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Cunha, J. C., W. Fleischman, J. M. Lourenço, and V. K. Proulx, Proceedings of the 10th Annual SIGCSE Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE'05), , New York, NY, USA, ACM, 2005. Abstract


Sousa, D. G., R. J. Dias, C. Ferreira, and J. M. Lourenço, "Preventing Atomicity Violations with Contracts", ArXiv e-prints, 2015. Abstract1505.02951v1-dsousa.pdfWebsite

Software developers are expected to protect concurrent accesses to shared regions of memory with some mutual exclusion primitive that ensures atomicity properties to a sequence of program statements. This approach prevents data races but may fail to provide all necessary correctness properties.The composition of correlated atomic operations without further synchronization may cause atomicity violations. Atomic violations may be avoided by grouping the correlated atomic regions in a single larger atomic scope. Concurrent programs are particularly prone to atomicity violations when they use services provided by third party packages or modules, since the programmer may fail to identify which services are correlated. In this paper we propose to use contracts for concurrency, where the developer of a module writes a set of contract terms that specify which methods are correlated and must be executed in the same atomic scope. These contracts are then used to verify the correctness of the main program with respect to the usage of the module(s). If a contract is well defined and complete, and the main program respects it, then the program is safe from atomicity violations with respect to that module. We also propose a static analysis based methodology to verify contracts for concurrency that we applied to some real-world software packages. The bug we found in Tomcat 6.0 was immediately acknowledged and corrected by its development team.

Sousa, D. G., C. Ferreira, and J. M. Lourenço, "Prevenção de Violações de Atomicidade usando Contractos", Proceedings of INForum Simpósio de Informática, Lisbon, Portugal, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, pp. 190–201, sep, 2013. Abstractinforum2013-sousa.pdf

A programação concorrente obriga o programador a sincronizar os acessos concorrentes a regiões de memória partilhada, contudo esta abordagem não é suficiente para evitar todas as anomalias que podem ocorrer num cenário concorrente. Executar uma sequência de operações atómicas pode causar violações de atomicidade se existir uma correlação entre essas operações, devendo o programador garantir que toda a sequência de operações é executada atomicamente. Este problema é especialmente comum quando se usam operações de pacotes ou módulos de terceiros, pois o programador pode identificar incorretamente o âmbito das regiões de código que precisam de ser atómicas para garantir o correto comportamento do programa. Para evitar este problema o programador do módulo pode criar um contrato que especifica quais as sequências de operações do módulo que devem ser sempre executadas de forma atómica. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise estática para verificação destes contratos.

Dias, R. J., V. Pessanha, and J. M. Lourenço, "Precise Detection of Atomicity Violations", Haifa Verification Conference, Haifa, Israel, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Nov 2012. Abstracthvc2012.pdf

Concurrent programs that are free of unsynchronized ac- cesses to shared data may still exhibit unpredictable concurrency errors called atomicity violations, which include both high-level dataraces and stale-value errors. Atomicity violations occur when programmers make wrong assumptions about the atomicity scope of a code block, incorrectly splitting it in two or more atomic blocks and allow them to be interleaved with other atomic blocks. In this paper we propose a novel static analysis algorithm that works on a dependency graph of program variables and detects both high-level dataraces and stale-value errors. The algorithm was implemented for a Java Bytecode analyzer and its effectiveness was evaluated with some well known faulty programs. The results obtained show that our algorithm performs better than previous approaches, achieving higher precision for small and medium sized programs, making it a good basis for a practical tool.

Pessanha, V., R. J. Dias, J. M. Lourenço, E. Farchi, and D. Sousa, "Practical verification of high-level dataraces in transactional memory programs", Proceedings of 9th the Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Systems: Testing, Analysis, and Debugging, New York, NY, USA, ACM, pp. 26–34, July, 2011. Abstractisstaws11padtad-4-pessanha.pdf

In this paper we present MoTh, a tool that uses static analysis to enable the automatic verification of concurrency anomalies in Transactional Memory Java programs. Currently MoTh detects high-level dataraces and stale-value errors, but it is extendable by plugging-in sensors, each sensor implementing an anomaly detecting algorithm. We validate and benchmark MoTh by applying it to a set of well known concurrent buggy programs and by close comparison of the results with other similar tools. The results achieved so far are very promising, yielding good accuracy while triggering only a very limited number of false warnings.

Lourenço, J. M., and J. C. Cunha, "The PDBG Process-Level Debugger for Parallel and Distributed Programs", Proceedings of the SIGMETRICS symposium on Parallel and Distributed Tools, New York, NY, USA, ACM, pp. 154, 1998. Abstractspdt-asbt98.pdf

In this paper we discuss several issues concerning the design and implementation of a debugger for parallel and distributed applications. This debugger uses a client-server approach to isolate the debugging user-interface from the debugging services, by way of a two-level structured approach: the component-level to observe and act upon individual processes; and the coordination-level to observe the interprocess relations and act upon them.