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Arteiro, A., G. Catalanotti, J. Xavier, and P. P. Camanho. "A Finite Fracture Mechanics Model for the Prediction of the Notched Response and Large Damage Capability of Composite Laminates." Advances in Fracture and Damage Mechanics XIII. Vol. 627. Key Engineering Materials, 627. Trans Tech Publications, 2015. 13-16. Abstract

A new model based on Finite Fracture Mechanics (FFMs) has been proposed to predict the open-hole tensile strength of composite laminates [1]. Failure is predicted when bothstress-based and energy-based criteria are satisfied. This model is based on an analytical solution, and no empirical adjusting parameters are required, but only two material properties: the unnotched strength and the fracture toughness. In the present work, an extension of the proposed FFMs model to predict the notched response of composite laminates with notch geometries other than a circular opening [2] is presented and applied to the prediction of size effects on the tensile and compressive notched strength of composite laminates. The present model is also used to assess the notch sensitivity and brittleness of composite laminates by means of versatile design charts and by the identification of a dimensionless parameter designated as notch sensitivity factor. A further extension of the FFMs model is proposed, which takes into account the crack resistance curve of the laminate in the model's formulation, and it is used to predict the large damage capability of a non-crimp fabric thin-ply laminate [3].

Xavier, J., J. R. A. Fernandes, J. J. L. Morais, and O. Frazão. "Fracture behaviour of wood bonded joints under modes I and II by digital image correlation and fibre Bragg grating sensors." Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais. 27 (2015): 27-35. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Direct identification of cohesive laws in modes I and İI\} of wood bonded joints is addressed by the double cantilever beam (DCB) and end-notched flexure (ENF) tests, respectively. Moreover, the development and extension of fracture process zone (FPZ) ahead of the initial crack tip, is analysed by means of digital image correlation (DIC) and embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. From \{FBG\} spectral response, the spectrum geometric mean is determined and the strain induced by wavelength variation employed to identify the initial and final stages of the FPZ. These stages are used to consistently define the cohesive laws in both modes I and II. Resistance-curves are determined from the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). Besides, the crack tip opening displacements (CTOD) are determined by post-processing displacement field provided by \{DIC\} around the initial crack tip. The strain energy release rate as a function of the \{CTOD\} are then determined for both mode I and mode II. The respective cohesive laws are reconstructed by numerical approximation and differentiation. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is effective to determine both the \{FPZ\} development phase and the corresponding cohesive laws of wood bonded joints in both mode I and mode II.

Silva, TEF, S. Gain, D. Pinto, A. M. P. de Jesus, J. Xavier, A. Reis, and P. A. R. Rosa. "Fracture characterization of a cast aluminum alloy aiming machining simulation." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. 233 (2019): 402-412. AbstractWebsite

Despite extensive research regarding metal cutting simulation, the current industrial practice very often relies on empirical data when it comes to tool design. In order accurately simulate the cutting process it is not only important to have robust numerical models that closely portray the phenomenon, but also to properly characterize the material taking into account the cutting conditions. The goal of this investigation focuses on the mechanical characterization of the cast aluminum alloy AlSi9Cu3 by conducting both compression and fracture tests. Due to its very good castability, machinability, and attractive mechanical properties, this alloy is widely used in casting industry for the manufacture of automotive components, among others. Besides the experimental characterization, a numerical methodology is proposed for the modeling of the cast alloy, making use of the Johnson–Cook constitutive material model, in Abaqus/CAE. The material model is calibrated based on compression tests at multiple conditions (quasi-static, incremental dynamic and high temperatures). The identified model is then validated by simulation of the ductile fracture tests of notched specimens. The obtained numerical results were consistent with the experimentally obtained, contributing to the validity of the presented characterization technique.

Silva, F., M. de Moura, N. Dourado, J. Xavier, F. Pereira, J. Morais, M. Dias, P. Lourenço, and F. Judas. "Fracture Characterization of Human Cortical Bone Under Mode I Loading." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 137 (2015): 121004. AbstractWebsite

A miniaturized version of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test is used to determine the fracture energy in human cortical bone under pure mode I loading. An equivalent crack length based data-reduction scheme is used with remarkable advantages relative to classical methods. Digital image correlation (DIC) technique is employed to determine crack opening displacement at the crack tip being correlated with the evolution of fracture energy. A method is presented to obtain the cohesive law (trapezoidal bilinear softening) mimicking the mechanical behavior observed in bone. Cohesive zone modeling (CZM) (finite-element method) was performed to validate the procedure showing excellent agreement.

Silva, F. G. A., M. F. S. F. de Moura, N. Dourado, J. Xavier, F. A. M. Pereira, J. J. L. Morais, M. I. R. Dias, P. J. Lourenço, and F. M. Judas. "Fracture characterization of human cortical bone under mode II loading using the end-notched flexure test." Medical {&} Biological Engineering {&} Computing. 55 (2017): 1249-1260. AbstractWebsite

Fracture characterization of human cortical bone under mode II loading was analyzed using a miniaturized version of the end-notched flexure test. A data reduction scheme based on crack equivalent concept was employed to overcome uncertainties on crack length monitoring during the test. The crack tip shear displacement was experimentally measured using digital image correlation technique to determine the cohesive law that mimics bone fracture behavior under mode II loading. The developed procedure was validated by finite element analysis using cohesive zone modeling considering a trapezoidal with bilinear softening relationship. Experimental load-displacement curves, resistance curves and crack tip shear displacement versus applied displacement were used to validate the numerical procedure. The excellent agreement observed between the numerical and experimental results reveals the appropriateness of the proposed test and procedure to characterize human cortical bone fracture under mode II loading. The proposed methodology can be viewed as a novel valuable tool to be used in parametric and methodical clinical studies regarding features (e.g., age, diseases, drugs) influencing bone shear fracture under mode II loading.

Kuhn, P., G. Catalanotti, J. Xavier, P. P. Camanho, and H. Koerber. "Fracture toughness and crack resistance curves for fiber compressive failure mode in polymer composites under high rate loading." Composite Structures. 182 (2017): 164-175. AbstractWebsite

Abstract This work presents an experimental method to measure the compressive crack resistance curve of fiber-reinforced polymer composites when subjected to dynamic loading. The data reduction couples the concepts of energy release rate, size effect law and R-curve. Double-edge notched specimens of four different sizes are used. Both split-Hopkinson pressure bar and quasi-static reference tests are performed. The full crack resistance curves at both investigated strain rate regimes are obtained on the basis of quasi-static fracture analysis theory. The results show that the steady state fracture toughness of the fiber compressive failure mode of the unidirectional carbon-epoxy composite material IM7-8552 is 165.6kJ/m2 and 101.6kJ/m2 under dynamic and quasi-static loading, respectively. Therefore the intralaminar fracture toughness in compression is found to increase with increasing strain rate.