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Almendra, MJ, CD Brondino, O. Gavel, AS Pereira, P. Tavares, S. Bursakov, R. Duarte, J. CALDEIRA, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Purification and characterization of a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase from Desulfovibrio gigas." Biochemistry. 38 (1999): 16366-16372. AbstractWebsite

An air-stable formate dehydrogenase (FDH), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, was purified from the sulfate reducing organism Desulfovibrio gigas (D. gigas) NCIB 9332. D. gigas FDH is a heterodimeric protein [alpha (92 kDa) and beta (29 kDa) subunits] and contains 7 +/- 1 Fe/protein and 0.9 +/- 0.1 W/protein, Selenium was not detected. The UV/visible absorption spectrum of D, gigas FDH is typical of an iron-sulfur protein. Analysis of pterin nucleotides yielded a content of 1.3 +/- 0.1 guanine monophosphate/mol of enzyme, which suggests a tungsten coordination with two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactors. Both Mossbauer spectroscopy performed on D. gigas FDH grown in a medium enriched with Fe-57 and EPR studies performed in the native and fully reduced state of the protein confirmed the presence of two [4Fe-4S] clusters. Variable-temperature EPR studies showed the presence of two signals compatible with an atom in a d(1) configuration albeit with an unusual relaxation behavior as compared to the one generally observed for W(V) ions.

Alves, T., S. Besson, AS Pereira, G. W. Pettigrew, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Structure-function studies of cytochrome c peroxidase from ps. nautica." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 86 (2001): 122. AbstractWebsite
Baldwin, J., W. C. Voegtli, N. Khidekel, P. Moenne-Loccoz, C. Krebs, AS Pereira, B. A. Ley, BH HUYNH, T. M. Loehr, P. J. Riggs-Gelasco, A. C. Rosenzweig, and J. M. Bollinger. "Rational reprogramming of the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase into a self-hydroxylating monooxygenase." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 123 (2001): 7017-7030. AbstractWebsite

The outcome of O-2 activation at the diiron(II) cluster in the R2 subunit of Escherichia coli (class I) ribonucleotide reductase has been rationally altered from the normal tyrosyl radical (Y122)(1) production to self-hydroxylation of a phenylalanine side-chain by two amino acid substitutions that leave intact the (histidine)(2)-(carboxylate)(4) ligand set characteristic of the diiron-carboxylate family. Iron ligand Asp (D) 84 was replaced with Glu (E), the amino acid found in the cognate position of the structurally similar diiron-carboxylate protein, methane monooxygenase hydroxylase (MMOH). We previously showed that this substitution allows accumulation of a mu -1,2-peroxodiiron(III) intermediate,(2 3) which does not accumulate in the wild-type (wt) protein and is probably a structural homologue of intermediate P (H-peroxo) in O-2 activation by MMOH.(4) In addition, the near-surface residue Trp (W) 48 was replaced with Phe (F), blocking transfer of the "extra" electron that occurs in wt R2 during formation of the formally Fe(LII)Fe(IV) cluster X.(5-7) Decay of the mu1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex in R2-W38F/D84E gives an initial brown product, which contains very little YI22(.) and which converts very slowly (t(1/2) similar to 7 h) upon incubation at 0 degreesC to an intensely purple final product. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the purple product indicates that F208 has undergone epsilon -hydroxylation and the resulting phenol has shifted significantly to become st ligand to Fe2 of the diiron cluster. Resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the purple product generated with O-16(2) or O-18(2) show appropriate isotopic sensitivity in bands assigned to O-phenyl and Fe-O-phenyl vibrational modes, confirming that the oxygen of the Fe(III)-phenolate species is derived from Or. Chemical analysis, experiments involving interception of the hydroxylating intermediate with exogenous reductant, and Mossbauer and EXAFS characterization of the brown and purple species establish that F208 hydroxylation occurs during decay of the peroxo complex and formation of the initial brown product. The slow transition to the purple Fe(LII)-phenolate species is ascribed to a ligand rearrangement in which mu -O2- is lost and the F208-derived phenolate coordinates. The reprogramming to F208 monooxygenase requires both amino acid substitutions, as very little epsilon -hydroxyphenylalanine is formed and pathways leading to Y122(.) formation predominate in both R2-D84E and R2-W48F(2-7).

Brown, K., M. Tegoni, M. Prudencio, AS Pereira, S. Besson, J. J. Moura, I. Moura, and C. Cambillau. "A novel type of catalytic copper cluster in nitrous oxide reductase." Nature Structural Biology. 7 (2000): 191-195. AbstractWebsite

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a greenhouse gas, the third most significant contributor to global warming. As a key process for N(2)O elimination from the biosphere, N(2)O reductases catalyze the two-electron reduction of N(2)O to N(2). These 2 x 65 kDa copper enzymes are thought to contain a CuA electron entry site, similar to that of cytochrome c oxidase, and a CuZ catalytic center. The copper anomalous signal was used to solve the crystal structure of N(2)O reductase from Pseudomonas nautica by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion, to a resolution of 2.4 Angstrom. The structure reveals that the CuZ center belongs to a new type of metal cluster, in which four copper ions are liganded by seven histidine residues. N(2)O binds to this center via a single copper ion. The remaining copper ions might act as an electron reservoir, assuring a fast electron transfer and avoiding the formation of dead-end products.

Bursakov, SA, OY Gavel, G. Di Rocco, J. Lampreia, J. Calvete, AS Pereira, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Antagonists Mo and Cu in a heterometallic cluster present on a novel protein (orange protein) isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 98 (2004): 833-840. AbstractWebsite

An orange-coloured protein (ORP) isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas, a sulphate reducer, has been previously shown by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to contain a novel mixed-metal sulphide cluster of the type [S2MoS2CuS2MoS2] [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122 (2000) 8321]. We report here the purification and the biochemical/spectroscopic characterisation of this novel protein. ORP is a soluble monomeric protein (11.8 kDa). The cluster is non-covalently bound to the polypeptide chain. The presence of a MoS42- moiety in the structure of the cofactor contributes with a quite characteristic UV-Vis spectra, exhibiting an orange colour, with intense absorption peaks at 480 and 338 nm. Pure ORP reveals an Abs(480)/Abs(338) ratio of 0.535. The gene sequence coding for ORP as well as the amino acid sequence was determined. The putative biological function of ORP is discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Cabrito, I., AS Pereira, P. Tavares, S. Besson, C. Brondino, B. Hoffman, K. Brown, M. Tegoni, C. Cambillau, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) from Pseudomonas nautica 617." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 86 (2001): 165. AbstractWebsite
Conrath, K., AS Pereira, C. E. Martins, C. G. Timoteo, P. Tavares, S. Spinelli, J. Kinne, C. Flaudrops, C. Cambillau, S. Muyldermans, I. Moura, JJG Moura, M. Tegoni, and A. Desmyter. "Camelid nanobodies raised against an integral membrane enzyme, nitric oxide reductase." Protein Science. 18 (2009): 619-628. AbstractWebsite

Nitric Oxide Reductase (NOR) is an integral membrane protein performing the reduction of NO to N(2)O. NOR is composed of two subunits: the large one (NorB) is a bundle of 12 transmembrane helices (TMH). It contains a b type heme and a binuclear iron site, which is believed to be the catalytic site, comprising a heme b and a non-hemic iron. The small subunit (NorC) harbors a cytochrome c and is attached to the membrane through a unique TMH. With the aim to perform structural and functional studies of NOR, we have immunized dromedaries with NOR and produced several antibody fragments of the heavy chain (VHHs, also known as nanobodies (TM)). These fragments have been used to develop a faster NOR purification procedure, to proceed to crystallization assays and to analyze the electron transfer of electron donors. BIAcore experiments have revealed that up to three VHHs can bind concomitantly to NOR with affinities in the nanomolar range. This is the first example of the use of VHHs with an integral membrane protein. Our results indicate that VHHs are able to recognize with high affinity distinct epitopes on this class of proteins, and can be used as versatile and valuable tool for purification, functional study and crystallization of integral membrane proteins.

Cordas, C. M., J. Wilton, T. Cardoso, F. Folgosa, AS Pereira, and P. Tavares. "Electrochemical behaviour of Dps-a mini-ferritin." European Biophysics Journal with Biophysics Letters. 40 (2011): 181. AbstractWebsite
Cordas, C. M., AS Pereira, C. E. Martins, C. G. Timoteo, I. Moura, JJG Moura, and P. Tavares. "Nitric oxide reductase: Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic activity." Chembiochem. 7 (2006): 1878-1881. AbstractWebsite
Coufal, DE, P. Tavares, AS Pereira, BH Hyunh, and SJ Lippard. "Reactions of nitric oxide with the reduced non-heme diiron center of the soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase." Biochemistry. 38 (1999): 4504-4513. AbstractWebsite

The soluble methane monooxygenase system from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyzes the oxidation of methane to methanol and water utilizing dioxygen at a non-heme, carboxylate-bridged diiron center housed in the hydroxylase (H) component. To probe the nature of the reductive activation of dioxygen in this system, reactions of an analogous molecule, nitric oxide, with the diiron(II) form of the enzyme (H-red) Were investigated by both continuous and discontinuous kinetics methodologies using optical, EPR, and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Reaction of NO with H-red affords a dinitrosyl species, designated H-dinitrosyl, with optical spectra (lambda(max) = 450 and 620 nm) and Mossbauer parameters (delta = 0.72 mm/s, Delta E-Q = 1.55 mm/s) similar to those of synthetic dinitrosyl analogues and of the dinitrosyl adduct of the reduced ribonucleotide reductase R2 (RNR-R2) protein. The H-dinitrosyl species models features of the H-peroxo intermediate formed in the analogous dioxygen reaction. In the presence of protein B, H-dinitrosyl builds up with approximately the same rate constant as H-peroxo (similar to 26 s(-1)) at 4 degrees C. In the absence of protein B, the kinetics of H-dinitrosyl formation were best fit with a biphasic A –> B –> C model, indicating the presence of an intermediate species between H-red and H-dinitrosyl. This result contrasts with the reaction of H-red with dioxygen, in which the H-peroxo intermediate forms in measurable quantities only in the presence of protein B. These findings suggest that protein B may alter the positioning but not the availability of coordination sites on iron for exogenous ligand binding and reactivity.

Dell'acqua, S., S. R. Pauleta, E. Monzani, AS Pereira, L. Casella, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Electron transfer complex between nitrous oxide reductase and cytochrome c(552) from Pseudomonas nautica: Kinetic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and docking studies." Biochemistry. 47 (2008): 10852-10862. AbstractWebsite

The multicopper enzyme nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) catalyzes the final step of denitrification, the two-electron reduction of N2O to N-2. This enzyme is a functional homodimer containing two different multicopper sites: CuA and CuZ. CuA is a binuclear copper site that transfers electrons to the tetranuclear copper sulfide CuZ, the catalytic site. In this study, Pseudomonas nautica cytochrome C-552 was identified as the physiological electron donor. The kinetic data show differences when physiological and artificial electron donors are compared [cytochrome vs methylviologen (MV)]. In the presence of cytochrome c(552), the reaction rate is dependent on the ET reaction and independent of the N2O concentration. With MV, electron donation is faster than substrate reduction. From the study of cytochrome c(552) concentration dependence, we estimate the following kinetic parameters: K-mc512 = 50.2 +/- 9.0 mu M and V-maxc551 1.8 +/- 10.6 units/mg. The N2O concentration dependence indicates a K-mN2O of 14.0 +/- 2.9 mu M using MV as the electron donor. The pH effect on the kinetic parameters is different when MV or cytochrome c(552) is used as the electron donor (pK(a) = 6.6 or 8.3, respectively). The kinetic study also revealed the hydrophobic nature of the interaction, and direct electron transfer studies showed that CuA is the center that receives electrons from the physiological electron donor. The formation of the electron transfer complex was observed by H-1 NMR protein-protein titrations and was modeled with a molecular docking program (BiGGER). The proposed docked complexes corroborated the ET studies giving a large number of solutions in which cytochrome c(552) is placed near a hydrophobic patch located around the CuA center.

Di Rocco, G., AS Pereira, SA Bursakov, OY Gavel, F. Rusnak, J. Lampreia, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Cloning of a novel Mo-Cu containing protein from Desulfovibrio.gigas." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 86 (2001): 202. AbstractWebsite
Dias, JM, T. Alves, C. Bonifacio, AS Pereira, J. Trincao, D. Bourgeois, I. Moura, and MJ Romao. "Structural basis for the mechanism of Ca2+ activation of the di-heme cytochrome c peroxidase from Pseudomonas nautica 617." Structure. 12 (2004): 961-973. AbstractWebsite

Cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) catalyses the reduction of H2O2 to H2O, an important step in the cellular detoxification process. The crystal structure of the di-heme CCP from Pseudomonas nautica 617 was obtained in two different conformations in a redox state with the electron transfer heme reduced. Form IN, obtained at pH 4.0, does not contain Ca2+ and was refined at 2.2 Angstrom resolution. This inactive form presents a closed conformation where the peroxidatic heme adopts a six-ligand coordination, hindering the peroxidatic reaction from taking place. Form OUT is Ca2+ dependent and was crystallized at pH 5.3 and refined at 2.4 Angstrom resolution. This active form shows an open conformation, with release of the distal histidine (His71) ligand, providing peroxide access to the active site. This is the first time that the active and inactive states are reported for a di-heme peroxidase.

Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V., O. Pinho, D. Monteiro, S. Faria, S. Cruz, A. Perreira, A. C. Roque, and P. Tavares. "Short communication: Effect of kefir grains on proteolysis of major milk proteins." Journal of Dairy Science. 93 (2010): 27-31. AbstractWebsite

The effect of kefir grains on the proteolysis of major milk proteins in milk kefir and in a culture of kefir grains in pasteurized cheese whey was followed by reverse phase-HPLC analysis. The reduction of kappa-, alpha-, and beta-caseins (CN), alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) contents during 48 and 90 h of incubation of pasteurized milk (100 mL) and respective cheese whey with kefir grains (6 and 12 g) at 20 degrees C was monitored. Significant proteolysis of alpha-LA and kappa-, alpha-, and beta-caseins was observed. The effect of kefir amount (6 and 12 g/100 mL) was significant for alpha-LA and alpha- and beta-CN. alpha-Lactalbumin and beta-CN were more easily hydrolyzed than alpha-CN. No significant reduction was observed with respect to beta-LG concentration for 6 and 12 g of kefir in 100 mL of milk over 48 h, indicating that no significant proteolysis was carried out. Similar results were observed when the experiment was conducted over 90 h. Regarding the cheese whey kefir samples, similar behavior was observed for the proteolysis of alpha-LA and beta-LG: alpha-LA was hydrolyzed between 60 and 90% after 12 h (for 6 and 12 g of kefir) and no significant beta-LG proteolysis occurred. The proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in kefir community was evaluated. Kefir milk prepared under normal conditions contained peptides from proteolysis of alpha-LA and kappa-, alpha-, and beta-caseins. Hydrolysis is dependent on the kefir: milk ratio and incubation time. beta-Lactoglobulin is not hydrolyzed even when higher hydrolysis time is used. Kefir grains are not appropriate as adjunct cultures to increase beta-LG digestibility in whey-based or whey-containing foods.

Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V., O. Pinho, M. V. Mota, P. Tavares, A. Pereira, M. P. Goncalves, D. Torres, C. Rocha, and J. A. Teixeira. "Preparation of ingredients containing an ACE-inhibitory peptide by tryptic hydrolysis of whey protein concentrates." International Dairy Journal. 17 (2007): 481-487. AbstractWebsite

This study describes the characterisation of whey protein hydrolysates obtained from tryptic hydrolysis to assess their application as ingredients with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory action. The levels of a-lactalbumin (alpha-la) and P-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) remaining after hydrolysis were quantified. Peptides were separated by RP-HPLC, and Ala-Leu-Pro-Met-His-Ile-Arg (ALPMHIR), the most potent beta-lg-derived ACE-inhibitory peptide was monitored. A correlation curve was established for the production of this peptide as a function of hydrolysis time. Heat-induced gelation of hydrolysates was studied by small-deformation rheology. The gelation times and the strength of the final gels were highly dependent on the degree of hydrolysis. Smaller peptides liberated by hydrolysis contributed to the inability of whey protein hydrolysates to gel. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ferreira, GC, R. Franco, S. G. Lloyd, AS Pereira, I. Moura, JJG Moura, and BH HUYNH. "MAMMALIAN FERROCHELATASE, A NEW ADDITION TO THE METALLOENZYME FAMILY." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (1994): 7062-7065. AbstractWebsite

A [2Fe-2S] cluster has been detected in mammalian ferrochelatase, the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Natural ferrochelatase, purified from mouse livers, and recombinant ferrochelatase, purified from an overproducing strain of Escherichia coli, were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. In their reduced forms, both the natural and recombinant ferrochelatases exhibited an identical EPR signal with g values (g = 2.00, 1.93, and 1.90) and relaxation properties typical of [2Fe-2S](+) cluster. Mossbauer spectra of the recombinant ferrochelatase, purified from a strain of E. coli cells transformed with a plasmid encoding murine liver ferrochelatase and grown in Fe-57-enriched medium, demonstrated unambiguously that the cluster is a [2Fe-2S] cluster. No change in the cluster oxidation state was observed during catalysis, The putative protein binding site for the Fe-S cluster in mammalian ferrochelatases is absent from the sequences of the bacterial and yeast enzymes, suggesting a possible role of the [2Fe-2S] center in regulation of mammalian ferrochelatases.

Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V., R. Eca, O. Pinho, P. Tavares, A. Pereira, and A. C. Roque. "Development and validation of an HPLC/UV method for quantification of bioactive peptides in fermented milks." Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 30 (2007): 2139-2147. AbstractWebsite

The simultaneous separation and quantification of two casein peptides (IPP, VPP) presenting potent inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) and casein in fermented milks was developed. Gradient elution was carried out at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min, using a mixture of two solvents. Solvent A was 0.1% TFA in water and solvent B was acetonitrile-water-trifluoracetic acid 95:5:0.1. The effluent was monitored by UV detector at 214 nm. Calibration curves were constructed in the interval of 0.01-1.0 mg/mL for VPP, 0.005-1.0 mg/mL for IPP, and 0.05-3.0 mg/mL for casein. R 2 invariably exceeded 0.999. The detection limits were 0.004 for VPP, 0.002 mg/mL for IPP, and 0.02 mg/mL for casein. Repeatability of the method was evaluated by six consecutive injections of two standard solutions containing VPP, IPP, and casein. The RSD values for concentration were all below 5.08%. Recovery studies were carried out to determine the accuracy of the method. Recoveries ranged between 88 and 98.2%. The methodology was applied, not only, for the monitorization of VPP, IPP, and casein in commercial fermented milks labeled as presenting anti hypertensive properties, but also, in milk with different degrees of fermentation by L Helveticus, and in other commercial functional fermented milks, such as, those presenting cholesterol lowering properties.

Fisher, K., D. J. Lowe, P. Tavares, AS Pereira, BH HUYNH, D. Edmondson, and W. E. Newton. "Conformations generated during turnover of the Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe protein and their relationship to physiological function." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 101 (2007): 1649-1656. AbstractWebsite

Various S = 3/2 EPR signals elicited from wild-type and variant Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe proteins appear to reflect different conformations assumed by the FeMo-cofactor with different protonation states. To determine whether these presumed changes in protonation and conformation reflect catalytic capacity, the responses (particularly to changes in electron flux) of the alpha H195Q, alpha H195N, and alpha Q191 K variant MoFe proteins (where His at position 195 in the alpha subunit is replaced by Gln/Asn or Gln at position alpha-191 by Lys), which have strikingly different substrate-reduction properties, were studied by stopped-flow or rapid-freeze techniques. Rapid-freeze EPR at low electron flux (at 3-fold molar excess of wild-type Fe protein) elicited two transient FeMo-cofactor-based EPR signals within 1 s of initiating turnover under N-2 with the alpha H195Q and alpha H195N variants, but not with the alpha Q191K variant. No EPR signals attributable to P cluster oxidation were observed for any of the variants under these conditions. Furthermore, during turnover at low electron flux with the wild-type, alpha H195Q or alpha H195N MoFe protein, the longer-time 430-nm absorbance increase, which likely reflects P cluster oxidation, was also not observed (by stopped-flow spectrophotometry); it did, however, occur for all three MoFe proteins under higher electron flux. No 430-nm absorbance increase occurred with the alpha Q191K variant, not even at higher electron flux. This putative lack of involvement of the P cluster in electron transfer at low electron flux was confirmed by rapid-freeze Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy, which clearly showed FeMo-factor reduction without P cluster oxidation. Because the wild-type, alpha H195Q and alpha H195N MoFe proteins can bind N-2, but alpha Q195K cannot, these results suggest that P cluster oxidation occurs only under high electron flux as required for N-2 reduction. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Folgosa, F., C. M. Cordas, J. A. Santos, AS Pereira, JJG Moura, P. Tavares, and I. Moura. "New spectroscopic and electrochemical insights on a class I superoxide reductase: evidence for an intramolecular electron-transfer pathway." Biochemical Journal. 438 (2011): 485-494. AbstractWebsite

SORs (superoxide reductases) are enzymes involved in bacterial resistance to reactive oxygen species, catalysing the reduction of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide. So far three structural classes have been identified. Class I enzymes have two ironcentre-containing domains. Most studies have focused on the catalytic iron site (centre II), yet the role of centre I is poorly understood. The possible roles of this iron site were approached by an integrated study using both classical and fast kinetic measurements, as well as direct electrochemistry. A new heterometallic form of the protein with a zinc-substituted centre I, maintaining the iron active-site centre II, was obtained, resulting in a stable derivative useful for comparison with the native all-iron from. Second-order rate constants for the electron transfer between reduced rubredoxin and the different SOR forms were determined to be 2.8 x 10(7) M(-1) . s(-1) and 1.3 x 10(6) M(-1) . s(-1) for SOR(Fe(IIII)-Fe(II)) and for SOR(Fe(IIII)-Fe(III)) forms respectively, and 3.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for the SOR(Zn(II)-Fe(III)) form. The results obtained seem to indicate that centre I transfers electrons from the putative physiological donor rubredoxin to the catalytic active iron site (intramolecular process). In addition, electrochemical results show that conformational changes are associated with the redox state of centre I, which may enable a faster catalytic response towards superoxide anion. The apparent rate constants calculated for the SOR-mediated electron transfer also support this observation.

Folgosa, F., C. G. Timoteo, M. Guilherme, D. Penas, P. Tavares, and AS Pereira. "Bacterioferritin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a functional DPS-like enzyme." Febs Journal. 279 (2012): 465. AbstractWebsite
Franco, R., AS Pereira, P. Tavares, A. Mangravita, MJ Barber, I. Moura, and GC Ferreira. "Substitution of murine ferrochelatase glutamate-287 with glutamine or alanine leads to porphyrin substrate-bound variants." Biochemical Journal. 356 (2001): 217-222. AbstractWebsite

Ferrochelatase (EC is the terminal enzyme of the haem biosynthetic pathway and catalyses iron chelation into the protoporphyrin IX ring. Glutamate-287 (E287) of murine mature ferrochelatase is a conserved residue in all known sequences of ferrochelatase, is present at the active site of the enzyme, as inferred from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure, and is critical for enzyme activity. Substitution of E287 with either glutamine (Q) or alanine (A) yielded variants with lower enzymic activity than that of the wild-type ferrochelatase and with different absorption spectra from the wild-type enzyme. In contrast to the wild-type enzyme, the absorption spectra of the variants indicate that these enzymes, as purified, contain protoporphyrin IX. Identification and quantification of the porphyrin bound to the E287-directed variants indicate that approx. 80% of the total porphyrin corresponds to protoporphyrin IX. Significantly, rapid stopped-flow experiments of the E287A and E287Q Variants demonstrate that reaction with Zn2+ results in the formation of bound Zn-protoporphyrin IX, indicating that the endogenously bound protoporphyrin IX can be used as a substrate. Taken together, these findings suggest that the structural strain imposed by ferrochelatase on the porphyrin substrate as a critical step in the enzyme catalytic mechanism is also accomplished by the E287A and E287Q variants, but without the release of the product. Thus E287 in murine ferrochelatase appears to be critical For the catalytic process by controlling the release of the product.

Gavel, OY, SA Bursakov, G. Di Rocco, J. Trincao, I. J. Pickering, GN George, JJ Calvete, VL Shnyrov, CD Brondino, AS Pereira, J. Lampreia, P. Tavares, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "A new type of metal-binding site in cobalt- and zinc-containing adenylate kinases isolated from sulfate-reducers Desulfovibrio gigas and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 102 (2008): 1380-1395. AbstractWebsite

Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterised in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the "LID" domain. The sequence (129)Cys-X(5)-His-X(15)-Cys-X(2)-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Jameson, G. N. L., W. Jin, C. Krebs, A. S. Perreira, P. Tavares, X. F. Liu, E. C. Theil, and BH HUYNH. "Stoichiometric production of hydrogen peroxide and parallel formation of ferric multimers through decay of the diferric-peroxo complex, the first detectable intermediate in ferritin mineralization." Biochemistry. 41 (2002): 13435-13443. AbstractWebsite

The catalytic step that initiates formation of the ferric oxy-hydroxide mineral core in the central cavity of H-type ferritin involves rapid oxidation of ferrous ion by molecular oxygen (ferroxidase reaction) at a binuclear site (ferroxidase site) found in each of the 24 subunits. Previous investigators have shown that the first detectable reaction intermediate of the ferroxidase reaction is a diferric-peroxo intermediate, F-peroxo, formed within 25 ms, which then leads to the release of H2O2 and formation of ferric mineral precursors. The stoichiometric relationship between F-peroxo, H2O2, and ferric mineral precursors, crucial to defining the reaction pathway and mechanism, has now been determined. To this end, a horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed spectrophotometric method was used as an assay for H2O2. By rapidly mixing apo M ferritin from frog, Fe2+, and O-2 and allowing the reaction to proceed for 70 ms when F-peroxo has reached its maximum accumulation, followed by spraying the reaction mixture into the H2O2 assay solution, we were able to quantitatively determine the amount of H2O2 produced during the decay of F-peroxo. The correlation between the amount of H2O2 released with the amount of F-peroxo accumulated at 70 ms determined by Mossbauer spectroscopy showed that F-peroxo decays into H2O2 with a stoichiometry of 1 F-peroxo:H2O2. When the decay of F-peroxo was monitored by rapid freeze-quench Mossbauer spectroscopy, multiple diferric mu-oxo/mu-hydroxo complexes and small polynuclear ferric clusters were found to form at rate constants identical to the decay rate of F-peroxo. This observed parallel formation of multiple products (H2O2, diferric complexes, and small polynuclear clusters) from the decay of a single precursor (F-peroxo) provides useful mechanistic insights into ferritin mineralization and demonstrates a flexible ferroxidase site.

Lampreia, J., AS Pereira, and JJG Moura. "ADENYLYLSULFATE REDUCTASES FROM SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA." Inorganic Microbial Sulfur Metabolism. 243 (1994): 241-260. AbstractWebsite
Moura, I., AS Pereira, P. Tavares, and JJG Moura. "Simple and complex iron-sulfur proteins in sulfate reducing bacteria." Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Vol 47. 47 (1999): 361-419. AbstractWebsite