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2020
Rocha, H. "Using tasks to develop pre-service teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics with digital technology." ZDM Mathematics Education. 52.7 (2020): 1381-1396. AbstractWebsite

Teacher education is central to the development of the professional knowledge of pre-service teachers. The main goal of this paper is to refect on the development that the analysis (done by a group of pre-service secondary teachers) of a set of tasks, based on elements related to domains of KTMT—Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology—can bring to the knowledge of pre-service teachers of mathematics. Specifcally, the goal was to investigate the following questions: (1) What are the factors that guide the pre-service teachers’ task discussion? (2) Which KTMT domains are emphasized by pre-service teachers during task discussion? The elements taken into account are the characteristics of the tasks (focus on cognitive level, structuring level and technology role), the use of representations (focus on balance and articulation of representations), and the equilibrium between experimentation (focus on digital technology afordances) and justifcation (focus on argumentation and proof). The methodology of this case study involves a qualitative approach. The main conclusions suggest that infuences in the pre-service teachers’ discussion of tasks fell into the following categories: the potentialities of technology, the type of tasks, and the prospective teachers’ experience with a set of tasks, and analysis of some real students’ reports. With regard to KTMT, although it was possible to identify some global development, Teaching and Learning and Technology Knowledge was the domain in which stronger development took place.

2019
Rocha, H. As diferentes representações de funções e a compreensão de alunos do ensino secundário num contexto de integração da tecnologia. XV Congresso Internacional Galego-Portugués de Psicopedagogia. Corunha, Espanha: Asociación Científica Internacional de Psicopedagogía, 2019. Abstract

The different representations of functions are assumed as central on the development of the concept of function. Being widely recognized the complexity of this concept, the different representations allow the student to understand in a representation what could not be understood in another representation. And the integration of technology into the teaching and learning process provides an easy and quick way to access different representations. This study intends to analyse the understanding of upper secondary students about the information transmitted by each of the representations of functions usually available on technology. Specifically, it intends to understand which transitions between representations are more easily understood by the students and which ones are more difficult to perform. It also intended to identify some aspects that may contribute to this. This study adopts a quantitative methodology in which the answers given by a class to a test focused on the transition from one representation to another are analysed; and a qualitative methodology based on interviews to three of the students in the class, as a way of seeking comprehension about their answers. The results achieved suggest a greater ease of understanding associated to the graphical representation and a greater difficulty associated to the tabular representation. The reasons for this seem to be related to the specific characteristics of each representation, but fundamentally with aspects related to the experiences lived by the students on the mathematics classes, being the integration of technology an influence not to neglect.

Rocha, H., and I. Oitavem. "Barcodes: The Mathematics of everyday life." The Scottish Mathematical Council Journal. 49 (2019).Website
Rocha, H. Desenvolver o conhecimento de futuros professores sobre as características das tarefas e o papel que a tecnologia pode assumir nestas. SIEM. Castelo Branco, Portugal: APM, 2019. Abstract

The main goal of this work is to characterize how the knowledge of pre-service teachers about the characteristics of the tasks and the role of technology evolves. Based on a case study carried out around a pair of pre-service teachers, the main conclusions point to the contribution of the reflection around a set of six tasks on Functions selected by the pre-service teachers. Central to this reflection was an analyze of the role technology can play in tasks, the comments made by the colleagues to their tasks and some experiences on modeling and open-ended tasks. These elements provided the development of a greater awareness regarding aspects such as the level of structuring of the task and its degree of challenge. And this was determinant for an appropriation of the different characteristics of the tasks and to the development of the pre-service teachers’ knowledge.

Rocha, H. The impact of technology on the teachers’ use of different representations. CERME. Utrecht, Holanda: ERME, 2019. Abstract

The potential of using different representations is widely recognized, but not much is known about how teachers use them nor about the impact of the technology on such use. The goal of this study is to characterize the teachers’ representational fluency when teaching functions at high school level, discussing, at the same time, the impact in the use of representations resulting from the use of technology. Adopting a qualitative approach, I analyze one teacher’s practice. The results suggest that algebraic and graphical representations are seen as more important, that tabular representation is assumed as irrelevant and that the access to technology impacts the learning, the representations used and how they are used.

Rocha, H. Interdisciplinary tasks: pre-service teachers’ choice and approach. ATEE Winter Conference - Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

This study focusses on the criteria used by pre-service teachers of Mathematics to choose interdisciplinary tasks. The pre-service teachers’ knowledge is assumed as the basis of the actions taken and used as the origin of the choices and approaches observed. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology and the data were collected using class observation and interviews. The analysis is guided by the Application and Pedagogical Content Knowledge, a model inspired on TPACK (from Mishra and Koehler) and MKT (from Ball and colleagues). The conclusions point to an appreciation of the mathematical part of the tasks and to a devaluation of the remaining components. This suggests difficulty in articulating and integrating different domains of knowledge and points to a fragmented view of the potential of using mathematical applications.

Rocha, H. "Mathematical proof: from mathematics to school mathematics." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 377.2140 (2019). AbstractWebsite

Proof plays a central role in developing, establishing, and communicating mathematical knowledge. Nevertheless it is not such a central element in school mathematics. This article discusses some issues involving mathematical proof in school, intending to characterize the understanding of mathematical proof in school, its function and the meaning and relevance attributed to the notion of simple proof. The main conclusions suggest that the idea of addressing mathematical proof at all levels of school is a recent idea that is not yet fully implemented in schools. It requires an adaptation of the understanding of proof to the age of the students, reducing the level of formality, and allowing the students to experience the different functions of proof and not only the function of verification. Among the different functions of proof, the function of explanation deserves special attention due to the illumination and empowerment that it can bring to the students and their learning. The way this function of proof relates to the notion of simple proof (and the related aesthetic issues) seems relevant enough to make it, in the future, a focus of attention for the teachers who address mathematical proof in the classroom.

Viseu, F., P. Mendes, and H. Rocha The notion of function by basic education preservice teachers. ATEE Winter Conference ‘Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

The current curricular guidelines for mathematics education in Portugal emphasize the relevance of working with different representations of functions to promote understanding. Given this relevance, we seek understanding about the notion of function held by 37 basic education pre-service teachers in their first year of a master’s course. Data were collected through a task focusing on identifying functions in situations based on different representations. The content analysis technique was then adopted in the search for an understanding of the justifications given by the participants. The results achieved suggest it is easier for the pre-service teachers to identify examples that are not functions than examples that are functions. There is also a tendency for greater accuracy in the identification of examples expressed by tables than by algebraic expressions. The justifications presented show a notion of function as a relation between values of two non-empty sets, but without guaranteeing that this relation is single-valued.

Caneco, R., and H. Rocha O uso de exemplos na demonstração: um estudo com alunos do 11.º ano. SIEM. Castelo Branco, Portugal: APM, 2019. Abstract

This article focuses the choice and use of examples by two students of the 11th grade to prove or refute a set of statements. The use of representations of sequences and functions is also considered. The study adopts a qualitative approach and data were collected by interviews and documental gathering. The conclusions suggest most of the examples used were well-known sequences or functions. However, the students sought different purposes for the use of examples, such as understanding the conjecture, demonstrate the falsity or truthfulness of the statement and conveying a general argument. The students made a satisfactory articulation between the various types of representations but relied mostly in the cartesian graph.

Rocha, H. A perspectiva de futuros professores sobre a demonstração matemática. XV Congresso Internacional Galego-Portugués de Psicopedagogia. Corunha, Espanha: Asociación Científica Internacional de Psicopedagogía, 2019. Abstract

The mathematical proof is assumed as a central element in the development of Mathematics. However, proof is conceived in different ways and assumed as having different functions in Mathematics. And when we move from mathematics to its teaching, the multiplicity of perspectives becomes even more significant. This diversity can have an impact on the students and on the relationship they establish with Mathematics. In these circumstances, this study seeks knowledge over the perspectives of future teachers regarding the mathematical demonstration. Specifically, it intends to achieve a deeper knowledge over the future teachers’ perspectives about what is a mathematical proof and about its functions. The study adopts a qualitative approach and uses interviews to collect data. The conclusions reached point to a traditional perspective of mathematical proof, closely tied to mathematical formalism and the validation function, where the teaching context introduces some changes, adjusting the formalism to the level of the students and highlighting the understanding function of proof, but maintaining the dominant character of the algebraic language.

Rocha, H. Pre-service teachers’ knowledge: impact on the integration of mathematical applications on the teaching of mathematics. ATEE Winter Conference - Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

Mathematics is present everywhere. However, uncovering the relevance of Mathematics requires, from the teachers, a special kind of knowledge. This study tries to characterize the knowledge used by pre-service teachers when developing a mathematical task intending to promote the students’ exploration of barcodes. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology and the data were collected using class observation and interviews. The analysis is guided by the Application and Pedagogical Content Knowledge, a model inspired on TPACK (from Mishra and Koehler) and MKT (from Ball and colleagues). The conclusions point to some difficulties to see the potential of the situation to promote mathematical learning. The knowledge on the mathematical content seems to be dominant on the options assumed and operated in a rigid way that prevent the pre-service teachers from exploring the richness of the situation on the tasks they developed.

2018
Roque, C., and H. Rocha Avaliação formativa com recurso à tecnologia [Formative assessment using technology]. SIEM. Almada, Portugal: APM, 2018. Abstract

The present study aims to understand the potentialities and implications,
to the teacher and her practice, of the use of formative assessment with the support
of educational technology.
Regarding the research methodology, this study is part of the research on own
practice. The participants were the teacher, who was simultaneously a researcher,
and the students of a 9th grade class.
In the course of this experience it was found that the use of formative assessment
allows, on the one hand, the student to realize what he manages to understand, and
what he has to do to overcome what are less consolidated parts of the content in
study; and, on the other, the teacher to detect in a timely manner the difficulties of
the student and to change strategies to allow the student to overcome his difficulties.
The lack of time, the difficulties in managing the curriculum and the existence of
national exams are three of the main obstacles mentioned by the teachers for the
non-realization of formative assessment. In this experience it was found that the use
of new technologies turns possible to overcome these limitations.
This type of assessment had a very positive impact on teacher’s practice and in the
learning of the students.
Keywords: assessment; formative assessment; new technologies.

Rocha, H. Demonstração matemática versus demonstração no ensino da Matemática – a perspetiva de professores [Mathematical proof versus proof on mathematics teaching – the teachers’ point of view]. SIEM. Almada, Portugal: APM, 2018. Abstract

This study intends to analyze the perspectives of teachers of different levels regarding proof and its functions in Mathematics and Mathematics teaching. Adopting a methodology of a qualitative nature, and based on interviews, the perspectives of teachers of upper secondary, higher education and training teachers of Mathematics were collected. The conclusions reached suggest that teachers seem to share a formal conception of mathematical proof, recognizing the need to introduce some simplification when considering proof in Mathematics teaching as well as the importance of their functions of validation, contribution to learning and even a cultural function.

Martinho, H., and H. Rocha. "A escrita matemática e a intuição em Geometria [Mathematical writting and intuition in geometry]." Educação e Matemática. 149-150 (2018): 34-38.Website
Rocha, H., and F. Viseu O ensino de Funções no 3.º ciclo e no ensino secundário: que diferenças? [Teaching Functions at lower and upper secondary: what is different?]. EIEM. Coimbra: SPIEM, 2018. Abstract

Neste estudo analisamos as perceções que professores do 3.º ciclo e do ensino secundário têm da sua prática no âmbito do ensino de Funções, com o objetivo de as caracterizar e de identificar as diferenças existentes entre estes dois grupos de professores. Um aspeto particularmente relevante se tivermos em conta que se tratam de dois grupos de professores com formações iniciais idênticas. Adotamos uma metodologia mista, com uma vertente quantitativa apoiada na aplicação de questionários e uma vertente qualitativa baseada na realização de entrevistas. As principais conclusões alcançadas apontam para semelhanças nas perceções dos professores, mas também para algumas diferenças em função do ciclo de ensino. Na planificação das aulas os manuais são amplamente utilizados, mas de forma diferente consoante o ciclo de ensino do professor. Os professores de ambos os ciclos de ensino estabelecem conexões entre diferentes representações, mas valorizam de diferentes formas as representações disponíveis. O envolvimento dos alunos nas atividades da aula é outro aspeto destacado pelos professores, mas uma vez mais existem diferenças. Na avaliação o recurso ao teste é enfatizado pelos dois grupos de professores, mas já existem diferenças quanto à importância atribuída ao trabalho de grupo.

Rocha, H., and P. Teixeira O professor e a aula de Matemática [The teacher and the Mathematics class]. EIEM. Coimbra: SPIEM, 2018. Abstract

A formação e o desenvolvimento profissional do professor são determinantes para as opções que este assume na sala de aula. É o seu conhecimento, aquilo que valoriza e o contexto onde se encontra inserido que determinam as experiências de aprendizagem que proporciona aos seus alunos. Mas esse conhecimento profissional envolve uma multiplicidade de dimensões que decorrem da sua formação inicial e contínua, mas também das experiências que teve ocasião de vivenciar e de processos de socialização, onde a interação com os pares e as oportunidades de desenvolver trabalho colaborativo são elementos importantes. A aula de matemática surge assim como o campo aglutinador do trabalho do professor numa dupla vertente que se une num ciclo único: por um lado a aula de Matemática é o foco do trabalho do professor, onde as opções previamente assumidas são implementadas; e, por outro lado, é um ponto de partida para a reflexão e o desenvolvimento profissional do professor.

Da planificação da aula, onde a escolha das tarefas e a forma de as implementar são aspetos centrais e onde a vertente histórica não deixará de estar presente; à sua implementação, operacionalizando diferentes recursos (nomeadamente os tecnológicos) e assumindo dinâmicas de aula diferenciadas; até à fase de reflexão entre pares, que termina e reinicia um novo ciclo – estas são as grandes etapas em torno das quais este texto se organiza e onde a formação inicial e contínua não deixarão de estar presentes.

Viseu, F., and H. Rocha. "Perceptions of mathematics teachers on the teaching of functions and on the use of technological materials - Perceções de professores de matemática sobre o ensino de funções e sobre o uso de materiais tecnológicos." Educação Matemática Pesquisa. 20.2 (2018): 113-139. AbstractWebsite

This study intends to understand the perceptions of mathematics teachers from lower and upper secondary regarding the teaching of Functions and the use of technological materials. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire and four teachers through an interview. The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the teaching level of lower or upper secondary. In the teaching of Functions, textbooks are widely used, but differently depending on the level being taught. The same happens with the representations and with the use that is made of the technologies. Involvement of students in work is another aspect considered important, but again there are differences. The assessment also has similarities, but differs in the valuation ascribed to group work.

Rocha, H., and F. Viseu Teachers’ perspectives on the use of technology to teach Functions at lower and upper secondary. Proceedings of the 5th ERME Topic Conference - MEDA 2018. Copenhagen, Denmark: ERME, 2018. Abstractmeda_rocha_2018.pdf

This study aims to understand the perceptions of lower and upper secondary age teachers of mathematics regarding the use of technology to teach functions. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire (quantitative section) and four teachers through an interview (qualitative section). The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the level that they taught. Teachers show conviction about their knowledge on technology and about the potential of technology in what concerns their teaching and the students’ learning. However, they are not so clear about the best way to articulate technology and paper-and-pencil methods, nor about the use of technology in assessment.

2017
Rocha, H. Analyzing the teacher’s knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology. ICTMT. Lyon, France, 2017. Abstract

The teacher’s knowledge has long been viewed as a strong influence on the students’ learning. Several authors have sought to develop procedures to assess this knowledge, but this has proved to be a complex task. In this paper I present an outline of a conceptualization to analyze the teacher's knowledge, based on the model of the Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) and a set of tasks. These tasks are chosen by the teacher taking into account the potential of the tasks to take advantage of the technology’s potential. The analysis of the teacher’s KTMT is based on the characteristics of the tasks chosen by the teacher; the balance established between the representations provided by the technology that the tasks advocate; the way how the tasks pay attention to the new issue of seeking for a suitable viewing window; and also the way how the tasks take into account the expectable difficulties of the students in the process of looking for the window.

Martinho, H., and H. Rocha A escrita matemática na resolução de um problema de geometria por alunos de licenciatura em Educação Básica [Mathematical writing in solving a geometry problem by undergraduate students in Basic Education]. EIEM. Lisboa, Portugal: SPIEM, 2017. Abstract

Apesar da escrita ter, habitualmente, uma maior expressão no ensino da Matemática que a própria oralidade, os alunos não estão habituados a explicitar raciocínios e a utilizar linguagem matemática apropriada. A comunicação matemática escrita tem algumas particularidades que podem ser diretamente trabalhadas com os alunos. Por exemplo, a escrita ajuda os alunos a dar sentido à Matemática e a melhorar o próprio discurso. As produções dos alunos transportam informações para o professor contribuindo para a planificação e concretização da sua prática profissional. Assim, e apesar de frequentemente ser descurada, a escrita matemática pode ser trabalhada na sala de aula, em particular, com futuros professores. Este artigo reporta parte de uma experiência realizada com uma turma da Licenciatura em Educação Básica, tendo por base a resolução em grupo de um problema de Geometria e o registo escrito do processo de resolução elaborado pelos alunos. Pretendeu-se desta forma caraterizar a comunicação escrita dos alunos e identificar contributos desta para a compreensão por parte do professor dos conhecimentos dos alunos. A análise da escrita matemática dos alunos, tendo por base um conjunto de critérios previamente definidos, permitiu identificar a preferência destes pelo recurso à representação verbal, dificuldades em fundamentar adequadamente as respostas apresentadas e uma forte tendência para desvalorizar as abordagens prévias que não conduziram à resposta ao problema. Permitiu ainda identificar uma tendência para não explicitar o entendimento das questões que lhes eram colocadas. A forma como os conceitos matemáticos surgem nas repostas escritas permite identificar aspetos relevantes do conhecimento dos alunos.

Rocha, H. "Moving from one representation to another: different ways of doing it, different mathematical learning." The Scottish Mathematical Council Journal. 47 (2017): 40-48.Website
Rocha, H. O professor e a fidelidade matemática da calculadora gráfica no estudo de Funções [The teacher and the mathematical fidelity of the graphing calculator in the study of Functions]. XXVIII SIEM. Viseu, Portugal: APM, 2017. Abstract

The teacher's knowledge of the mathematical fidelity of technology and the impact it has on the teacher’s practice is the focus of this article. Based on the conceptualization of Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT), and involving the teaching of Functions at the 10th grade, we analyze: the situations of lack of mathematical fidelity considered by the teacher in the classes, the way how the teacher manages students' contact with this kind of situations, and how the teacher supports students when they are faced with a lack of mathematical fidelity. The conclusions reached point to: some devaluation of the situations of lack of mathematical fidelity, with only one type of situation being explicitly addressed; a careful selection of tasks, in order to ensure that these situations do not occur too soon; a focus on the identification by the students of this type of situation, suggesting what they can do to confirm the suspicion but without effective implementation of the process. As a consequence, knowledge of mathematical fidelity does not necessarily have a relevant impact on teacher’s practice and it is not easily transformed into a deep teacher’s KTMT.

Babo, A., and H. Rocha. "Problem solving in linear programming: a study in a vocational course - Resolução de problemas de Programação Linear: um estudo no ensino profissional." Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación. E.1 (2017): 41-46. Abstract

The development of meaningful learning becomes possible when students are actively involved in solving real problems. Thus, this study intends to investigate how students of the 11th grade of a vocational course solve problems of Linear Programming, using the graphing calculator. The conclusions reached indicate that: the interpretation of the conditions of the problems is the most delicate point; the graphical approach using technology is dominant; and the difficulties raised by the problem as well as the need to discuss the results achieved are the basis for the interactions both among the students and between them and the teacher.

Rocha, H. "Some factors impacting the teachers' assessment practices - Influências sobre as práticas de avaliação do professor." REIPE. E.10 (2017): 30-35. AbstractWebsite

The assessment and the role it should be assumed by the summative and formative component are often a reason for discussion. It is therefore important to understand how the teacher assessment practices are characterized and what influences them. That is, identify aspects taken into account when planning assessment; the (dis)continuities between assessment and learning; the divergences/consonances between assessment planned and implemented. The conclusions reached point to a strong influence of peers, to the assessment criteria of the school and to the students’ characteristics, in a scenario where the test is the dominant element in assessment.

Rocha, H. "Teacher knowledge and the teaching of statistics using a graphing calculator - Conhecimento profissional e ensino de estatística com recurso à calculadora gráfica." REIPE. E.6 (2017): 96-100. AbstractWebsite

Teaching statistics is often based on an approach focused on teaching theoretical aspects, disconnected from
practical relevance and from interpretation of results, and where the use of technology lies behind its potential. In
this context, it is important to analyze how the teachers’ knowledge is characterized and to identify aspects of this
knowledge that mark the professional practice. The conclusions reached emphasize the impact of content
knowledge and its influence on knowledge of content and teaching. Knowledge of curriculum is also relevant, as
well as the way how it seems to prevent the development of other types of knowledge.