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Viseu, F., S. Campos, J. Fernandes, and H. Rocha. "The use of graphing calculator in the exploration of nonlinear continuous models." Revemat. 11.2 (2016): 79-98. AbstractWebsite

The integration of the graphing calculator in mathematical activity encourages students to express many of their processes and ways of thinking. Since some of the activities at the high school level are carried out with the graphing calculator, we intend to investigate the contribution of this resource to promote the learning of nonlinear continuous models in the 11th grade. By adopting a qualitative methodology, we collected and analysed the students‟ writing productions. At first, students used to present the information given by the calculator with no justification. As they acquire skills in the use of this resource, they usually set up the viewing window in order to visualize the graphical representations of functions that model the problem situation they are working on and also relate the different existing menus in the study of those functions characteristics. Such procedures make students to present the data collected in the calculator with a justification of their arguments and a validation of their conjectures.

Viseu, F., and H. Rocha. "Interdisciplinary technological approaches from a mathematics education point of view." Science and mathematics education for 21st century citizens: challenges and ways forward. Eds. L. Leite, E. Oldham, A. Afonso, F. Viseu, L. Dourado, and H. Martinho. Nova Science Publishers, 2020. Abstract

Mathematics has a strong presence in the school curriculum, often justified by its usefulness in social life, in the world of work and by its connections with other sciences. This interdisciplinary connection, in particular when it requires constructing and refining mathematical models and discussing their applications to solve problems of other sciences, can assist students to understand why mathematics is so important in school. In the development of interdisciplinary activities, the characteristics of the tasks emerge as an important aspect. The emphasis is on the use of technological materials and the way they can support the development of concepts, provide different representations and support deeper understandings, and offer a multifaceted support to collect data and simulate experiences. Based on these assumptions, the aim of this chapter is to present, analyse and discuss tasks that promote interdisciplinary technological approaches from a mathematical point of view. In this chapter we assume interdisciplinarity as a complex construct, and in order to clarify its meaning we will discuss several types of conceptions, from multidisciplinary, to interdisciplinary, and to transdisciplinary. We will then address related concepts, such as modelling and STEM, highlighting similarities and differences between them, to reach an understanding of interdisciplinarity. In the process of the interdiciplinary approach, digital technologies arise as a central element. Based on a set of tasks on mathematics and on different sciences, we discuss what can change on an interdisciplinary approach to the teaching and learning of mathematical content and on the articulation between subjects.

Viseu, F., P. Mendes, and H. Rocha The notion of function by basic education preservice teachers. ATEE Winter Conference ‘Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

The current curricular guidelines for mathematics education in Portugal emphasize the relevance of working with different representations of functions to promote understanding. Given this relevance, we seek understanding about the notion of function held by 37 basic education pre-service teachers in their first year of a master’s course. Data were collected through a task focusing on identifying functions in situations based on different representations. The content analysis technique was then adopted in the search for an understanding of the justifications given by the participants. The results achieved suggest it is easier for the pre-service teachers to identify examples that are not functions than examples that are functions. There is also a tendency for greater accuracy in the identification of examples expressed by tables than by algebraic expressions. The justifications presented show a notion of function as a relation between values of two non-empty sets, but without guaranteeing that this relation is single-valued.

Viseu, F., A. Silva, H. Rocha, and P. Martins. "The graphical representation in the learning of functions by 10th grade students." Educación Matemática. 34.1 (2022): 186-213. AbstractWebsite

A exploração de diferentes representações promove a compreensão dos tópicos de funções. Partindo deste pressuposto, com este estudo pretende-se analisar o contributo da representação gráfica na aprendizagem da noção de função inversa e da paridade de uma função por alunos do 10.º ano de escolaridade e identificar dificuldades na exploração dessa representação. Na procura de responder a este objetivo, adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa e interpretativa para compreender as ações dos alunos na resolução das tarefas
propostas. A análise das resoluções mostra que a representação gráfica serviu de suporte para a instituição das definições dos tópicos em estudo. E isto apesar de alguns alunos revelarem dificuldades ao interpretar e ao construir gráficos; ao identificar imagens e imagens inversas em gráficos de funções; ao representar determinadas características gráficas associadas a alguns conceitos, como é o caso da relação entre a paridade de uma função e a simetria na sua representação gráfica (confundindo eixo de simetria e de reflexão). Globalmente, este estudo mostra como a abordagem de conceitos a partir da representação gráfica pode contribuir para a sua compreensão.

Viseu, F., and H. Rocha. "Perceptions of mathematics teachers on the teaching of functions and on the use of technological materials - Perceções de professores de matemática sobre o ensino de funções e sobre o uso de materiais tecnológicos." Educação Matemática Pesquisa. 20.2 (2018): 113-139. AbstractWebsite

This study intends to understand the perceptions of mathematics teachers from lower and upper secondary regarding the teaching of Functions and the use of technological materials. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire and four teachers through an interview. The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the teaching level of lower or upper secondary. In the teaching of Functions, textbooks are widely used, but differently depending on the level being taught. The same happens with the representations and with the use that is made of the technologies. Involvement of students in work is another aspect considered important, but again there are differences. The assessment also has similarities, but differs in the valuation ascribed to group work.

Viseu, F., H. Rocha, and J. Monteiro. "Rethinking digital technology versus paper and pencil in 3D Geometry." Journal of Learning for Development. 9.2 (2022): 267-278. AbstractWebsite

Recognising the relevance of learning Geometry, and in particular 3D Geometry, this study aims to discuss the contributions that digital technology and paper and pencil approaches can bring to students’ learning. We seek, therefore, to identify the differences between the two approaches, and specifically: What factors are relevant in one and the other approach? What does one approach facilitate over the other? A quantitative and a qualitative and interpretive methodology was adopted, and based on a didactic intervention, the students' resolutions of the proposed tasks were analysed. The results obtained show that the experience and prior knowledge of the students with each of the solids involved seems to be decisive in the approach with paper and pencil. However, technology emerges as an enhancing resource when prior knowledge is more fragile. The study also shows differences between the representations supported by the two resources, suggesting the mobilisation of different knowledge by the students in relation to each of the resources.

Teixeira, P., C. Martins, and H. Rocha Abordagem STEAM: articulação disciplinar e práticas letivas de professores. Atas do Encontro de Investigação em Educação Matemática., In Press.
Teixeira, P., C. Martins, and H. Rocha STE(A)M approach: Distinguishing and discussing meanings. EduLearn. Spain: IATED, 2022. Abstract

The STE(A)M approach has been recognized by several authors for its potential in assisting teaching and learning, and several curriculum standards already value its application in the classroom. This approach is based on the articulation between different areas, the clarification, and the deepening of the concepts being studied. Although there are different approaches, according to the fields involved, STEM and STEAM are two among the most often mentioned in the literature. STEM is based on learning that integrates the following areas of knowledge: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. The conceptualization of the STE(A)M approach is not consensual and uniform. There are different models focusing on problem-solving based learning, project-based-learning, design-based learning, and engineering models. Still, different authors present different conceptualizations of this approach. In this paper, we relied on the existing literature to discuss the different understandings of the STE(A)M approach. We will also pay attention to mathematics and how different authors see the disciplines’ role within a STE(A)M approach and discuss the evolution of the mentioned authors’ positions throughout time. Thus, methodologically, we undertook the following steps: (i) literature search based on the selected keywords; (ii) selection of the texts, considering the authors and time gap, in order to analyze the evolution of the research and (iii) collection and organization of the relevant topics for the study. This study aims to present the meanings, conceptualizations, and possible influences present in different models and for understand the evolution of the STEM and STEAM approaches over time. The main findings suggest a focus on the interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary approach as opposed to the primeval years of investigations in STEM and STEAM when many authors advocated a multidisciplinary approach. This change in thinking is due to the need to train students in an integral and holistic manner, developing citizens with transversal knowledge and skills prepared for the current societal challenges.

Roque, C., and H. Rocha Avaliação formativa com recurso à tecnologia [Formative assessment using technology]. SIEM. Almada, Portugal: APM, 2018. Abstract

The present study aims to understand the potentialities and implications,
to the teacher and her practice, of the use of formative assessment with the support
of educational technology.
Regarding the research methodology, this study is part of the research on own
practice. The participants were the teacher, who was simultaneously a researcher,
and the students of a 9th grade class.
In the course of this experience it was found that the use of formative assessment
allows, on the one hand, the student to realize what he manages to understand, and
what he has to do to overcome what are less consolidated parts of the content in
study; and, on the other, the teacher to detect in a timely manner the difficulties of
the student and to change strategies to allow the student to overcome his difficulties.
The lack of time, the difficulties in managing the curriculum and the existence of
national exams are three of the main obstacles mentioned by the teachers for the
non-realization of formative assessment. In this experience it was found that the use
of new technologies turns possible to overcome these limitations.
This type of assessment had a very positive impact on teacher’s practice and in the
learning of the students.
Keywords: assessment; formative assessment; new technologies.

Rocha, H. O formalismo matemático num contexto de utilização da tecnologia [Mathematical proof in a context of technology integration]. Atas do XXVI SIEM. Évora: APM, 2015. Abstract

The technology and how it tends to emphasize the intuitive and overshadow calculus and mathematical proof are the focus of this paper. The conclusions reached suggest that tasks where students might realize the usefulness of calculus as well as of more intuitive approaches are possible even when the technology is a reality in the classroom. They also suggest that proof may, among other things already identified in the literature, make an important contribution to the students’ understanding of fundamental aspects of mathematics.

A tecnologia e a forma como esta tende a enfatizar o intuitivo e a relegar para segundo plano o formal e a demonstração matemática são o foco deste artigo. As conclusões alcançadas sugerem que é possível colocar aos alunos situações onde estes se possam aperceber da vantagem de recorrer tanto a abordagens mais formais como a abordagens mais intuitivas e isto mesmo quando a tecnologia é uma realidade em sala de aula. Sugere ainda que a realização de demonstrações pode, entre outros aspectos já identificados na literatura, dar um contributo importante para a compreensão de aspectos basilares da Matemática.

Rocha, H. O formal da matemática e o intuitivo da tecnologia: que articulação?. Atas do ProfMat 2015. Évora, Portugal: APM, 2015. Abstractpaper.pdf

A tecnologia é cada vez mais indispensável no dia-a-dia, rodeando-nos constantemente. Para os nossos alunos é uma realidade que conhecem desde sempre e que tendem a encarar com uma naturalidade descontraída e intuitiva. A facilidade de acesso à tecnologia e o modo como esta tende a enfatizar o intuitivo e a relegar para segundo plano o formal e a demonstração matemática são o foco deste artigo. Partindo da análise de uma proposta de trabalho onde alunos de 10.º ano começam por uma abordagem intuitiva apoiada na calculadora gráfica e terminam a realizar uma demonstração da conjectura que formularam, procuro discutir a problemática. As conclusões alcançadas sugerem que é possível colocar aos alunos situações onde estes se podem aperceber da vantagem de recorrer tanto a abordagens mais formais como a abordagens mais intuitivas e isto mesmo quando a tecnologia é uma realidade em sala de aula. Sugere ainda que a realização de demonstrações pode, entre outros aspectos já identificados na literatura, dar um contributo importante para a compreensão de aspectos basilares da Matemática.

Rocha, H. "Mathematical proof: from mathematics to school mathematics." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 377.2140 (2019). AbstractWebsite

Proof plays a central role in developing, establishing, and communicating mathematical knowledge. Nevertheless it is not such a central element in school mathematics. This article discusses some issues involving mathematical proof in school, intending to characterize the understanding of mathematical proof in school, its function and the meaning and relevance attributed to the notion of simple proof. The main conclusions suggest that the idea of addressing mathematical proof at all levels of school is a recent idea that is not yet fully implemented in schools. It requires an adaptation of the understanding of proof to the age of the students, reducing the level of formality, and allowing the students to experience the different functions of proof and not only the function of verification. Among the different functions of proof, the function of explanation deserves special attention due to the illumination and empowerment that it can bring to the students and their learning. The way this function of proof relates to the notion of simple proof (and the related aesthetic issues) seems relevant enough to make it, in the future, a focus of attention for the teachers who address mathematical proof in the classroom.

Rocha, H. "Mathematical knowledge for teaching with technology: episodes of one teacher’s practice - Conhecimento matemático para ensinar com tecnologia: episódios da prática de uma professora." Educação Matemática Debate. 5.11 (2021): 1-22. AbstractWebsite

Research has highlighted the potential of technology to transform the teaching of Mathematics, but also the relevance of teachers and their professional knowledge. In this article, a qualitative methodology is adopted and two episodes of the practice of one teacher are analyzed in the scope of the study of functions in the 10th grade, based on the model of Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT). The goal is to characterize the teacher's knowledge from her practice, simultaneously understanding how this contributes to promoting the development of the teacher's knowledge. The conclusions reached show the importance of including in the KTMT conception aspects highlighted by the research on technology integration. These aspects are determinant to characterize the teacher's knowledge. They also show the relevance of the practice for the development of the teacher's knowledge and the dynamic character of the vision of knowledge offered by KTMT.

Rocha, H. Different representations in mathematics teaching with technology. Proceedings of the 38th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Vancouver, Canada: PME, 2014. Abstract

The main focus of this paper is the teacher’s representational fluency in a context of graphing calculator use. The conclusions reached point to a more intensive use of some representations over the others, suggesting that technology turns numerical or tabular representation into two different representations.

Rocha, H., and I. Oitavem. "Barcodes: The Mathematics of everyday life." The Scottish Mathematical Council Journal. 49 (2019).Website
Rocha, H. The influence of teacher’s knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology on the implementation of investigation tasks. Proceedings of 8th International Technology, Education and Development Conference. Valencia, Spain: INTED, 2014.
Rocha, H. Consensos e dilemas no ensino de matemática a alunos de um curso de Decoração e Pintura Cerâmica. Atas do VI Seminário Luso-Brasileiro Educação, Trabalho e Movimentos Sociais. Lisboa, Portugal: IE-UL, 2014. Abstractpaper.pdf

A Matemática é uma das áreas que integra o plano curricular dos Cursos de Educação e Formação (CEF), pelo contributo para o exercício da cidadania em sociedades democráticas e tecnologicamente avançadas, mas esta é, também, frequentemente fonte de exclusão. O programa reconhece-o e enfatiza uma aprendizagem mais ligada ao concreto e à realidade. Mas reconhece também que é ao professor que compete gerir a sua implementação, dando forma às situações de aprendizagem e integrando-as de forma coerente e articulada no curso específico que os alunos frequentam. O estudo que aqui se apresenta teve como principal objectivo analisar e compreender as opções efectuadas pelo professor no decorrer das diferentes etapas da sua prática, dando atenção aos dilemas que enfrentou e às razões que valorizou na tomada de decisões. A abordagem metodológica adoptada é de natureza qualitativa e interpretativa, com a realização dum estudo de caso do professor de Matemática Aplicada dum CEF de Decoração e Pintura Cerâmica. A recolha de dados foi concretizada através de entrevistas, observação de aulas e recolha documental, sendo a análise de dados orientada pelo quadro teórico, conciliado com a interpretação destes. Nas conclusões do estudo a redução dos pré-requisitos, a preocupação em partir dos interesses dos alunos e a intenção de alargar a cultura dos alunos surgem como centrais na selecção das tarefas; enquanto o envolvimento activo dos alunos caracteriza a implementação das aulas. Os dilemas centram-se fundamentalmente na valorização relativa e aprofundamento a atribuir a cada conteúdo e na articulação entre formal e intuitivo.

Rocha, H. A perspectiva de futuros professores sobre a demonstração matemática. XV Congresso Internacional Galego-Portugués de Psicopedagogia. Corunha, Espanha: Asociación Científica Internacional de Psicopedagogía, 2019. Abstract

The mathematical proof is assumed as a central element in the development of Mathematics. However, proof is conceived in different ways and assumed as having different functions in Mathematics. And when we move from mathematics to its teaching, the multiplicity of perspectives becomes even more significant. This diversity can have an impact on the students and on the relationship they establish with Mathematics. In these circumstances, this study seeks knowledge over the perspectives of future teachers regarding the mathematical demonstration. Specifically, it intends to achieve a deeper knowledge over the future teachers’ perspectives about what is a mathematical proof and about its functions. The study adopts a qualitative approach and uses interviews to collect data. The conclusions reached point to a traditional perspective of mathematical proof, closely tied to mathematical formalism and the validation function, where the teaching context introduces some changes, adjusting the formalism to the level of the students and highlighting the understanding function of proof, but maintaining the dominant character of the algebraic language.

Rocha, H. "Pre-service teachers’ knowledge and the use of different technologies to teach Mathematics." Perspectives and Trends in Education and Technology. Springer, 2022. 505-515. Abstract

Teachers are central to the choice of tasks proposed to the students. And the teachers’ knowledge is one of the important elements guiding these choices. Despite the different models that conceptualize the teachers’ knowledge to integrate technology in their practices, research has focused essentially on the integration of a single technology. Little is known about how the work with different technologies can contribute to promote the development of the professional knowledge of pre-service teachers (PTs) or how the use of different technologies mobilizes different domains of the PTs’ knowledge. The main goal of this study is to deepen the understanding about the relation between the PTs’ Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) and their choice of tasks. The study adopts a qualitative and in-terpretative methodology based on one case study. The main conclusions suggest a strong impact of the PTs’ Learning and Teaching Technology Knowledge (a knowledge related to the impact of technology on the teaching and learning process) and a not so strong impact of their Mathematical and Technological Knowledge (a knowledge related to the impact of technology on the mathematical knowledge). The conclusions also point to the potential of the work with different technologies to deepen the PTs reflections and analysis of tasks.

Rocha, H. Teachers’ use of graphing calculators in high school mathematics classroom. Proceedings of CERME 7 – Seventh Congress of European Research in Mathematics Education. Rzezów, Poland: ERME, 2011.
Rocha, H. Uma proposta para análise do Conhecimento para Ensinar Matemática com a Tecnologia [A proposal to analyze the teacher's Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology]. XXVII SIEM. Porto, Portugal: APM, 2016. Abstract

The teacher’s knowledge has long been viewed as a strong influence on the students’ learning. Several authors have sought to develop procedures to assess this knowledge, but this has proved to be a complex task. In this paper I present an outline of a conceptualization to analyze the teacher's knowledge, based on the model of the Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) and a set of tasks. These tasks are chosen by the teacher among the ones he prepared for his students taking into account the potential of the tasks to take advantage of the technology’s potential. The analyze of the teacher’s KTMT is based on the characteristics of the tasks chosen by the teacher; the balance established between the representations provided by the technology that the tasks advocate; the way how the tasks pay attention to the new issue of seeking for a suitable viewing window; and also the way how the tasks take into account the expectable difficulties of the students in the process of looking for the window.

Rocha, H. "Some factors impacting the teachers' assessment practices - Influências sobre as práticas de avaliação do professor." REIPE. E.10 (2017): 30-35. AbstractWebsite

The assessment and the role it should be assumed by the summative and formative component are often a reason for discussion. It is therefore important to understand how the teacher assessment practices are characterized and what influences them. That is, identify aspects taken into account when planning assessment; the (dis)continuities between assessment and learning; the divergences/consonances between assessment planned and implemented. The conclusions reached point to a strong influence of peers, to the assessment criteria of the school and to the students’ characteristics, in a scenario where the test is the dominant element in assessment.

Rocha, H. Interdisciplinary tasks: pre-service teachers’ choice and approach. ATEE Winter Conference - Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

This study focusses on the criteria used by pre-service teachers of Mathematics to choose interdisciplinary tasks. The pre-service teachers’ knowledge is assumed as the basis of the actions taken and used as the origin of the choices and approaches observed. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology and the data were collected using class observation and interviews. The analysis is guided by the Application and Pedagogical Content Knowledge, a model inspired on TPACK (from Mishra and Koehler) and MKT (from Ball and colleagues). The conclusions point to an appreciation of the mathematical part of the tasks and to a devaluation of the remaining components. This suggests difficulty in articulating and integrating different domains of knowledge and points to a fragmented view of the potential of using mathematical applications.

Rocha, H., P. Palhares, and M. Botelho From classroom teaching to distance learning: the experience of Portuguese mathematics teachers. INTED - 15th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference. IATED, 2021.
Rocha, H. Aspectos da utilização da tecnologia no ensino da Matemática. Actas do XII Congresso Internacional Galego-Português de Psicopedagogia. Braga, Portugal: CIEd - IEUM, 2013. Abstract

O potencial da tecnologia para o ensino e a aprendizagem é há muito reconhecido. Contudo, cada vez mais surgem estudos que indiciam que a sua utilização fica aquém das expectativas. O acesso à tecnologia, o papel que lhe é atribuído na aprendizagem e as características das tarefas em que é utilizada, encontram-se entre as principais influências identificadas sobre a utilização que é feita da tecnologia e potencialmente responsáveis pelas características dessa utilização. O estudo que aqui se apresenta teve como principal objectivo analisar e compreender a utilização que os professores fazem da tecnologia à luz dos aspectos referidos, procurando identificar de que forma estes definem diferentes tipos de utilização. A abordagem metodológica adoptada foi de natureza qualitativa e interpretativa, com a realização de estudos de caso de duas professoras de Matemática que utilizavam a calculadora gráfica. A recolha de dados foi concretizada através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, observação de aulas e recolha documental, sendo a análise de dados orientada pelo quadro teórico, conciliado com a interpretação destes. As conclusões do estudo sugerem alguma diversidade tanto nas características das tarefas em que as professoras recorrem à tecnologia (exercícios, explorações, problemas, modelação de situações reais), como no papel que lhe é atribuído (obter informação, efectuar cálculos, experimentar), mas apontam também para uma diversidade com características que se traduzem em perfis de utilização da tecnologia distintos: um mais exploratório e outro mais prescritivo.