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Fliedel, Christophe, Vitor Rosa, Filipa M. Alves, Ana. M. Martins, Teresa Aviles, and Samuel Dagorne. "{P,O-Phosphinophenolate zinc(II) species: synthesis, structure and use in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide, epsilon-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate}." {DALTON TRANSACTIONS}. {44} (2015): {12376-12387}. Abstract

{The P, O-type phosphinophenol proligands (1 center dot H, 2-PPh2-4-Me-6-Me-C6H2OH; 2 center dot H, 2-PPh2-4-Me-6-Bu-t-C6H2OH) readily react with one equiv. of ZnEt2 to afford in high yields the corresponding Zn(II)ethyl dimers of the type {[}(kappa(2)-P, O) Zn-Et](2) (3 and 4) with two mu-O-Ph bridging oxygens connecting the two Zn(II) centers, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies in the case of 3. Based on diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy (DOSY), both species 3 and 4 retain their dimeric structures in solution. The alcoholysis reaction of Zn(II) alkyls 3 and 4 with BnOH led to the high yield formation of the corresponding Zn(II) benzyloxide species {[}(kappa(2)-P, O) Zn-OBn](2) (5 and 6), isolated in a pure form as colorless solids. The centrosymmetric and dimeric nature of Zn(II) alkoxides 5 and 6 in solution was deduced from DOSY NMR experiments and multinuclear NMR data. Though the heteroleptic species 5 is stable in solution, its analogue 6 is instable in CH2Cl2 solution at room temperature to slowly decompose to the corresponding homoleptic species 8 via the transient formation of (kappa(2)-P, O)(2)Zn-2(mu-OBn)(mu-kappa(1):kappa(1)-P, O) (6'). Crystallization of compound 6 led to crystals of 6', as established by XRD analysis. The reaction of ZnEt2 with two equiv. of 1 center dot H and 2 center dot H allowed access to the corresponding homoleptic species of the type {[}Zn(P, O)(2)] (7 and 8). All gathered data are consistent with compound 7 being a dinuclear species in the solid state and in solution. Data for species 8, which bears a sterically demanding P, O-ligand, are consistent with a mononuclear species in solution. The Zn(II) alkoxide species 5 and the {[}Zn(P, O)(2)]-type compounds 7 and 8 were evaluated as initiators of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactide (LA), epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and trimethylene carbonate (TMC). Species 5 is a well-behaved ROP initiator for the homo-, co- and terpolymerization of all three monomers with the production of narrow disperse materials under living and immortal conditions. Though species 7 and 8 are ROP inactive on their own, they readily polymerize LA in the presence of a nucleophile such as BnOH to produce narrow disperse PLA, presumably via an activated-monomer ROP mechanism.}

Fliedel, Christophe, Samir Mameri, Samuel Dagorne, and Teresa Aviles. "{Controlled ring-opening polymerization of trimethylene carbonate and access to PTMC-PLA block copolymers mediated by well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene zinc alkoxides}." {APPLIED ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY}. {28} (2014): {504-511}. Abstract

{Four novel Zinc-NHC alkyl/alkoxide/chloride complexes (4, 5, 9 and 9) were readily prepared and fully characterized, including X-ray diffraction crystallography for 5 and 9. The reaction of N-methyl-N-butyl imidazolium chloride (3.HCl) with ZnEt2 (2 equiv.) afforded the corresponding {[}(CNHC)ZnCl(Et)] complex (4) via a protonolysis reaction, as deduced from NMR data. The alcoholysis of 4 with BnOH led to quantitative formation of the dinuclear Zn(II) alkoxide species {[}(CNHC)ZnCl(OBn)]2 (5), as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The NMR data are in agreement with species 5 retaining its dimeric structure in solution at room temperature. The protonolysis reaction of N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N-ethyl methyl ether imidazolium chloride (8.HCl) with ZnEt2 (2 equiv.) yielded the {[}(CNHC)ZnCl(Et)] species 9. The latter was found to be reactive with CH2Cl2 in solution and to cleanly convert to the corresponding Zn(II) dichloride {[}(CNHC)ZnCl2]2 (9), whose molecular structure was also elucidated using X-ray diffractometry. Unlike Zn(II)-NHC alkoxide species 1 and 2, which contain a NHC flanked with an additional N-functional group (i.e. thioether and ether, respectively), the Zn(II) alkoxide species 5 incorporates a monodentate NHC ligand. The Zn(II) complexes 1, 2 and 5 were tested in the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of trimethylene carbonate (TMC). All three species are effective initiators for the controlled ROP of trimethylene carbonate, resulting in the production of narrow disperse PTMC material. Initiator 1 (incorporating a thioether moiety) was found to perform best in the ROP of TMC. Notably, the latter also readily undergoes the sequential ROP of TMC and rac-LA in the presence of a chain-transfer agent, leading to well-defined and high-molecular-weight PTMC/PLA block copolymers. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.}

Maiti, Biplab K., Teresa Aviles, Isabel Moura, Sofia R. Pauleta, and Jose J. G. Moura. "{Synthesis and characterization of {[}S2MoS2Cu(n-SPhF)](2-) (n = o, m, P) clusters: Potential F-19-NMR structural probes for Orange Protein}." {INORGANIC CHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS}. {45} (2014): {97-100}. Abstract

{Three fluorinated Mo-Cu-thiolate isomers,{[}Ph4Ph{[}S2MoS2Cu(n-SPhF)], {[}n-SPhF = 2-fluorothiophenol (la)], 3-fluorothiophenol (lb), and 4-fluorothiophenol (1c)] were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. The F-19-NMR signal of the fluorine atom in the.benzene has different chemical shift for each isomer, which is highly influenced by the local environment that can be manipulated by different solvents and solutes. The fluorine-19 chemical shift is an advantageous NMR structural probe in alternative to H-1-NMR {[}B.K. Maiti, T. Aviles, M. Matzapetakis, I. Moura, S.R. Pauleta, JJ.G. Moura, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. (2012) 4159.], that can be used to provide local information on the pocket of the metal cluster in the Orange Protein (ORP). (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.}

Maiti, Biplab K., Luisa B. Maia, Kuntal Pal, Bholanath Pakhira, Teresa Aviles, Isabel Moura, Sofia R. Pauleta, Jose L. Nunez, Alberto C. Rizzi, Carlos D. Brondino, Sabyasachi Sarkar, and Jose J. G. Moura. "{One Electron Reduced Square Planar Bis(benzene-1,2-dithiolato) Copper Dianionic Complex and Redox Switch by O-2/HO-}." {INORGANIC CHEMISTRY}. {53} (2014): {12799-12808}. Abstract

{The complex {[}Ph4P](2){[}Cu(bdt)(2)] (1(red)) was synthesized by the reaction of {[}Ph4P]2{[}S2MoS2CuCl] with H2bdt (bdt = benzene-1,2-dithiolate) in basic medium. 1(red) is highly susceptible toward dioxygen, affording the one electron oxidized diamagnetic compound {[}Ph4P]{[}Cu(bdt)(2)] (1(ox)). The interconversion between these two oxidation states can be switched by addition of O-2 or base (Et4NOH = tetraethylammonium hydroxide), as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-visible and EPR spectroscopies. Thiomolybdates, in free or complex forms with copper ions, play an important role in the stability of 1(red) during its synthesis, since in its absence, 1(ox) is isolated. Both 1(red) and 1(ox) were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. EPR experiments showed that 1(red) is a Cu(II)-sulfur complex and revealed strong covalency on the copper-sulfur bonds. DFT calculations confirmed the spin density delocalization over the four sulfur atoms (76%) and copper (24%) atom, suggesting that 1(red) has a ``thiyl radical character{''}. Time dependent DFT calculations identified such ligand to ligand charge transfer transitions. Accordingly, 1(red) is better described by the two isoelectronic structures {[}Cu(I)(bdt(2), 4S(3-{*}))](2-) {[}Cu-II(bdt(2), 4S(4-))](2-). On thermodynamic grounds, oxidation of 1(red) (doublet state) leads to 1(ox) singlet state, {[}Cu-III(bd(t)2, 4S(4-))](1-).}

Maiti, Biplab K., Teresa Avilés, Marta S. P. Carepo, Isabel Moura, Sofia R. Pauleta, and José J. G. Moura. "Rearrangement of Mo-Cu-S Cluster Reflects the Structural Instability of Orange Protein Cofactor." Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.. 639.8-9 (2013): 1361-1364.
Maiti, Biplab K., Teresa Aviles, Manolis Matzapetakis, Isabel Moura, Sofia R. Pauleta, and Jose J. G. Moura. "{Synthesis of {[}MoS4](2-)-M (M=Cu and Cd) Clusters: Potential NMR Spectroscopic Structural Probes for the Orange Protein}." {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY} (2012): {4159-4166}. Abstract

{Two synthetic strategies of tetrathiomolybdate-metal clusters with the potential to be used as NMR structural probes for the location of the metal cofactor in the orange protein (ORP) are described. The first strategy is based on the substitution reaction in which small organic ligands bind directly to the metal centre in a molybdenumcopper hetero-dinuclear cluster. Interaction between {[}PPh4]2{[}MoS4CuCl] and either aliphatic {[}beta-mercaptoethanol (b-me)] or aromatic {[}o-aminobenzenethiol (abt)] thiols in the presence of a strong base resulted in the formation of {[}Ph4P]2{[}S2MoS2Cu(b-me)] (1a) and {[}Et4N]2{[}S2MoS2Cu(abt)]center dot H2O center dot 0.25DMF (1b), which can be used to obtain intermolecular NOEs. The compound 1a readily hydrolyzed to {[}Ph4P]2{[}OSMoS2Cu(b-me)] (1ahydro) in contact with a protic solvent. The second strategy consisted of the incorporation of cadmium into tetrathiomolybdate ({[}MoS4]2), which gives rise to the trinuclear cluster compound {[}PPh4]2{[}(MoS4)2Cd] (2). All clusters were characterized spectroscopically and their structure determined by X-ray diffraction. The NMR spectroscopic data are consistent with the formation of a complex with a 1:1 ratio of \{MoS4Cu\} and thiol. The 113Cd NMR chemical shift of compound 2 is consistent with the cadmium having a tetrahedral geometry and coordinated by four sulfur ligands. The tetraphenylphosphonium cation in compound 1a was replaced by a tetramethylammonium countercation originating in the water-soluble compound {[}Me4N-1a]. Solubility in aqueous buffers is a requirement for incorporating this cluster into apo-ORP. These compounds will be used to identify the exact location of the ORP heterometallic cluster using NMR methodologies.}

Vitor Rosa, Sara Realista, Ana Mourato, Luisa Maria Abrantes, Joao Henriques, Maria Jose Calhorda, Teresa Aviles, Michael G. B. Drew, and Vitor Felix. "{1,1 `-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene bridging two mono(cyclopentadienyl) cobalt moieties: Synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and DFT studies}." {JOURNAL OF ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMISTRY}. {712} (2012): {52-56}. Abstract

{Reaction of {[}Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(CO)(2)], 1, with 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf) yields the new trinuclear complex {[}Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(CO)](2)(mu-dppf), 2, which was structurally characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction and showed two Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(CO) moieties covalently linked by a dppf bridge. Electrochemical studies in dichloromethane revealed that both Co(I) and Fe(II) in the precursors were oxidized to Co(II)/Co(III) and Fe(III), respectively. On the other hand, in 2 the two first oxidation waves were assigned to Co, the Fe(II) centre requiring a higher potential than in free dppf. DFT calculations showed that the HOMOs of 2 were localised in the Co fragments, owing to the destabilisation of the Co(eta(5)-C5H5)(CO) orbitals after binding dppf. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.}

Aviles, T., S. Jansat, M. Martinez, F. Montilla, and C. Rodriguez. "Deactivation of the Cobalt Catalyst for the Cyclotrimerization of Acetylenes in Ionic Liquids: Solvent Effects on the Mechanism and Thermal and Pressure Activation Parameters." Organometallics. 30 (2011): 3919-3922. AbstractWebsite

The deactivation reaction of the [CoCp(1,4-sigma-C(4)-[Ph](4))PPh(3)] catalyst for the cyclotrimerization of acetylenes has been kinetico-mechanistically studied under different temperature, pressure, and solvent conditions. The results indicate a dramatic change in mechanism from conventional to ionic liquid solvents due to the polarity of the medium.

Casimiro, T., F. Montilla, S. Garcia, T. Aviles, S. Raeissi, A. Shariati, C. J. Peters, M. N. da Ponte, and A. Aguiar-Ricardo. "Phase behaviour of the catalyst dicarbonyl (eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl)-cobalt in carbon dioxide." J Supercrit Fluid. 31 (2004): 1-8. AbstractWebsite

The phase behaviour of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and the cobalt complex dicarbonyl(eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl)-cobalt, CPCo(CO)(2), has been investigated. This organometallic compound is one of the most effective catalysts of cyclotrimerization reactions of arylisocyanates and alkynes. Vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) measurements were undertaken in a static analytical apparatus at 313.15, 323.15 and 363.15 K at pressures up to 15 MPa. p, T isopleths were measured by a synthetic method in a Cailletet apparatus. Nine different compositions ranging from 17.56 to 94.23 mol% of CO2 were measured up to 15 MPa. Modelling with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) gave reasonable results in the correlation of the experimental phase equilibrium compositions using two temperature-dependent interaction parameters. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Montilla, F., A. Galindo, V. Rosa, and T. Aviles. "Effect of trimethylsilyl substitution on the chemical properties of triarylphosphines and their corresponding metal-complexes: Solubilising effect in supercritical carbon dioxide." Dalton T (2004): 2588-2592. AbstractWebsite

The donor strengths of the following triarylphosphine ligands P(Ar)(2)(Ar') (Ar = Ar' = 4-Me3SiC6H4, 1b; 4-Me3CC6H4, 1d; 4-F3CC6H4, 1e; Ar = C6H5, Ar' = 4-Me3SiC6H4, 1c) have been evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The measurements of the J(P-Se) coupling constants of the corresponding synthesised selenides Se=P(Ar)(2)(Ar'), 2b, c and the DFT calculation of the energies of the phosphine lone-pair ( HOMO) reveal insignificant influence on the electronic properties of the substituted phosphines when the trimethylsilyl group is attached to the aryl ring, in marked contrast to the strong electronic effect of the trifluoromethyl group. These triarylphosphine ligands P(Ar)(2)(Ar') reacted with (eta(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)(2), (eta(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)I-2 or PdCl2 to yield the new compounds (eta(5)-C5H5)Co(CO)[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')], 3b, d; (eta(5)-C5H5)COI[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')], 4b-e; and PdCl2[P(Ar)(2)(Ar')](2), 5b, c, respectively. These complexes have been characterized and their spectroscopic properties compared with those reported for the known triphenylphosphine complexes. Again, the contrast of the P-31 NMR and C-13 NMR chemical shifts or C-O or M-Cl stretching frequencies, when applied, does not show an important electronic effect on the metal complex of the trimethylsilyl substituted phosphines with respect to P(C6H5)(3) derivatives. Solubility measurements of complexes 3a and 3b in scCO(2) were performed. We conclude that Me3Si groups on the triarylphosphine improve the solubility of the corresponding metal complex in scCO(2).