction. The chapter reviews the RFID technology, presents the benefits, disadvantages, and barriers associated with it. To explore the deployment of the RFID technology in the Fashion Supply Chain (FSC), a case study investigation of companies in different FSCM nodes was carried out. A cross-case analysis it is also presented to achieve a deeper understanding about this technology in a fast moving FSCM context

Azevedo, S. G., S., Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "A cross case analysis of RFID deployment Fast Fashion Supply Chain.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
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Azevedo, S. G., K. Govindan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain." Journal of Cleaner Production in press (2012). AbstractWebsite

This paper suggests an Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of automotive companies and the corresponding supply chain. An integrated assessment model is proposed based on green and resilient practices. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights of the supply chain paradigms that are the focus of the study and the corresponding practices. The application of the proposed index is then illustrated using a case study approach in the automotive supply chain; in particular the case study is focused in the link supplier/manufacturer. The case study findings confirm the applicability of this index in a real-world supply chain and highlight its managerial implications. The results show that the resilient paradigm is considered to be the one that contributes more to the competitiveness of the automotive supply chain. The green practice identified as the most important to the greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive sector; this constitutes an initial effort to close the gap between theory and practice. Future research is needed to investigate the index applicability in different industry contexts.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, S. Duarte, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Influence of Green and Lean Upstream Supply Chain Management Practices on Business Sustainability." Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on 59 (2012): 1-13. AbstractWebsite

Green and lean paradigms have been adopted by companies in order to manage their relationships with suppliers in a supply chain management context, but nearly always separately and with little understanding of their influence on company performance. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the analysis of the influence of green and lean upstream supply chain management practices on the sustainable development of businesses. To attend this objective, a set of performance measures covering economic (operational cost, environmental cost, and inventory cost), environmental (business wastage, green image, and CO2 emission), and social (corruption risk, supplier screening and local supplier) perspectives is proposed. An explanatory case study was conducted at a Portuguese automaker to test qualitatively the validity of the proposed theoretical framework. From the case study, a model is suggested, which encompasses the relationships between green and lean upstream supply chain practices and sustainable business development.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "The influence of green practices on supply chain performance: A case study approach." Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 47 (2011): 850-871. AbstractWebsite

The main objective of this exploratory paper is to investigate the relationships between green practices of supply chain management and supply chain performance. This relationship is investigated in the context of the automotive industry. Five research propositions are suggested and tested with empirical data derived from five case studies taken from the Portuguese automotive supply chain. The data analysis identifies the most important green practices considered by managers, as well as the performance measures that are most appropriate and most widely used as means to evaluate the influence of green practices on supply chain performance. A conceptual model was derived from the data analysis and it can be used to assess the influence of green practices on supply chain performance. This model provides evidence as to which green practices have positive effects on quality, customer satisfaction and efficiency. It also identifies the practices which have negative effects on supply chain performance.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "A proposal of LARG Supply Chain Management Practices and a Performance Measurement System." International Journal of e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning 1 (2011): 7-14. AbstractWebsite

Supply chains ({SC)} in an attempt to be more competitive, are adopting new management paradigm. Among these paradigms there are four that deserve particular mention because of their importance to better {SC} performance: lean, agile, resilient and green. The main objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual model for a lean, agile, resilience and green {SC}, with the purpose of improving their operational, economic and environmental performance. In this attempt a set of {SC} management practices, which were named {LARG} practices, and several performance measures are suggested. This model is based in the literature review about the four {SC} management paradigms and also {SC} performance measurement. Among the suggested {LARG} practices the ones influencing more the {SC} performance are the just in time and also the supplier relationships. Also the {SC} performance measures with more {LARG} practices influencing them are the inventory levels and the time, that is, the {SC's} operational performance is the most affected.

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Carvalho, H., S. A. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Supply chain resilience: an empirical model." In Euroma 2012. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2012. Abstract

This paper proposes a model for management of supply chain resilience. To this end the structured content analysis of media news is used to analyze a sample constituted by sixty two documents containing evidences of seventy seven companies that were affected by the Japan 2011 earthquake. The sample provides evidences that companies failed to sustain their operations mainly because capacity shortages and material shortages. Also provides empirical evidence of twelve resilience practices to reduce the disturbance severity and the recovery time. Based on these findings four propositions were made and aggregated to propose a model for supply chain resilience management.