Publications

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Submitted
Dimitrova, I., Vítor H. Fernandes, and J. Koppitz. "On partial endomorphisms of a star graph." (Submitted). AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider the monoids of all partial endomorphisms, of all partial weak endomorphisms, of all injective partial endomorphisms, of all partial strong endomorphisms and of all partial strong weak endomorphisms of a star graph with a finite number of vertices. Our main objective is to determine their ranks. We also describe their Green's relations, calculate their cardinalities and study their regularity.

Li, De Biao, and Vítor H. Fernandes. "On semigroups of orientation-preserving partial permutations with restricted range." (Submitted). AbstractWebsite

Let $\Omega_n$ be a finite chain with $n$ elements $(n\in\mathbb{N})$, and let $\mathcal{POPI}_{n}$ be the semigroup of all injective orientation-preserving partial transformations of $\Omega_n$. In this paper, for any nonempty subset $Y$ of $\Omega_n$, we consider the subsemigroup $\mathcal{POPI}_{n}(Y)$ of $\mathcal{POPI}_{n}$ of all transformations with range contained in $Y$. We describe the Green's relations and study the regularity of $\mathcal{POPI}_{n}(Y)$. Moreover, we calculate the rank of $\mathcal{POPI}_{n}(Y)$ and determine when two semigroups of this type are isomorphic.

In Press
Dimitrova, I., Vítor H. Fernandes, J. Koppitz, and T. M. Quinteiro. "On monoids of endomorphisms of a cycle graph." Mathematica Slovaca (In Press). Abstract

In this paper we consider endomorphisms of an undirected cycle graph from Semigroup Theory perspective. Our main aim is to present a process to determine sets of generators with minimal cardinality for the monoids $wEnd(C_n)$ and $End(C_n)$ of all weak endomorphisms and all endomorphisms of an undirected cycle graph $C_n$ with $n$ vertices. We also describe Green's relations and regularity of these monoids and calculate their cardinalities.

Fernandes, Vítor H. "On the cyclic inverse monoid on a finite set." Asian-European Journal of Mathematics (10.1142/S1793557124500177) (In Press). AbstractWebsite

In this paper we study the cyclic inverse monoid CI_n on a set Ω_n with n elements, i.e. the inverse submonoid of the symmetric inverse monoid on Ω_n consisting of all restrictions of the elements of a cyclic subgroup of order n acting cyclically on Ω_n. We show that CI_n has rank 2 (for n⩾2) and n⋅2^n−n+1 elements. Moreover, we give presentations of CI_n on n+1 generators and (n^2+3n+4)/2 relations and on 2 generators and (n^2−n+6)/2 relations. We also consider the remarkable inverse submonoid OCI_n of CI_n constituted by all its order-preserving transformations. We show that OCI_n has rank n and 3⋅2^n−2n−1 elements. Furthermore, we exhibit presentations of OCI_n on n+2 generators and (n^2+3n+8)/2 relations and on n generators and (n^2+3n)/2 relations.

2024
Fernandes, Vítor H. "On the monoid of partial isometries of a wheel graph." Asian-European Journal of Mathematics (DOI 10.1142/S1793557123502388; Online 16 Dec 2023). 17.1 (2024): 2350238 (18 pages). AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we consider the monoid DPW_n of all partial isometries of a wheel graph W_n with n+1 vertices. Our main objective is to determine the rank of DPW_n. In the process, we also compute the ranks of three notable subsemigroups of DPW_n. We also describe Green's relations of DPW_n and of its three considered subsemigroups.

Dimitrova, I., Vítor H. Fernandes, J. Koppitz, and T. M. Quinteiro. "On three submonoids of the dihedral inverse monoid on a finite set." Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society (DOI 10.1007/s40840-023-01620-0; Online 11 Dec 2023). 47 (2024): 27. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider three submonoids of the dihedral inverse monoid DI_n, namely its submonoids OPDI_n, MDI_n and ODI_n of all orientation-preserving, monotone and order-preserving transformations, respectively. For each of these three monoids, we compute the cardinal, give descriptions of Green's relations and determine the rank.

2023
Li, De Biao, and Vítor H. Fernandes. "Endomorphisms of semigroups of monotone transformations." Journal of Algebra and its Applications (DOI 10.1142/S0219498824502244; Online 5 July 2023) (2023). AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we characterize the monoid of endomorphisms of the semigroup of all monotone full transformations of a finite chain, as well as the monoids of endomorphisms of the semigroup of all monotone partial transformations and of the semigroup of all monotone partial permutations of a finite chain.

Li, De Biao, and Vítor H. Fernandes. "Endomorphisms of semigroups of oriented transformations." Semigroup Forum (DOI 10.1007/s00233-022-10325-y; Online 2 Dec 2022). 106 (2023): 184-210. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we characterize the monoid of endomorphisms of the semigroup of all oriented full transformations of a finite chain, as well as the monoid of endomorphisms of the semigroup of all oriented partial transformations and the monoid of endomorphisms of the semigroup of all oriented partial permutations of a finite chain. Characterizations of the monoids of endomorphisms of the subsemigroups of all orientation-preserving transformations of the three semigroups aforementioned are also given. In addition, we compute the number of endomorphisms of each of these six semigroups.

Fernandes, Vítor H., and Tânia Paulista. "On the monoid of partial isometries of a cycle graph." Turkish Journal of Mathematics (DOI 10.55730/1300-0098.3460). 47 (2023): 1746-1760. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider the monoid DPC_n of all partial isometries of a n-cycle graph C_n. We show that DPC_n is the submonoid of the monoid of all oriented partial permutations on a n-chain whose elements are precisely all restrictions of a dihedral group of order 2n. Our main aim is to exhibit a presentation of DPC_n. We also describe Green's relations of DPC_n and calculate its cardinality and rank.

Fernandes, Vítor H., and Tânia Paulista. "On the monoid of partial isometries of a finite star graph." Communications in Algebra (DOI 10.1080/00927872.2022.2121404; Online 14 Sep 2022). 51.3 (2023): 1028-1048. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider the monoid DPSn of all partial isometries of a star graph Sn with n vertices. Our main objectives are to determine the rank and to exhibit a presentation of DPSn. We also describe Green’s relations of DPSn and calculate its cardinal.

Fernandes, Vítor H., and Tânia Paulista. "On the Rank of Monoids of Endomorphisms of a Finite Directed Path." Asian-European Journal of Mathematics (DOI 10.1142/S1793557123500699; Online 28 Oct 2022). 16.04 (2023): 2350069 (13 pages). AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider endomorphisms of a finite directed path from monoid generators perspective. Our main aim is to determine the rank of the monoid wEndP_n of all weak endomorphisms of a directed path with n vertices, which is a submonoid of the widely studied monoid O_n of all order-preserving transformations of a n-chain. Also, we describe the regular elements of wEndP_n and calculate its size and number of idempotents.

Fernandes, Vítor H. "Oriented transformations on a finite chain: another description." Commun. Korean Math. Soc. (DOI 10.4134/CKMS.c220272; Online 12 July 2023). 38.3 (2023): 725-731. AbstractWebsite

Following the new description of an oriented full transformation on a finite chain given recently by Higgins and Vernitsk,
in this short note we present a refinement of this description which is extendable to partial transformations and to injective partial transformations.

Dimitrova, I., Vítor H. Fernandes, J. Koppitz, and T. M. Quinteiro. "Presentations for three remarkable submonoids of the dihedral inverse monoid on a finite set." Semigroup Forum (DOI 10.1007/s00233-023-10396-5; Online 31 Oct 2023). 107 (2023): 315-338. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we consider the submonoids OPDI_n, MDI_n and ODI_n of the dihedral inverse monoid DI_n of all orientation-preserving, monotone and order-preserving transformations, respectively. Our goal is to exhibit presentations for each of these three monoids.

2022
Caneco, Rita, Vítor H. Fernandes, and Teresa M. Quinteiro. "Ranks and presentations of some normally ordered inverse semigroups." Periodica Mathematica Hungarica (DOI 10.1007/s10998-022-00448-8). 85 (2022): 435-447. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we compute the rank and exhibit a presentation for the monoids
of all $P$-stable and $P$-order preserving partial permutations on a finite set
$\Omega$, with $P$ an ordered uniform partition of $\Omega$. These (inverse)
semigroups constitute a natural class of generators of the pseudovariety of
inverse semigroups ${\sf NO}$ of all normally ordered (finite) inverse
semigroups.

2021
Fernandes, Vítor H., M. M. Jesus, and B. Singha. "On orientation-preserving transformations of a chain." Communications in Algebra (DOI 10.1080/00927872.2020.1870996). 49.6 (2021): 2300-2325. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we introduce the notion of an orientation-preserving transformation on an arbitrary chain, as
a natural extension for infinite chains of the well known concept for finite chains introduced in 1998 by McAlister and, independently, in 1999 by Catarino and Higgins.
We consider the monoid POP(X) of all orientation-preserving partial transformations on a finite or infinite chain X and its submonoids OP(X) and POPI(X) of all orientation-preserving full transformations and of all orientation-preserving partial permutations on X, respectively.
The monoid PO(X) of all order-preserving partial transformations on X and its injective counterpart POI(X) are also considered.
We study the regularity and give descriptions of the Green's relations of the monoids POP(X), PO(X), OP(X), POPI(X) and POI(X).

Dimitrova, I., Vítor H. Fernandes, J. Koppitz, and T. M. Quinteiro. "Partial Automorphisms and Injective Partial Endomorphisms of a Finite Undirected Path." Semigroup Forum. 103 (2021): 87-105. AbstractWebsite

In this paper, we study partial automorphisms and, more generally, injective partial endomorphisms of a finite undirected path from Semigroup Theory perspective. Our main objective is to give formulas for the ranks of the monoids IEnd(P_n) and PAut(P_n) of all injective partial endomorphisms and of all partial automorphisms of the undirected path P_n with n vertices. We also describe Green's relations of PAut(P_n) and IEnd(P_n) and calculate their cardinals.

Fernandes, Vítor H. "The Vagner-Preston representation of a block-group." Southeast Asian Bull. Math.. 45.6 (2021): 805-812. AbstractWebsite

In this short note we construct an extension of the Vagner-Preston representation for block-groups and show that its kernel is the largest congruence that separates regular elements.

2020
Dimitrova, I., Vítor H. Fernandes, J. Koppitz, and T. M. Quinteiro. "Ranks of monoids of endomorphisms of a finite undirected path (DOI: 10.1007/s40840-019-00762-4)." Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society. 43 (2020): 1623-1645. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we study the widely considered endomorphisms and weak endomorphisms of a finite undirected path from monoid generators perspective. Our main aim is to determine the ranks of the monoids $wEnd P_n$ and $End P_n$ of all weak endomorphisms and all endomorphisms of the undirected path $P_n$ with $n$ vertices. We also consider strong and strong weak endomorphisms of $P_n$.

2019
Fernandes, Vítor H., and Paulo G. Santos. "Endomorphisms of semigroups of order-preserving partial transformations." Semigroup Forum (10.1007/s00233-018-9948-z). 99 (2019): 333-344. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we characterize the monoids of endomorphisms of the semigroups PO_n and POI_n of all order-preserving partial transformations and of all order-preserving partial permutations, respectively, of a finite n-chain.

Fernandes, Vítor H., J. Koppitz, and T. Musunthia. "The rank of the semigroup of all order-preserving transformations on a finite fence." Bulletin of the Malaysian Mathematical Sciences Society (DOI: 10.1007/s40840-017-0598-1). 42.5 (2019): 2191-2211. AbstractWebsite

A zig-zag (or fence) order is a special partial order on a (finite) set. In this paper, we consider the semigroup $TF_{n}$ of all
order-preserving transformations on an $n$-element zig-zag ordered set. We determine the rank of $TF_{n}$ and provide a minimal generating set for $TF_{n}$. Moreover, a formula for the number of idempotents in $TF_{n}$ is given.

2017
Dimitrova, I., Vítor H. Fernandes, and J. Koppitz. "A note on generators of the endomorphism semigroup of an infinite countable chain." Journal of Algebra and its Applications (DOI: 10.1142/S0219498817500311). 16 (2017): 1750031 (9 pages). AbstractWebsite

In this note, we consider the semigroup $O(X)$ of all order endomorphisms of an infinite chain $X$ and the subset $J$ of $O(X)$ of all transformations $\alpha$ such that $|Im(\alpha)|=|X|$. For an infinite countable chain $X$, we give a necessary and sufficient condition on $X$ for $O(X) = < J >$ to hold. We also present a sufficient condition on $X$ for $O(X) = < J >$ to hold, for an arbitrary infinite chain $X$.

2016
Fernandes, Vítor H., and Teresa M. Quinteiro. "A note on bilateral semidirect product decompositions of some monoids of order-preserving partial permutations." Bull. Korean Math. Soc.. 53.2 (2016): 495-506. AbstractWebsite

In this note we consider the monoid $PODI_n$ of all monotone partial permutations on $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ and its submonoids $DP_n$, $POI_n$ and $ODP_n$ of all partial isometries, of all order-preserving partial permutations and of all order-preserving partial isometries, respectively. We prove that both the monoids $POI_n$ and $ODP_n$ are quotients of bilateral semidirect products of two of their remarkable submonoids, namely of extensive and of co-extensive transformations. Moreover, we show that $PODI_n$ is a quotient of a semidirect product of $POI_n$ and the group $\mathcal{C}_2$ of order two and, analogously, $DP_n$ is a quotient of a semidirect product of $ODP_n$ and $\mathcal{C}_2$.

Fernandes, Vítor H., Preeyanuch Honyam, Teresa M. Quinteiro, and Boorapa Singha. "On semigroups of orientation-preserving transformations with restricted range." Communications in Algebra (DOI:10.1080/00927872.2014.975345). 44.1 (2016): 253-264. Abstractauthorsfinalversion.pdfWebsite

Let $X_n$ be a chain with n elements ($n\in\N$) and let $\OP_n$ be the monoid of all orientation-preserving transformations of $X_n$. In this paper, for any nonempty subset $Y$ of $X_n$, we consider the subsemigroup $\OP_n(Y)$ of $\OP_n$ of all transformations with range contained in $Y$: we describe the largest regular subsemigroup of $\OP_n(Y)$, which actually coincides with its subset of all regular elements, and Green's relations on $\OP_n(Y)$. Also, we determine when two semigroups of the type $\OP_n(Y)$ are isomorphic and calculate their ranks. Moreover, a parallel study is presented for the correspondent subsemigroups of the monoid $\OR_n$ of all either orientation-preserving or orientation-reversing transformations of $X_n$.

Fernandes, Vítor H., and Teresa M. Quinteiro. "Presentations for monoids of finite partial isometries." Semigroup Forum (DOI: 10.1007/s00233-015-9759-4). 93.1 (2016): 97-110. AbstractWebsite

In this paper we give presentations for the monoid $\DP_n$ of all partial isometries on $\{1,\ldots,n\}$ and for its submonoid $\ODP_n$ of all order-preserving partial isometries.

2015
Cicalò, Serena, Vítor H. Fernandes, and Csaba Schneider. "Partial transformation monoids preserving a uniform partition." Semigroup Forum (DOI 10.1007/s00233-014-9629-5). 90.2 (2015): 532-544. AbstractWebsite

The objective of this paper is to study the monoid of all partial
transformations of a finite set that preserve a uniform partition. In addition
to proving that this monoid is a quotient of a wreath product with respect to a
congruence relation, we show that it is generated by 5 generators, we compute
its order and determine a presentation on a minimal generating set.