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Subramani, P., S. Rana, D. V. Oliveira, R. Fangueiro, and J. Xavier. "Development of novel auxetic structures based on braided composites." Materials & Design. 61 (2014): 286-295. AbstractWebsite
Subramani, P., Sohel Rana, Bahman Ghiassi, Raul Fangueiro, Daniel V. Oliveira, Paulo B. Lourenco, and Jose Xavier. "Development and characterization of novel auxetic structures based on re-entrant hexagon design produced from braided composites." Composites Part B: Engineering. 93 (2016): 132-142. AbstractWebsite

Abstract This paper reports the first attempt of developing macro-scale auxetic structures based on re-entrant hexagon design from braided composite materials for civil engineering applications. Braided composite rods (BCRs) were produced and arranged as longitudinal and horizontal elements to produce three types of auxetic structures: (1) basic re-entrant hexagon structure, (2) basic structure modified by adding straight longitudinal elements and (3): structure-2 modified by changing structural angle. The influence of various material and structural parameters as well as structure type on Poisson's ratio and tensile properties was thoroughly investigated. The auxetic behaviour was found to strongly depend on the structural angle and straight elements, resulting in lower auxeticity with lower angles and in presence of straight elements. Material parameters influenced the auxetic behaviour to a lesser extent and a decrease in auxetic behaviour was noticed with increase in core fibre linear density and using stiffer fibres such as carbon. The reverse effect was observed in case of tensile strength and work of rupture. Among these structures, structure-3 exhibited good auxetic behaviour, balanced tensile properties, and high energy absorption capacity and their auxetic behaviour could be well predicted with the developed analytical model. Therefore, these novel structures present good potential for strengthening of civil structures.

Sousa, A. M. R., J. Xavier, M. Vaz, J. J. L. Morais, and V. M. J. Filipe. "Cross-correlation and differential technique combination to determine displacement fields." Strain. 47 (2011): 87-98. Abstract


Sousa, A. M. R., J. Xavier, J. J. L. Morais, V. M. J. Filipe, and M. Vaz. "Processing discontinuous displacement fields by a spatio-temporal derivative technique." Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 49 (2011): 1402-1412. Abstract
Silva, A. L. L., A. M. P. de Jesus, J. Xavier, J. A. F. O. Correia, and A. A. Fernandes. "Combined analytical-numerical methodologies for the evaluation of mixed-mode (I+II) fatigue crack growth rates in structural steels." Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 185 (2017): 124-138. AbstractWebsite

Abstract This paper proposes an experimental study aiming to evaluate stress intensity factors (SIFs) for fatigue cracks propagating under pure mode I and mixed-mode I+II for a S235 structural steel. Compact tension (CT) specimens with a side hole were manufactured in order to generate a stress field, ahead of the crack tip, resulting in mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation. Specimens with distinct side hole locations were submitted to fatigue tests under stress controlled conditions for a stress rati

Silva, F. G. A., M. F. S. F. de Moura, N. Dourado, J. Xavier, F. A. M. Pereira, J. J. L. Morais, and M. I. R. Dias. "Mixed-mode I+II fracture characterization of human cortical bone using the Single Leg Bending test." Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 54 (2016): 72-81. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Mixed-mode I+II fracture characterization of human cortical bone was analyzed in this work. A miniaturized version of the Single Leg Bending test (SLB) was used owing to its simplicity. A power law criterion was verified to accurately describe the material fracture envelop under mixed-mode I+II loading. The crack tip opening displacements measured by digital image correlation were used in a direct method to determine the cohesive law mimicking fracture behavior of cortical bone. Cohesive zone modeling was used for the sake of validation. Several fracture quantities were compared with the experimental results and the good agreement observed proves the appropriateness of the proposed procedure for fracture characterization of human bone under mixed-mode I+II loading.

Silva, TEF, S. Gain, D. Pinto, A. M. P. de Jesus, J. Xavier, A. Reis, and P. A. R. Rosa. "Fracture characterization of a cast aluminum alloy aiming machining simulation." Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. 233 (2019): 402-412. AbstractWebsite

Despite extensive research regarding metal cutting simulation, the current industrial practice very often relies on empirical data when it comes to tool design. In order accurately simulate the cutting process it is not only important to have robust numerical models that closely portray the phenomenon, but also to properly characterize the material taking into account the cutting conditions. The goal of this investigation focuses on the mechanical characterization of the cast aluminum alloy AlSi9Cu3 by conducting both compression and fracture tests. Due to its very good castability, machinability, and attractive mechanical properties, this alloy is widely used in casting industry for the manufacture of automotive components, among others. Besides the experimental characterization, a numerical methodology is proposed for the modeling of the cast alloy, making use of the Johnson–Cook constitutive material model, in Abaqus/CAE. The material model is calibrated based on compression tests at multiple conditions (quasi-static, incremental dynamic and high temperatures). The identified model is then validated by simulation of the ductile fracture tests of notched specimens. The obtained numerical results were consistent with the experimentally obtained, contributing to the validity of the presented characterization technique.

Silva, F., J. Xavier, F. A. M. Pereira, J. Morais, N. Dourado, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determination of cohesive laws in wood bonded joints under mode I loading using the DCB test." Holzforschung. 67 (2013): 835-959. AbstractWebsite
Silva, F. G. A., M. F. S. F. de Moura, N. Dourado, J. Xavier, F. A. M. Pereira, J. J. L. Morais, M. I. R. Dias, P. J. Lourenço, and F. M. Judas. "Fracture characterization of human cortical bone under mode II loading using the end-notched flexure test." Medical {&} Biological Engineering {&} Computing. 55 (2017): 1249-1260. AbstractWebsite

Fracture characterization of human cortical bone under mode II loading was analyzed using a miniaturized version of the end-notched flexure test. A data reduction scheme based on crack equivalent concept was employed to overcome uncertainties on crack length monitoring during the test. The crack tip shear displacement was experimentally measured using digital image correlation technique to determine the cohesive law that mimics bone fracture behavior under mode II loading. The developed procedure was validated by finite element analysis using cohesive zone modeling considering a trapezoidal with bilinear softening relationship. Experimental load-displacement curves, resistance curves and crack tip shear displacement versus applied displacement were used to validate the numerical procedure. The excellent agreement observed between the numerical and experimental results reveals the appropriateness of the proposed test and procedure to characterize human cortical bone fracture under mode II loading. The proposed methodology can be viewed as a novel valuable tool to be used in parametric and methodical clinical studies regarding features (e.g., age, diseases, drugs) influencing bone shear fracture under mode II loading.

Silva, Patrícia, Pedro Fernandes, José Sena-Cruz, José Xavier, Fernando Castro, Delfim Soares, and Vítor Carneiro. "Effects of different environmental conditions on the mechanical characteristics of a structural epoxy." Composites Part B: Engineering. 88 (2016): 55-63. AbstractWebsite

Abstract With the aim of characterising a commercially available epoxy adhesive used for fibre-reinforced polymers strengthening applications, when submitted to different environmental conditions, mainly thermal (TC), freeze–thaw (FT), and wet–dry (WD) cycles and immersion in pure (PW) and water with chlorides (CW) for periods of exposure that lasted up to 16 months, an experimental program was carried out. Several methodologies were used in its characterization, mainly the scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), standard tensile tests (STT) coupled with digital image correlation (DIC). In general the results revealed that the chemical composition was not affected by the environmental conditions. Nevertheless, it was verified through \{DMA\} and \{STT\} that the modulus of elasticity and tensile strength of the epoxy adhesive increased in the TC, while the specimens submitted to \{PW\} and \{CW\} faced a high degradation in terms of its mechanical properties. Eventually, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was not affected by the environmental conditions, apart from the specimens subjected to \{TC\} and FT, presenting a higher and lower Tg, respectively, when compared with the reference specimens.

Silva, F., M. de Moura, N. Dourado, J. Xavier, F. Pereira, J. Morais, M. Dias, P. Lourenço, and F. Judas. "Fracture Characterization of Human Cortical Bone Under Mode I Loading." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 137 (2015): 121004. AbstractWebsite

A miniaturized version of the double cantilever beam (DCB) test is used to determine the fracture energy in human cortical bone under pure mode I loading. An equivalent crack length based data-reduction scheme is used with remarkable advantages relative to classical methods. Digital image correlation (DIC) technique is employed to determine crack opening displacement at the crack tip being correlated with the evolution of fracture energy. A method is presented to obtain the cohesive law (trapezoidal bilinear softening) mimicking the mechanical behavior observed in bone. Cohesive zone modeling (CZM) (finite-element method) was performed to validate the procedure showing excellent agreement.

Silva, F. G. A., J. J. L. Morais, N. Dourado, J. Xavier, F. A. M. Pereira, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determination of cohesive laws in wood bonded joints under mode II loading using the ENF test." International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives. 51 (2014): 54-61. AbstractWebsite


Sampayo, L. M. C. M. V., P. M. F. Monteiro, J. A. F. O. Correia, J. M. C. Xavier, De A. M. P. Jesus, A. Fernandez-Canteli, and R. A. B. Calçada. "Probabilistic S-N Field Assessment for a Notched Plate Made of Puddle Iron From the Eiffel Bridge with an Elliptical Hole." Procedia Engineering. 114 (2015): 691-698. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Probabilistic fatigue models are required to account conveniently for several sources of uncertainty arising in the prediction procedures for structural details, such as the scatter in material behaviour. In this paper, a procedure to derive probabilistic S-N fields for structural details [1] is applied to a notched geometry with elliptic central hole made of puddle iron from the Eiffel bridge, based on the local approaches supported by the probabilistic ɛa–N or Smith–Watson–Topper (SWT)–N fields [1,2]. This procedure suggests an extension of the fatigue crack propagation model proposed by Noroozi et al. [3,4] to structural details, in order to cover both the fatigue crack initiation and fatigue crack propagation, based on local strain approaches to fatigue. Both fatigue crack initiation and fatigue crack propagation mechanisms are accounted for in the proposed approach. The numerical results are compared with available experimental S-N fatigue data for the notched plate under consideration.