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2019
Viseu, F., P. Mendes, and H. Rocha The notion of function by basic education preservice teachers. ATEE Winter Conference ‘Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

The current curricular guidelines for mathematics education in Portugal emphasize the relevance of working with different representations of functions to promote understanding. Given this relevance, we seek understanding about the notion of function held by 37 basic education pre-service teachers in their first year of a master’s course. Data were collected through a task focusing on identifying functions in situations based on different representations. The content analysis technique was then adopted in the search for an understanding of the justifications given by the participants. The results achieved suggest it is easier for the pre-service teachers to identify examples that are not functions than examples that are functions. There is also a tendency for greater accuracy in the identification of examples expressed by tables than by algebraic expressions. The justifications presented show a notion of function as a relation between values of two non-empty sets, but without guaranteeing that this relation is single-valued.

Caneco, R., and H. Rocha O uso de exemplos na demonstração: um estudo com alunos do 11.º ano. SIEM. Castelo Branco, Portugal: APM, 2019. Abstract

This article focuses the choice and use of examples by two students of the 11th grade to prove or refute a set of statements. The use of representations of sequences and functions is also considered. The study adopts a qualitative approach and data were collected by interviews and documental gathering. The conclusions suggest most of the examples used were well-known sequences or functions. However, the students sought different purposes for the use of examples, such as understanding the conjecture, demonstrate the falsity or truthfulness of the statement and conveying a general argument. The students made a satisfactory articulation between the various types of representations but relied mostly in the cartesian graph.

Rocha, H. A perspectiva de futuros professores sobre a demonstração matemática. XV Congresso Internacional Galego-Portugués de Psicopedagogia. Corunha, Espanha: Asociación Científica Internacional de Psicopedagogía, 2019. Abstract

The mathematical proof is assumed as a central element in the development of Mathematics. However, proof is conceived in different ways and assumed as having different functions in Mathematics. And when we move from mathematics to its teaching, the multiplicity of perspectives becomes even more significant. This diversity can have an impact on the students and on the relationship they establish with Mathematics. In these circumstances, this study seeks knowledge over the perspectives of future teachers regarding the mathematical demonstration. Specifically, it intends to achieve a deeper knowledge over the future teachers’ perspectives about what is a mathematical proof and about its functions. The study adopts a qualitative approach and uses interviews to collect data. The conclusions reached point to a traditional perspective of mathematical proof, closely tied to mathematical formalism and the validation function, where the teaching context introduces some changes, adjusting the formalism to the level of the students and highlighting the understanding function of proof, but maintaining the dominant character of the algebraic language.

Rocha, H. Pre-service teachers’ knowledge: impact on the integration of mathematical applications on the teaching of mathematics. ATEE Winter Conference - Science and mathematics education in the 21st century. Brussels: ATEE and CIEd, 2019. Abstract

Mathematics is present everywhere. However, uncovering the relevance of Mathematics requires, from the teachers, a special kind of knowledge. This study tries to characterize the knowledge used by pre-service teachers when developing a mathematical task intending to promote the students’ exploration of barcodes. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology and the data were collected using class observation and interviews. The analysis is guided by the Application and Pedagogical Content Knowledge, a model inspired on TPACK (from Mishra and Koehler) and MKT (from Ball and colleagues). The conclusions point to some difficulties to see the potential of the situation to promote mathematical learning. The knowledge on the mathematical content seems to be dominant on the options assumed and operated in a rigid way that prevent the pre-service teachers from exploring the richness of the situation on the tasks they developed.

2018
Roque, C., and H. Rocha Avaliação formativa com recurso à tecnologia [Formative assessment using technology]. SIEM. Almada, Portugal: APM, 2018. Abstract

The present study aims to understand the potentialities and implications,
to the teacher and her practice, of the use of formative assessment with the support
of educational technology.
Regarding the research methodology, this study is part of the research on own
practice. The participants were the teacher, who was simultaneously a researcher,
and the students of a 9th grade class.
In the course of this experience it was found that the use of formative assessment
allows, on the one hand, the student to realize what he manages to understand, and
what he has to do to overcome what are less consolidated parts of the content in
study; and, on the other, the teacher to detect in a timely manner the difficulties of
the student and to change strategies to allow the student to overcome his difficulties.
The lack of time, the difficulties in managing the curriculum and the existence of
national exams are three of the main obstacles mentioned by the teachers for the
non-realization of formative assessment. In this experience it was found that the use
of new technologies turns possible to overcome these limitations.
This type of assessment had a very positive impact on teacher’s practice and in the
learning of the students.
Keywords: assessment; formative assessment; new technologies.

Rocha, H. Demonstração matemática versus demonstração no ensino da Matemática – a perspetiva de professores [Mathematical proof versus proof on mathematics teaching – the teachers’ point of view]. SIEM. Almada, Portugal: APM, 2018. Abstract

This study intends to analyze the perspectives of teachers of different levels regarding proof and its functions in Mathematics and Mathematics teaching. Adopting a methodology of a qualitative nature, and based on interviews, the perspectives of teachers of upper secondary, higher education and training teachers of Mathematics were collected. The conclusions reached suggest that teachers seem to share a formal conception of mathematical proof, recognizing the need to introduce some simplification when considering proof in Mathematics teaching as well as the importance of their functions of validation, contribution to learning and even a cultural function.

Martinho, H., and H. Rocha. "A escrita matemática e a intuição em Geometria [Mathematical writting and intuition in geometry]." Educação e Matemática. 149-150 (2018): 34-38.Website
Rocha, H., and F. Viseu O ensino de Funções no 3.º ciclo e no ensino secundário: que diferenças? [Teaching Functions at lower and upper secondary: what is different?]. EIEM. Coimbra: SPIEM, 2018. Abstract

Neste estudo analisamos as perceções que professores do 3.º ciclo e do ensino secundário têm da sua prática no âmbito do ensino de Funções, com o objetivo de as caracterizar e de identificar as diferenças existentes entre estes dois grupos de professores. Um aspeto particularmente relevante se tivermos em conta que se tratam de dois grupos de professores com formações iniciais idênticas. Adotamos uma metodologia mista, com uma vertente quantitativa apoiada na aplicação de questionários e uma vertente qualitativa baseada na realização de entrevistas. As principais conclusões alcançadas apontam para semelhanças nas perceções dos professores, mas também para algumas diferenças em função do ciclo de ensino. Na planificação das aulas os manuais são amplamente utilizados, mas de forma diferente consoante o ciclo de ensino do professor. Os professores de ambos os ciclos de ensino estabelecem conexões entre diferentes representações, mas valorizam de diferentes formas as representações disponíveis. O envolvimento dos alunos nas atividades da aula é outro aspeto destacado pelos professores, mas uma vez mais existem diferenças. Na avaliação o recurso ao teste é enfatizado pelos dois grupos de professores, mas já existem diferenças quanto à importância atribuída ao trabalho de grupo.

Rocha, H., and P. Teixeira O professor e a aula de Matemática [The teacher and the Mathematics class]. EIEM. Coimbra: SPIEM, 2018. Abstract

A formação e o desenvolvimento profissional do professor são determinantes para as opções que este assume na sala de aula. É o seu conhecimento, aquilo que valoriza e o contexto onde se encontra inserido que determinam as experiências de aprendizagem que proporciona aos seus alunos. Mas esse conhecimento profissional envolve uma multiplicidade de dimensões que decorrem da sua formação inicial e contínua, mas também das experiências que teve ocasião de vivenciar e de processos de socialização, onde a interação com os pares e as oportunidades de desenvolver trabalho colaborativo são elementos importantes. A aula de matemática surge assim como o campo aglutinador do trabalho do professor numa dupla vertente que se une num ciclo único: por um lado a aula de Matemática é o foco do trabalho do professor, onde as opções previamente assumidas são implementadas; e, por outro lado, é um ponto de partida para a reflexão e o desenvolvimento profissional do professor.

Da planificação da aula, onde a escolha das tarefas e a forma de as implementar são aspetos centrais e onde a vertente histórica não deixará de estar presente; à sua implementação, operacionalizando diferentes recursos (nomeadamente os tecnológicos) e assumindo dinâmicas de aula diferenciadas; até à fase de reflexão entre pares, que termina e reinicia um novo ciclo – estas são as grandes etapas em torno das quais este texto se organiza e onde a formação inicial e contínua não deixarão de estar presentes.

Viseu, F., and H. Rocha. "Perceptions of mathematics teachers on the teaching of functions and on the use of technological materials - Perceções de professores de matemática sobre o ensino de funções e sobre o uso de materiais tecnológicos." Educação Matemática Pesquisa. 20.2 (2018): 113-139. AbstractWebsite

This study intends to understand the perceptions of mathematics teachers from lower and upper secondary regarding the teaching of Functions and the use of technological materials. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire and four teachers through an interview. The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the teaching level of lower or upper secondary. In the teaching of Functions, textbooks are widely used, but differently depending on the level being taught. The same happens with the representations and with the use that is made of the technologies. Involvement of students in work is another aspect considered important, but again there are differences. The assessment also has similarities, but differs in the valuation ascribed to group work.

Rocha, H., and F. Viseu Teachers’ perspectives on the use of technology to teach Functions at lower and upper secondary. Proceedings of the 5th ERME Topic Conference - MEDA 2018. Copenhagen, Denmark: ERME, 2018. Abstractmeda_rocha_2018.pdf

This study aims to understand the perceptions of lower and upper secondary age teachers of mathematics regarding the use of technology to teach functions. For that, a mixed methodology was adopted, and the perceptions of 129 teachers were collected through a questionnaire (quantitative section) and four teachers through an interview (qualitative section). The main conclusions point to similarities in teachers' perceptions, but also to some differences related to the level that they taught. Teachers show conviction about their knowledge on technology and about the potential of technology in what concerns their teaching and the students’ learning. However, they are not so clear about the best way to articulate technology and paper-and-pencil methods, nor about the use of technology in assessment.

2017
Rocha, H. Analyzing the teacher’s knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology. ICTMT. Lyon, France, 2017. Abstract

The teacher’s knowledge has long been viewed as a strong influence on the students’ learning. Several authors have sought to develop procedures to assess this knowledge, but this has proved to be a complex task. In this paper I present an outline of a conceptualization to analyze the teacher's knowledge, based on the model of the Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) and a set of tasks. These tasks are chosen by the teacher taking into account the potential of the tasks to take advantage of the technology’s potential. The analysis of the teacher’s KTMT is based on the characteristics of the tasks chosen by the teacher; the balance established between the representations provided by the technology that the tasks advocate; the way how the tasks pay attention to the new issue of seeking for a suitable viewing window; and also the way how the tasks take into account the expectable difficulties of the students in the process of looking for the window.

Martinho, H., and H. Rocha A escrita matemática na resolução de um problema de geometria por alunos de licenciatura em Educação Básica [Mathematical writing in solving a geometry problem by undergraduate students in Basic Education]. EIEM. Lisboa, Portugal: SPIEM, 2017. Abstract

Apesar da escrita ter, habitualmente, uma maior expressão no ensino da Matemática que a própria oralidade, os alunos não estão habituados a explicitar raciocínios e a utilizar linguagem matemática apropriada. A comunicação matemática escrita tem algumas particularidades que podem ser diretamente trabalhadas com os alunos. Por exemplo, a escrita ajuda os alunos a dar sentido à Matemática e a melhorar o próprio discurso. As produções dos alunos transportam informações para o professor contribuindo para a planificação e concretização da sua prática profissional. Assim, e apesar de frequentemente ser descurada, a escrita matemática pode ser trabalhada na sala de aula, em particular, com futuros professores. Este artigo reporta parte de uma experiência realizada com uma turma da Licenciatura em Educação Básica, tendo por base a resolução em grupo de um problema de Geometria e o registo escrito do processo de resolução elaborado pelos alunos. Pretendeu-se desta forma caraterizar a comunicação escrita dos alunos e identificar contributos desta para a compreensão por parte do professor dos conhecimentos dos alunos. A análise da escrita matemática dos alunos, tendo por base um conjunto de critérios previamente definidos, permitiu identificar a preferência destes pelo recurso à representação verbal, dificuldades em fundamentar adequadamente as respostas apresentadas e uma forte tendência para desvalorizar as abordagens prévias que não conduziram à resposta ao problema. Permitiu ainda identificar uma tendência para não explicitar o entendimento das questões que lhes eram colocadas. A forma como os conceitos matemáticos surgem nas repostas escritas permite identificar aspetos relevantes do conhecimento dos alunos.

Rocha, H. "Moving from one representation to another: different ways of doing it, different mathematical learning." The Scottish Mathematical Council Journal. 47 (2017): 40-48.Website
Rocha, H. O professor e a fidelidade matemática da calculadora gráfica no estudo de Funções [The teacher and the mathematical fidelity of the graphing calculator in the study of Functions]. XXVIII SIEM. Viseu, Portugal: APM, 2017. Abstract

The teacher's knowledge of the mathematical fidelity of technology and the impact it has on the teacher’s practice is the focus of this article. Based on the conceptualization of Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT), and involving the teaching of Functions at the 10th grade, we analyze: the situations of lack of mathematical fidelity considered by the teacher in the classes, the way how the teacher manages students' contact with this kind of situations, and how the teacher supports students when they are faced with a lack of mathematical fidelity. The conclusions reached point to: some devaluation of the situations of lack of mathematical fidelity, with only one type of situation being explicitly addressed; a careful selection of tasks, in order to ensure that these situations do not occur too soon; a focus on the identification by the students of this type of situation, suggesting what they can do to confirm the suspicion but without effective implementation of the process. As a consequence, knowledge of mathematical fidelity does not necessarily have a relevant impact on teacher’s practice and it is not easily transformed into a deep teacher’s KTMT.

Babo, A., and H. Rocha. "Problem solving in linear programming: a study in a vocational course - Resolução de problemas de Programação Linear: um estudo no ensino profissional." Revista de Estudios e Investigación en Psicología y Educación. E.1 (2017): 41-46. Abstract

The development of meaningful learning becomes possible when students are actively involved in solving real problems. Thus, this study intends to investigate how students of the 11th grade of a vocational course solve problems of Linear Programming, using the graphing calculator. The conclusions reached indicate that: the interpretation of the conditions of the problems is the most delicate point; the graphical approach using technology is dominant; and the difficulties raised by the problem as well as the need to discuss the results achieved are the basis for the interactions both among the students and between them and the teacher.

Rocha, H. "Some factors impacting the teachers' assessment practices - Influências sobre as práticas de avaliação do professor." REIPE. E.10 (2017): 30-35. AbstractWebsite

The assessment and the role it should be assumed by the summative and formative component are often a reason for discussion. It is therefore important to understand how the teacher assessment practices are characterized and what influences them. That is, identify aspects taken into account when planning assessment; the (dis)continuities between assessment and learning; the divergences/consonances between assessment planned and implemented. The conclusions reached point to a strong influence of peers, to the assessment criteria of the school and to the students’ characteristics, in a scenario where the test is the dominant element in assessment.

Rocha, H. "Teacher knowledge and the teaching of statistics using a graphing calculator - Conhecimento profissional e ensino de estatística com recurso à calculadora gráfica." REIPE. E.6 (2017): 96-100. AbstractWebsite

Teaching statistics is often based on an approach focused on teaching theoretical aspects, disconnected from
practical relevance and from interpretation of results, and where the use of technology lies behind its potential. In
this context, it is important to analyze how the teachers’ knowledge is characterized and to identify aspects of this
knowledge that mark the professional practice. The conclusions reached emphasize the impact of content
knowledge and its influence on knowledge of content and teaching. Knowledge of curriculum is also relevant, as
well as the way how it seems to prevent the development of other types of knowledge.

2016
Lopes, S., and H. Rocha O jogo como promotor da comunicação e aprendizagem matemática [Games to promote communication and mathematical learning]. XXVII SIEM. Porto, Portugal: APM, 2016. Abstract

Games are commonly appointed as a methodological tool capable of promoting students’ effective learning. In this context, this study intends to analyze the impact of mathematical discussions developed while
playing a polynomial game. Namely it intends to analyze the impact on the consolidation of mathematical concepts previously worked in the classroom and on the communications skills. Two case studies where developed involving 10th grade students. Data gathering was based on direct observation and an inquiry. The main conclusions suggest that the game encouraged the discussion about the mathematical contents and therefore promoted the development of the mathematical discourse. Besides that, it allowed a deeper apprehension of mathematical concepts, and the overcome of some difficulties.

Coelho, E., and H. Rocha O raciocínio dedutivo de alunos do 10.º ano de escolaridade [The deductive reasoning of students in the 10th grade]. XXVII SIEM. Porto, Portugal: APM, 2016. Abstract

Deductive reasoning, being central in mathematics, is also usually a source of difficulties for students, more used to the empirical approaches. In this study we focus on mathematical proof and we try to give attention to how this kind of reasoning is envisaged by the students, to the options they assume when asked to develop a deductive reasoning and to the factors affecting the implementation of this kind of reasoning. The study follows a qualitative and interpretative methodological approach, including the completion of two case studies of students of the 10th grade. Data were collected in work sessions and through interviews. The main findings point to a devaluation of mathematical proof and a strong preference for empirical approaches. Yet students show ability to develop different approaches. The preference for the mathematical subject and the attention given in class to the deduction work, appears to be relevant factors when considering the students' ability to develop a deductive reasoning when involved on a mathematical proof.

Rocha, H. Teachers’ use of the different representations in a context of technology integration. Proceddings of 13th International Congress on Mathematical Education. Hamburg, Germany: ICME, 2016. Abstract

This study focus on the different representations provided by graphing calculators, intending to characterize how the teacher uses and integrates them on the process of teaching and learning functions at the secondary level. The methodology adopted is qualitative and interpretative, undertaking two case studies. The main conclusions point to different levels of flexibility in the use of the different representations depending on the teacher, but suggest a strong preference for the graphical and the algebraic representations, a use of the numerical representation based on the graph of the function and a total lack of use of the tabular representation.

Rocha, H. "Teacher’s representational fluency in a context of technology use." Teaching Mathematics and its Applications. 35.2 (2016): 53-64. AbstractWebsite

This study focuses on teacher’s Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT), paying a special attention to teacher’s representational fluency. It intends to characterize how the teacher uses and integrates the different representations provided by the graphing calculator on the process of teaching and learning functions at the high school level. Specifically, it intends to understand the balance established between the use of the different representations, and the way these representations are articulated. The study adopts a qualitative approach undertaking one teacher case study. Data were collected for two school years, at 10th and 11th grades, and included class observation, semi-structured interviews and documents gathering. Data analysis was mainly descriptive and interpretive in nature, considering the problem under study. The conclusions reached reveal an active use of the graphical and algebraic representations and a scarce use of the tabular representation. The lack of balance on the use of representations also includes the work within a representation. In this case the graphical representation is the only one that was explored. The conclusions also indicate a flexible articulation between the two representations usually used. It was possible to identify different patterns on the use of the representations and a frequent use of an interactive approach, marked by repeated alternations between representations. Globally, this study emphasizes teacher’s KTMT and raises questions about the impact of technology on teacher´s representational fluency and about the difference between a numerical and a tabular representation.

Rocha, H. Uma proposta para análise do Conhecimento para Ensinar Matemática com a Tecnologia [A proposal to analyze the teacher's Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology]. XXVII SIEM. Porto, Portugal: APM, 2016. Abstract

The teacher’s knowledge has long been viewed as a strong influence on the students’ learning. Several authors have sought to develop procedures to assess this knowledge, but this has proved to be a complex task. In this paper I present an outline of a conceptualization to analyze the teacher's knowledge, based on the model of the Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics with Technology (KTMT) and a set of tasks. These tasks are chosen by the teacher among the ones he prepared for his students taking into account the potential of the tasks to take advantage of the technology’s potential. The analyze of the teacher’s KTMT is based on the characteristics of the tasks chosen by the teacher; the balance established between the representations provided by the technology that the tasks advocate; the way how the tasks pay attention to the new issue of seeking for a suitable viewing window; and also the way how the tasks take into account the expectable difficulties of the students in the process of looking for the window.

Viseu, F., S. Campos, J. Fernandes, and H. Rocha. "The use of graphing calculator in the exploration of nonlinear continuous models." Revemat. 11.2 (2016): 79-98. AbstractWebsite

The integration of the graphing calculator in mathematical activity encourages students to express many of their processes and ways of thinking. Since some of the activities at the high school level are carried out with the graphing calculator, we intend to investigate the contribution of this resource to promote the learning of nonlinear continuous models in the 11th grade. By adopting a qualitative methodology, we collected and analysed the students‟ writing productions. At first, students used to present the information given by the calculator with no justification. As they acquire skills in the use of this resource, they usually set up the viewing window in order to visualize the graphical representations of functions that model the problem situation they are working on and also relate the different existing menus in the study of those functions characteristics. Such procedures make students to present the data collected in the calculator with a justification of their arguments and a validation of their conjectures.

2015
Botelho, M., and H. Rocha Aspectos da comunicação matemática na resolução de problemas. Atas do XXVI SIEM. Évora, Portugal: APM, 2015. Abstract

The influence of mathematical communication over the students’ learning led to this research, whose main goal is to understand the impact on problem solving of the students’ communication difficulties. The study adopts a qualitative and interpretative methodology, undertaking two case studies of 10th grade students. The reached conclusions point to the students’ difficulties at the interpretation of the problem, namely at the interpretation of figures, and at the interpretation of the available data, especially when part of them is irrelevant to the problem. Some difficulties were also identified at the communication level, in relation to the arguments used by the students to support their ideas, where a clear preference to restrict them to mathematic calculations was identified.

Resumo
A importância da comunicação matemática sobre a aprendizagem dos alunos, levou à realização desta investigação que pretendeu compreender o impacto sobre a resolução de problemas das dificuldades de comunicação evidenciadas pelos alunos. Optou-se por uma metodologia de natureza qualitativa e interpretativa e pela realização de estudos de caso envolvendo dois alunos do 10.º ano. As conclusões alcançadas apontam para dificuldades na interpretação do enunciado, nomeadamente relativamente às figuras e a dados em quantidade superior ao necessário. Também ao nível da comunicação da resolução foram identificadas dificuldades em fundamentar ideias, evidenciando uma preferência pelo recurso ao cálculo.