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Book Chapter
Rocha, H., and S. Palha. "A tecnologia na formação inicial de professores de Matemática – um olhar sobre duas realidades." Formação de professores e tecnologias digitais. Eds. A. Richit, and H. Oliveira. São Paulo, Brasil: LF Editorial, 2021. 1-34. Abstract

Perante as conhecidas dificuldades em alcançar uma adequada integração da tecnologia no processo de ensino e aprendizagem da Matemática, este estudo pretende, apoiando-se na formação ao nível da tecnologia ministrada em duas instituições europeias, identificar aspetos com potencial para promover a formação inicial, no âmbito da tecnologia, de professores de Matemática. Adota-se uma metodologia de índole qualitativa e interpretativa, sendo os dados recolhidos de natureza documental ou relativos a trabalhos de análise e reflexão crítica realizados por dois futuros professores (um de cada instituição). As principais conclusões alcançadas apontam para grandes diferenças entre os contextos de formação, com uma das instituições a valorizar de forma mais significativa a formação na área. Ainda assim, os futuros professores de ambas as instituições mostram alguma tendência para escolher tarefas onde a exploração que é feita da tecnologia fica aquém do seu potencial, onde o recurso ao papel e lápis está sempre presente, e onde a reflexão em torno das características das tarefas e da sua implementação parece ser algo superficial. Apesar da complexidade do processo de integração da tecnologia nas práticas, os aspetos referidos parecem-nos ser dignos de atenção em qualquer programa de formação inicial de professores de Matemática.

Faggiano, E., H. Rocha, A. Sacristan, and M. Santacruz-Rodríguez. "Towards pragmatic theories to underpin the design of teacher professional development concerning technology use in school mathematics." Mathematics Education in the Digital Age: Learning, Practice and Theory . Eds. A. Donevska-Todorova, E. Faggiano, J. Trgalova, H. - G. Weigand, and A. Clark-Wilson. Routledge, 2021. 42-68. Abstract

This chapter aims to make more explicit the grounded or ‘pragmatic theories’ that inform the design of mathematics teachers’ professional development (PD) to exploit technological affordances. It uses aspects of some representative projects that took place in four countries (Colombia, Italy, Mexico, and Portugal) to illustrate lessons learned (e.g., similarities and differences, barriers and opportunities) and provide important insights to inform future PD implementations. To do this, we have identified a set of aspects (and sub-aspects) that emerged in relation to five major themes and reveal our ‘pragmatic theories’ alongside a consideration of the interconnections between these aspects. Our contribution offers a methodological frame to support future PD designs for teachers of mathematics concerning digital technology uses.

Conference Paper
Rocha, H., E. Faggiano, and F. Mennuni. "Teachers as task designers in the digital age: Teaching using technology." Proceedings of the 10th ERME Topic Conference - MEDA 2020. Linz (Austria): ERME, 2020. Abstract2020_meda_rocha_faggiano_mennuni.pdf

The aim of the paper is to present and analyse the case of one teacher attempting to introduce his students to fractals using digital technology. His task design process has been made explicit through the writing of a storyboard. It has been analysed in order to focus on the stages of the process, identifying prominent elements in it by using the knowledge quartet framework. Results can be useful to inform teacher educators about his needs with respect to the development of his ability in task design. The importance of this aspect, particularly worth of note in the digital age in which teachers have many opportunities to access teaching resources online, has been amplified by the constraints to which educational systems have been subjected during the Covid-19 pandemic emergency.

Conference Proceedings
Rocha, H. The teacher and the integration of the graphing calculator viewing window in the teaching of mathematics. Proceedings of 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain: INTED, 2014.
Rocha, H. Teacher knowledge and the implementation of investigation tasks. Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Kiel, Germany: PME, 2013.
Rocha, H., and M. Botelho Teachers’ knowledge for teaching Mathematics with technology: an analysis of different frameworks. INTED - 15th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference. IATED, 2021. Abstract

Teacher education is central to promote the development of the professional knowledge of teachers, and
to help them achieve an appropriate integration of digital technologies, an issue that has proved to be a
difficult one. Several authors refer difficulties in the integration of the technology, emphasizing the central
role played by the teachers’ knowledge in classroom use. In this paper we discuss three models (TPACK
– Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge, KTMT – Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with
Technology, PTK / MPTK - Mathematical Pedagogical Technology Knowledge), intending to identify the
main contributions of each model to a deeper understanding of how to promote the teachers’ integration
of technology in the teaching of Mathematics. The study is based on a literature review and on an analysis
of the similarities and differences among the models and its use. On this analysis we identify common
influences among the models as well as influences from other research areas. The main conclusions
achieved point to a common base to all the models considered, but also to several differences among
them, being that some of the models emphasize the role of technology and its impact on Mathematics
learning, but others go further, intending to integrate in the model elements based on the research on
technology or even other theories such as the one on instrumental genesis.

Rocha, H., and F. Viseu Teachers’ perspectives on the use of technology to teach Functions at lower and upper secondary. Proceedings of the 5th ERME Topic Conference - MEDA 2018. Copenhagen, Denmark: ERME, 2018. Abstractmeda_rocha_2018.pdf

This study aims to understand the perceptions of lower and upper secondary age teachers of mathematics regarding the use of technology to teach functions. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire (quantitative section) and four teachers through an interview (qualitative section). The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the level that they taught. Teachers show conviction about their knowledge on technology and about the potential of technology in what concerns their teaching and the students’ learning. However, they are not so clear about the best way to articulate technology and paper-and-pencil methods, nor about the use of technology in assessment.

Rocha, H. Teachers’ use of graphing calculators in high school mathematics classroom. Proceedings of CERME 7 – Seventh Congress of European Research in Mathematics Education. Rzezów, Poland: ERME, 2011.
Rocha, H. Teachers’ use of the different representations in a context of technology integration. Proceddings of 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education. Hamburg, Germany: ICME, 2016. Abstract

This study focus on the different representations provided by graphing calculators, intending to characterize how the teacher uses and integrates them on the process of teaching and learning functions at the secondary level. The methodology adopted is qualitative and interpretative, undertaking two case studies. The main conclusions point to different levels of flexibility in the use of the different representations depending on the teacher, but suggest a strong preference for the graphical and the algebraic representations, a use of the numerical representation based on the graph of the function and a total lack of use of the tabular representation.

Journal Article
Rocha, H. "Teacher knowledge and the teaching of statistics using a graphing calculator - Conhecimento profissional e ensino de estatística com recurso à calculadora gráfica." REIPE. E.6 (2017): 96-100. AbstractWebsite

Teaching statistics is often based on an approach focused on teaching theoretical aspects, disconnected from
practical relevance and from interpretation of results, and where the use of technology lies behind its potential. In
this context, it is important to analyze how the teachers’ knowledge is characterized and to identify aspects of this
knowledge that mark the professional practice. The conclusions reached emphasize the impact of content
knowledge and its influence on knowledge of content and teaching. Knowledge of curriculum is also relevant, as
well as the way how it seems to prevent the development of other types of knowledge.

Rocha, H. "Teacher’s representational fluency in a context of technology use." Teaching Mathematics and its Applications. 35.2 (2016): 53-64. AbstractWebsite

This study focuses on teacher’s Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT), paying a special attention to teacher’s representational fluency. It intends to characterize how the teacher uses and integrates the different representations provided by the graphing calculator on the process of teaching and learning functions at the high school level. Specifically, it intends to understand the balance established between the use of the different representations, and the way these representations are articulated. The study adopts a qualitative approach undertaking one teacher case study. Data were collected for two school years, at 10th and 11th grades, and included class observation, semi-structured interviews and documents gathering. Data analysis was mainly descriptive and interpretive in nature, considering the problem under study. The conclusions reached reveal an active use of the graphical and algebraic representations and a scarce use of the tabular representation. The lack of balance on the use of representations also includes the work within a representation. In this case the graphical representation is the only one that was explored. The conclusions also indicate a flexible articulation between the two representations usually used. It was possible to identify different patterns on the use of the representations and a frequent use of an interactive approach, marked by repeated alternations between representations. Globally, this study emphasizes teacher’s KTMT and raises questions about the impact of technology on teacher´s representational fluency and about the difference between a numerical and a tabular representation.