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Conference Proceedings
Rocha, H. Teacher knowledge and the implementation of investigation tasks. Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Kiel, Germany: PME, 2013.
Rocha, H., and M. Botelho Teachers’ knowledge for teaching Mathematics with technology: an analysis of different frameworks. INTED - 15th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference. IATED, 2021. Abstract

Teacher education is central to promote the development of the professional knowledge of teachers, and
to help them achieve an appropriate integration of digital technologies, an issue that has proved to be a
difficult one. Several authors refer difficulties in the integration of the technology, emphasizing the central
role played by the teachers’ knowledge in classroom use. In this paper we discuss three models (TPACK
– Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge, KTMT – Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with
Technology, PTK / MPTK - Mathematical Pedagogical Technology Knowledge), intending to identify the
main contributions of each model to a deeper understanding of how to promote the teachers’ integration
of technology in the teaching of Mathematics. The study is based on a literature review and on an analysis
of the similarities and differences among the models and its use. On this analysis we identify common
influences among the models as well as influences from other research areas. The main conclusions
achieved point to a common base to all the models considered, but also to several differences among
them, being that some of the models emphasize the role of technology and its impact on Mathematics
learning, but others go further, intending to integrate in the model elements based on the research on
technology or even other theories such as the one on instrumental genesis.

Rocha, H., and F. Viseu Teachers’ perspectives on the use of technology to teach Functions at lower and upper secondary. Proceedings of the 5th ERME Topic Conference - MEDA 2018. Copenhagen, Denmark: ERME, 2018. Abstractmeda_rocha_2018.pdf

This study aims to understand the perceptions of lower and upper secondary age teachers of mathematics regarding the use of technology to teach functions. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire (quantitative section) and four teachers through an interview (qualitative section). The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the level that they taught. Teachers show conviction about their knowledge on technology and about the potential of technology in what concerns their teaching and the students’ learning. However, they are not so clear about the best way to articulate technology and paper-and-pencil methods, nor about the use of technology in assessment.

Rocha, H. Teachers’ use of graphing calculators in high school mathematics classroom. Proceedings of CERME 7 – Seventh Congress of European Research in Mathematics Education. Rzezów, Poland: ERME, 2011.
Rocha, H. Teachers’ use of the different representations in a context of technology integration. Proceddings of 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education. Hamburg, Germany: ICME, 2016. Abstract

This study focus on the different representations provided by graphing calculators, intending to characterize how the teacher uses and integrates them on the process of teaching and learning functions at the secondary level. The methodology adopted is qualitative and interpretative, undertaking two case studies. The main conclusions point to different levels of flexibility in the use of the different representations depending on the teacher, but suggest a strong preference for the graphical and the algebraic representations, a use of the numerical representation based on the graph of the function and a total lack of use of the tabular representation.

Rocha, H. Uma caracterização dos jogos com maior potencial para estimular a aprendizagem matemática. Atas do XII Congresso da SPCE. Vila Real, Portugal: UTAD e SPCE, 2014. Abstractpaper.pdf

Reconhecendo o potencial do jogo para a aprendizagem matemática, este estudo pretende analisar o envolvimento e as aprendizagens dos alunos, com o objectivo de caracterizar os jogos com maior potencial para os promover.
Adoptando uma metodologia de índole qualitativa e envolvendo a realização de estudos de caso sobre alunos do 7.ºano, as conclusões alcançadas sugerem que os jogos de computador são particularmente apelativos para os alunos. Contudo, as características determinantes para o envolvimento dos alunos e consequente promoção da aprendizagem prendem-se com a possibilidade de jogar com diferentes níveis de conhecimento e com a obtenção de bons resultados no jogo.

Rocha, H. Uma proposta para análise do Conhecimento para Ensinar Matemática com a Tecnologia [A proposal to analyze the teacher's Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology]. XXVII SIEM. Porto, Portugal: APM, 2016. Abstract

The teacher’s knowledge has long been viewed as a strong influence on the students’ learning. Several authors have sought to develop procedures to assess this knowledge, but this has proved to be a complex task. In this paper I present an outline of a conceptualization to analyze the teacher's knowledge, based on the model of the Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) and a set of tasks. These tasks are chosen by the teacher among the ones he prepared for his students taking into account the potential of the tasks to take advantage of the technology’s potential. The analyze of the teacher’s KTMT is based on the characteristics of the tasks chosen by the teacher; the balance established between the representations provided by the technology that the tasks advocate; the way how the tasks pay attention to the new issue of seeking for a suitable viewing window; and also the way how the tasks take into account the expectable difficulties of the students in the process of looking for the window.

Rocha, H. The use of the TPACK framework on research about teachers’ knowledge to teach with digital technology. MEDA – Mathematics Education at the Digital Age., In Press.
Rocha, H. Utilização, uso ou integração da tecnologia: contributo para a clarificação de um conceito. Actas do XXV SIEM. Braga: APM, 2014. Abstract

Abstract. The recognition of the potential of technology for the teaching
and learning of mathematics has encouraged many studies around
technology. In all these studies, the integration, the utilization or the use of
technology is (or should be) necessarily an important element. In this paper
I consider the most common terminologies present in research and the
meaning assigned to them, based on a research review and on the analysis
of the studies presented in SIEM over the last five years. The conclusions
reached suggest a diversity of understandings and a lack of explicitness of
these understandings. However, different types of technology use seem to be
recognized, usually associated with continuity or change of practices. The
teacher's role and a more directive or more student-centered approach,
associated with a change in the proposed tasks, are also mentioned. In what
concerns to the terminology adopted, there is great diversity, with cases of
differentiation in terms of some of the elements listed and cases of adoption
of multiple terms with apparently identical meanings.

Resumo. O reconhecimento das potencialidades da tecnologia para o
ensino e aprendizagem da Matemática tem motivado diversos estudos em
torno da tecnologia. Em todos eles a integração, a utilização ou o uso que é
feito da tecnologia é (ou deveria ser) necessariamente um elemento
importante. Neste artigo procuro ponderar as terminologias mais comuns
na investigação e o significado que lhes é atribuído, partindo de uma
revisão de literatura e analisando os estudos apresentados no SIEM nos
últimos cinco anos. As conclusões alcançadas apontam para uma
diversidade de entendimentos e para uma ausência de explicitação desses
entendimentos. Ainda assim, parecem ser reconhecidos diferentes tipos de
utilização da tecnologia, geralmente associados à manutenção ou alteração
das anteriores práticas. O papel do professor e o assumir de uma postura
mais diretiva ou mais centrada no aluno, associada a uma alteração
relativamente às tarefas propostas, são igualmente referidos. Quanto à
terminologia adotada, a diversidade é grande, com casos de diferenciação
em função de alguns dos elementos referidos e com casos de adoção de
múltiplos termos aparentemente com significados idênticos.

Journal Article
Rocha, H. "Analyzing teachers’ knowledge based on their approach to the information provided by technology." European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 11.1 (2023): 132-145. AbstractWebsite

Teachers’ knowledge plays a central role in technology integration. In this study we analyze situations, where there is some divergence between the mathematical results and the information offered by the graphing calculator (lack of mathematical fidelity), putting the focus in the teachers and in their approaches. The goal of this study is to analyze, in the light of knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology (KTMT) model, the teachers’ professional knowledge, assuming the situations of lack of mathematical fidelity as having the potential to reveal some characteristics of their knowledge. Specifically, considering the teaching of functions at 10th grade (age 16), we intend to analyze: (1) What knowledge do the teachers have of technology and of its mathematical fidelity? (2) What can the teachers’ options related to situations of lack of mathematical fidelity tell us about their knowledge in other KTMT domains? The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative approach based on the case studies of two teachers. Data were collected by interviews and class observation, being the analysis guided by the KTMT model. The main result points to the relevance of the mathematics and technology knowledge. However, there is evidence of some difficulties to integrate the information provided by the technology with the mathematics, and also of some interference of the teaching and learning and technology knowledge, and specifically of the knowledge related to the students. This suggests that the analysis of the teachers’ actions in relation to situations of lack of mathematical fidelity, can be useful to characterize their KTMT.

Rocha, H., and I. Oitavem. "Barcodes: The Mathematics of everyday life." The Scottish Mathematical Council Journal. 49 (2019).Website
Rocha, H. "A calculadora gráfica e a utilização que delas fazemos." Educação e Matemática.112 (2011): 41-42.
Coelho, T., and H. Rocha. "Conhecimento profissional interdisciplinar: divergências e convergências de dois modelos." RISTI - Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação (In Press).
Rocha, H. "Contribution of the analysis of the mathematical concordance to understand the teachers’ KTMT." Journal of Curriculum and Teaching. 11.8 (2022): 412-422. AbstractWebsite

Technology is recognized by its potential to promote mathematical learning. However, achieving this potential
requires the teachers to have the knowledge to integrate it properly into their practices. Several authors have intended to characterize the teachers’ knowledge and developed several models, but this approach has often been criticized by its static approach, not attending neither valuing the teachers’ practice. In this study we adopt the KTMT – Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology model, assuming the teachers’ practice as the main scenario of analysis. We focus on the options guiding the teachers’ decisions when confronted with a situation of lack of mathematical concordance while teaching functions. The situations of lack of mathematical concordance (i.e., situations where the mathematics addressed by the students is different from the one intended by the teacher) are assumed as rich and encapsulating the potential to reveal significant aspects of the teachers’ KTMT. The main goal of the study is to understand what domains of the teachers’ KTMT are highlighted in these circumstances. A qualitative methodology is adopted and one episode of one 10th grade teacher’s practice is analyzed, based on the KTMT model. The conclusions reached show the relevance of different knowledge domains, but emphasize the Mathematics and Technology Knowledge (MTK). They also raise questions about the impact of the specific technology being used on the teachers’ KTMT.

Morais, C., J. Terroso, and H. Rocha. "E de repente tudo mudou… - Editorial." Educação e Matemática. 155 (2020): 1.Website
Martinho, H., and H. Rocha. "A escrita matemática e a intuição em Geometria [Mathematical writting and intuition in geometry]." Educação e Matemática. 149-150 (2018): 34-38.Website
Martins, R., F. Viseu, and H. Rocha. "Functional Thinking: A Study with 10th-Grade Students." Education Sciences. 13.4 (2023): 1-22. AbstractWebsite

This study aims to understand the functional thinking of 10th-grade students while studying functions. Specifically, we intend to answer the following research questions: what are the functional thinking processes used by 10th-grade students when studying functions? What difficulties do students present while learning functions? In view of the nature of this research objective, we adopted a qualitative and interpretative approach. In order to answer these questions, data were collected from the written records produced by the students while solving the proposed tasks, from records of the oral interactions during discussions and from a questionnaire. The results show that functional thinking processes were implicit in the resolution of the tasks proposed to the students. The students expressed an understanding of how the variables were related, presenting evidence of their functional thinking while working on the new concepts represented by the functions addressed in the proposed tasks. Some students expressed difficulties in interpreting the different types of representations associated with the functions, in retaining the necessary information from a graphical representation that would help them to draw conclusions and establish correspondences, in explaining functional relationships, and in interpreting the information provided by algebraic expressions. These difficulties can reduce the recognition of the relationships between variables and their behavior in the different representations, becoming an obstacle to learning for some students.

Viseu, F., A. Silva, H. Rocha, and P. Martins. "The graphical representation in the learning of functions by 10th grade students." Educación Matemática. 34.1 (2022): 186-213. AbstractWebsite

A exploração de diferentes representações promove a compreensão dos tópicos de funções. Partindo deste pressuposto, com este estudo pretende-se analisar o contributo da representação gráfica na aprendizagem da noção de função inversa e da paridade de uma função por alunos do 10.º ano de escolaridade e identificar dificuldades na exploração dessa representação. Na procura de responder a este objetivo, adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa e interpretativa para compreender as ações dos alunos na resolução das tarefas
propostas. A análise das resoluções mostra que a representação gráfica serviu de suporte para a instituição das definições dos tópicos em estudo. E isto apesar de alguns alunos revelarem dificuldades ao interpretar e ao construir gráficos; ao identificar imagens e imagens inversas em gráficos de funções; ao representar determinadas características gráficas associadas a alguns conceitos, como é o caso da relação entre a paridade de uma função e a simetria na sua representação gráfica (confundindo eixo de simetria e de reflexão). Globalmente, este estudo mostra como a abordagem de conceitos a partir da representação gráfica pode contribuir para a sua compreensão.

Rocha, H. "Graphical representation of functions using technology: a window to teacher knowledge." Teaching Mathematics and its Applications. 39.2 (2020): 105-126.Website
Rocha, H. "The impact of teachers' knowledge on the connection between technology supported exploration and mathematical proof." European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. 11.4 (2023): 635-649. AbstractWebsite

Technology is recognized for its potential to implement exploration tasks. The ease and speed with which it becomes possible to observe many cases of a situation, allows the development of conjectures and brings conviction about their veracity. Mathematical proof, assumed as the essence of Mathematics, tends to appear to the students as something dispensable. Based on KTMT – Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology model, this study intends to understand the impact of the teachers’ knowledge on mathematical proof in a context of technology integration. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology, based on case study, analyzing the practice of one teacher. The conclusions emphasize the relevance of the teacher’s MTK – Mathematics and Technology Knowledge, and TLTK – Teaching and Learning and Technology Knowledge. The teacher's MTK guides her decisions, leading her to focus on helping students understand the meaning of conjecture and proof, valuing, at the same time, the relevance of algebraic manipulations. However, the teacher’s TLTK guides her practice, where the knowledge about the students is determinant. The study provides evidence about the difficulty of articulating proof and technology, but it also clarifies the relevance of this articulation and of how the teacher’s KTMT can impact the teacher’s decisions.

Rocha, H. "Mathematical knowledge for teaching with technology: episodes of one teacher’s practice - Conhecimento matemático para ensinar com tecnologia: episódios da prática de uma professora." Educação Matemática Debate. 5.11 (2021): 1-22. AbstractWebsite

Research has highlighted the potential of technology to transform the teaching of Mathematics, but also the relevance of teachers and their professional knowledge. In this article, a qualitative methodology is adopted and two episodes of the practice of one teacher are analyzed in the scope of the study of functions in the 10th grade, based on the model of Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT). The goal is to characterize the teacher's knowledge from her practice, simultaneously understanding how this contributes to promoting the development of the teacher's knowledge. The conclusions reached show the importance of including in the KTMT conception aspects highlighted by the research on technology integration. These aspects are determinant to characterize the teacher's knowledge. They also show the relevance of the practice for the development of the teacher's knowledge and the dynamic character of the vision of knowledge offered by KTMT.

Rocha, H. "Mathematical proof: from mathematics to school mathematics." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 377.2140 (2019). AbstractWebsite

Proof plays a central role in developing, establishing, and communicating mathematical knowledge. Nevertheless it is not such a central element in school mathematics. This article discusses some issues involving mathematical proof in school, intending to characterize the understanding of mathematical proof in school, its function and the meaning and relevance attributed to the notion of simple proof. The main conclusions suggest that the idea of addressing mathematical proof at all levels of school is a recent idea that is not yet fully implemented in schools. It requires an adaptation of the understanding of proof to the age of the students, reducing the level of formality, and allowing the students to experience the different functions of proof and not only the function of verification. Among the different functions of proof, the function of explanation deserves special attention due to the illumination and empowerment that it can bring to the students and their learning. The way this function of proof relates to the notion of simple proof (and the related aesthetic issues) seems relevant enough to make it, in the future, a focus of attention for the teachers who address mathematical proof in the classroom.

Rocha, H. "Moving from one representation to another: different ways of doing it, different mathematical learning." The Scottish Mathematical Council Journal. 47 (2017): 40-48.Website