[ Publications ]

Export 48 results:
Sort by: Author Title [ Type  (Desc)] Year
Journal Article
Lampreia, J., AS Pereira, and JJG Moura. "ADENYLYLSULFATE REDUCTASES FROM SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA." Inorganic Microbial Sulfur Metabolism. 243 (1994): 241-260. AbstractWebsite
Bursakov, SA, OY Gavel, G. Di Rocco, J. Lampreia, J. Calvete, AS Pereira, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Antagonists Mo and Cu in a heterometallic cluster present on a novel protein (orange protein) isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 98 (2004): 833-840. AbstractWebsite

An orange-coloured protein (ORP) isolated from Desulfovibrio gigas, a sulphate reducer, has been previously shown by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) to contain a novel mixed-metal sulphide cluster of the type [S2MoS2CuS2MoS2] [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122 (2000) 8321]. We report here the purification and the biochemical/spectroscopic characterisation of this novel protein. ORP is a soluble monomeric protein (11.8 kDa). The cluster is non-covalently bound to the polypeptide chain. The presence of a MoS42- moiety in the structure of the cofactor contributes with a quite characteristic UV-Vis spectra, exhibiting an orange colour, with intense absorption peaks at 480 and 338 nm. Pure ORP reveals an Abs(480)/Abs(338) ratio of 0.535. The gene sequence coding for ORP as well as the amino acid sequence was determined. The putative biological function of ORP is discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Folgosa, F., C. G. Timoteo, M. Guilherme, D. Penas, P. Tavares, and AS Pereira. "Bacterioferritin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a functional DPS-like enzyme." Febs Journal. 279 (2012): 465. AbstractWebsite
Pereira, AS, P. Tavares, C. Krebs, BH HUYNH, F. Rusnak, I. Moura, and JJG Moura. "Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of overexpressed fuscoredoxin from Escherichia coli." Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 260 (1999): 209-215. AbstractWebsite

Fuscoredoxin is a unique iron containing protein of yet unknown function originally discovered in the sulfate reducers of the genus Desulfovibrio. It contains two iron-sulfur clusters: a cubane [4Fe-4S] and a mixed oxo- and sulfide-bridged 4Fe cluster of unprecedented structure. The recent determination of the genomic sequence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) has revealed a homologue of fuscoredoxin in this facultative microbe. The presence of this gene in E. coli raises interesting questions regarding the function of fuscoredoxin and whether this gene represents a structural homologue of the better-characterized Desulfovibrio proteins. In order to explore the latter, an overexpression system for the E. coli fuscoredoxin gene was devised. The gene was cloned from genomic DNA by use of the polymerase chain reaction into the expression vector pT7-7 and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. After two chromatographic steps a good yield of recombinant protein was obtained (approximately 4 mg of pure protein per liter of culture). The purified protein exhibits an optical spectrum characteristic of the homologue from D. desulfuricans, indicating that cofactor assembly was accomplished. Iron analysis indicated that the protein contains circa 8 iron atoms/molecule which were shown by EPR and Mossbauer spectroscopies to be present as two multinuclear clusters, albeit with slightly altered spectroscopic features. A comparison of the primary sequences of fuscoredoxins is presented and differences on cluster coordination modes are discussed on the light of the spectroscopic data. (C) 1999 Academic Press.

Conrath, K., AS Pereira, C. E. Martins, C. G. Timoteo, P. Tavares, S. Spinelli, J. Kinne, C. Flaudrops, C. Cambillau, S. Muyldermans, I. Moura, JJG Moura, M. Tegoni, and A. Desmyter. "Camelid nanobodies raised against an integral membrane enzyme, nitric oxide reductase." Protein Science. 18 (2009): 619-628. AbstractWebsite

Nitric Oxide Reductase (NOR) is an integral membrane protein performing the reduction of NO to N(2)O. NOR is composed of two subunits: the large one (NorB) is a bundle of 12 transmembrane helices (TMH). It contains a b type heme and a binuclear iron site, which is believed to be the catalytic site, comprising a heme b and a non-hemic iron. The small subunit (NorC) harbors a cytochrome c and is attached to the membrane through a unique TMH. With the aim to perform structural and functional studies of NOR, we have immunized dromedaries with NOR and produced several antibody fragments of the heavy chain (VHHs, also known as nanobodies (TM)). These fragments have been used to develop a faster NOR purification procedure, to proceed to crystallization assays and to analyze the electron transfer of electron donors. BIAcore experiments have revealed that up to three VHHs can bind concomitantly to NOR with affinities in the nanomolar range. This is the first example of the use of VHHs with an integral membrane protein. Our results indicate that VHHs are able to recognize with high affinity distinct epitopes on this class of proteins, and can be used as versatile and valuable tool for purification, functional study and crystallization of integral membrane proteins.

Pereira, AS, R. Franco, MJ Feio, C. Pinto, J. Lampreia, MA Reis, J. Calvete, I. Moura, I. Beech, AR Lino, and JJG Moura. "Characterization of representative enzymes from a sulfate reducing bacterium implicated in the corrosion of steel." Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 221 (1996): 414-421. AbstractWebsite

This communication reports the isolation, purification and characterization of key enzymes involved in dissimilatory sulfate reduction of a sulfate reducing bacterium classified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subspecies desulfuricans New Jersey (NCIMB 8313) (Ddd NJ). The chosen strain, originally recovered from a corroding cast iron heat exchanger, was grown in large scale batch cultures. Physico-chemical and spectroscopic studies of the purified enzymes were carried out. These analyses revealed a high degree of similarity between proteins isolated from the DddNJ strain and the homologous proteins obtained from Desulfomicrobium baculatus Norway 4. In view of the results obtained, taxonomic reclassification of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subspecies desulfuricans New Jersey (NCIMB 8313) into Desulfomicrobium baculatus (New Jersey) is proposed. (C) 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Pamplona, A., AS Pereira, P. Tavares, I. Moura, F. Rusnak, and JJG Moura. "Cloning and overexpression of E.Coli fuscoredoxin." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 74 (1999): 260. AbstractWebsite
Di Rocco, G., AS Pereira, SA Bursakov, OY Gavel, F. Rusnak, J. Lampreia, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Cloning of a novel Mo-Cu containing protein from Desulfovibrio.gigas." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 86 (2001): 202. AbstractWebsite
Fisher, K., D. J. Lowe, P. Tavares, AS Pereira, BH HUYNH, D. Edmondson, and W. E. Newton. "Conformations generated during turnover of the Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe protein and their relationship to physiological function." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 101 (2007): 1649-1656. AbstractWebsite

Various S = 3/2 EPR signals elicited from wild-type and variant Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenase MoFe proteins appear to reflect different conformations assumed by the FeMo-cofactor with different protonation states. To determine whether these presumed changes in protonation and conformation reflect catalytic capacity, the responses (particularly to changes in electron flux) of the alpha H195Q, alpha H195N, and alpha Q191 K variant MoFe proteins (where His at position 195 in the alpha subunit is replaced by Gln/Asn or Gln at position alpha-191 by Lys), which have strikingly different substrate-reduction properties, were studied by stopped-flow or rapid-freeze techniques. Rapid-freeze EPR at low electron flux (at 3-fold molar excess of wild-type Fe protein) elicited two transient FeMo-cofactor-based EPR signals within 1 s of initiating turnover under N-2 with the alpha H195Q and alpha H195N variants, but not with the alpha Q191K variant. No EPR signals attributable to P cluster oxidation were observed for any of the variants under these conditions. Furthermore, during turnover at low electron flux with the wild-type, alpha H195Q or alpha H195N MoFe protein, the longer-time 430-nm absorbance increase, which likely reflects P cluster oxidation, was also not observed (by stopped-flow spectrophotometry); it did, however, occur for all three MoFe proteins under higher electron flux. No 430-nm absorbance increase occurred with the alpha Q191K variant, not even at higher electron flux. This putative lack of involvement of the P cluster in electron transfer at low electron flux was confirmed by rapid-freeze Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy, which clearly showed FeMo-factor reduction without P cluster oxidation. Because the wild-type, alpha H195Q and alpha H195N MoFe proteins can bind N-2, but alpha Q195K cannot, these results suggest that P cluster oxidation occurs only under high electron flux as required for N-2 reduction. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Prudencio, M., AS Pereira, P. Tavares, S. Besson, and I. Moura. "Copper-containing nitrous oxide reductase from Pseudomonas nautica: spectroscopic and redox properties." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 74 (1999): 267. AbstractWebsite
Timoteo, C. G., M. Guilherme, D. Penas, F. Folgosa, P. Tavares, and AS Pereira. "Desulfovibrio vulgaris bacterioferritin uses H2O2 as a co-substrate for iron oxidation and reveals DPS-like DNA protection and binding activities." Biochemical Journal. 446 (2012): 125-133. AbstractWebsite

A gene encoding Bfr (bacterioferritin) was identified and isolated from the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris cells, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In vitro, H2O2 oxidizes Fe2+ ions at much higher reaction rates than O-2. The H2O2 oxidation of two Fe2+ ions was proven by Mossbauer spectroscopy of rapid freeze-quenched samples. On the basis of the Mossbauer parameters of the intermediate species we propose that D. vulgaris Bfr follows a mineralization mechanism similar to the one reported for vertebrate H-type ferritins subunits, in which a diferrous centre at the ferroxidase site is oxidized to diferric intermediate species, that are subsequently translocated into the inner nanocavity. D. vulgaris recombinant Bfr oxidizes and stores up to 600 iron atoms per protein. This Bfr is able to bind DNA and protect it against hydroxyl radical and DNase deleterious effects. The use of H2O2 as an oxidant, combined with the DNA binding and protection activities, seems to indicate a DPS (DNA-binding protein from starved cells)-like role for D. vulgaris Bfr.

Ferreira, I. M. P. L. V., R. Eca, O. Pinho, P. Tavares, A. Pereira, and A. C. Roque. "Development and validation of an HPLC/UV method for quantification of bioactive peptides in fermented milks." Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 30 (2007): 2139-2147. AbstractWebsite

The simultaneous separation and quantification of two casein peptides (IPP, VPP) presenting potent inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) and casein in fermented milks was developed. Gradient elution was carried out at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min, using a mixture of two solvents. Solvent A was 0.1% TFA in water and solvent B was acetonitrile-water-trifluoracetic acid 95:5:0.1. The effluent was monitored by UV detector at 214 nm. Calibration curves were constructed in the interval of 0.01-1.0 mg/mL for VPP, 0.005-1.0 mg/mL for IPP, and 0.05-3.0 mg/mL for casein. R 2 invariably exceeded 0.999. The detection limits were 0.004 for VPP, 0.002 mg/mL for IPP, and 0.02 mg/mL for casein. Repeatability of the method was evaluated by six consecutive injections of two standard solutions containing VPP, IPP, and casein. The RSD values for concentration were all below 5.08%. Recovery studies were carried out to determine the accuracy of the method. Recoveries ranged between 88 and 98.2%. The methodology was applied, not only, for the monitorization of VPP, IPP, and casein in commercial fermented milks labeled as presenting anti hypertensive properties, but also, in milk with different degrees of fermentation by L Helveticus, and in other commercial functional fermented milks, such as, those presenting cholesterol lowering properties.

Pereira, AS, W. Small, C. Krebs, P. Tavares, DE Edmondson, E. C. Theil, and BH HUYNH. "Direct spectroscopic and kinetic evidence for the involvement of a peroxodiferric intermediate during the ferroxidase reaction in fast ferritin mineralization." Biochemistry. 37 (1998): 9871-9876. AbstractWebsite

Rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) Mossbauer and stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy were used to monitor the ferritin ferroxidase reaction using recombinant (apo) frog M ferritin; the initial transient ferric species could be trapped by the RFQ method using low iron loading (36 Fe2+/ferritin molecule). Biphasic kinetics of ferroxidation were observed and measured directly by the Mossbauer method; a majority (85%) of the ferrous ions was oxidized at a fast rate of similar to 80 s(-1) and the remainder at a much slower rate of similar to 1.7 s(-1). In parallel with the fast phase oxidation of the Fe2+ ions, a single transient iron species is formed which exhibits magnetic properties (diamagnetic ground state) and Mossbauer parameters (Delta E-Q = 1.08 +/- 0.03 mm/s and delta = 0.62 +/- 0.02 mm/s) indicative of an antiferromagnetically coupled peroxodiferric complex. The formation and decay rates of this transient diiron species measured by the RFQ Mossbauer method match those of a transient blue species (lambda(max) = 650 nm) determined by the stopped-flow absorbance measurement. Thus, the transient colored species is assigned to the same peroxodiferric intermediate. Similar transient colored species have been detected by other investigators in several other fast ferritins (H and M subunit types), such as the human H ferritin and the Escherichia coli ferritin, suggesting a similar mechanism for the ferritin ferroxidase step in all fast ferritins. Peroxodiferric complexes are also formed as early intermediates in the reaction of O-2 With the catalytic diiron centers in the hydroxylase component of soluble methane monooxygenase (MMOH) and in the D84E mutant of the R2 subunit of E. coli ribonucleotide reductase. The proposal that a single protein site, with a structure homologous to the diiron centers in MMOH and R2, is involved in the ferritin ferroxidation step is confirmed by the observed kinetics, spectroscopic properties, and purity of the initial peroxodiferric species formed in the frog M ferritin.

Cordas, C. M., J. Wilton, T. Cardoso, F. Folgosa, AS Pereira, and P. Tavares. "Electrochemical behaviour of Dps-a mini-ferritin." European Biophysics Journal with Biophysics Letters. 40 (2011): 181. AbstractWebsite
Dell'acqua, S., S. R. Pauleta, E. Monzani, AS Pereira, L. Casella, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Electron transfer complex between nitrous oxide reductase and cytochrome c(552) from Pseudomonas nautica: Kinetic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and docking studies." Biochemistry. 47 (2008): 10852-10862. AbstractWebsite

The multicopper enzyme nitrous oxide reductase (N2OR) catalyzes the final step of denitrification, the two-electron reduction of N2O to N-2. This enzyme is a functional homodimer containing two different multicopper sites: CuA and CuZ. CuA is a binuclear copper site that transfers electrons to the tetranuclear copper sulfide CuZ, the catalytic site. In this study, Pseudomonas nautica cytochrome C-552 was identified as the physiological electron donor. The kinetic data show differences when physiological and artificial electron donors are compared [cytochrome vs methylviologen (MV)]. In the presence of cytochrome c(552), the reaction rate is dependent on the ET reaction and independent of the N2O concentration. With MV, electron donation is faster than substrate reduction. From the study of cytochrome c(552) concentration dependence, we estimate the following kinetic parameters: K-mc512 = 50.2 +/- 9.0 mu M and V-maxc551 1.8 +/- 10.6 units/mg. The N2O concentration dependence indicates a K-mN2O of 14.0 +/- 2.9 mu M using MV as the electron donor. The pH effect on the kinetic parameters is different when MV or cytochrome c(552) is used as the electron donor (pK(a) = 6.6 or 8.3, respectively). The kinetic study also revealed the hydrophobic nature of the interaction, and direct electron transfer studies showed that CuA is the center that receives electrons from the physiological electron donor. The formation of the electron transfer complex was observed by H-1 NMR protein-protein titrations and was modeled with a molecular docking program (BiGGER). The proposed docked complexes corroborated the ET studies giving a large number of solutions in which cytochrome c(552) is placed near a hydrophobic patch located around the CuA center.

Valentine, AM, P. Tavares, AS Pereira, R. Davydov, C. Krebs, BM Koffman, DE Edmondson, BH HUYNH, and SJ Lippard. "Generation of a mixed-valent Fe(III)Fe(IV) form of intermediate Q in the reaction cycle of soluble methane monooxygenase, an analog of intermediate X in ribonucleotide reductase R2 assembly." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 120 (1998): 2190-2191. AbstractWebsite
Rivas, M. G., C. S. Mota, S. R. Pauleta, M. S. P. Carepo, F. Folgosa, S. L. A. Andrade, G. Fauque, AS Pereira, P. Tavares, JJ Calvete, I. Moura, and JJG Moura. "Isolation and characterization of a new Cu-Fe protein from Desulfovibrio aminophilus DSM12254." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 103 (2009): 1314-1322. AbstractWebsite

The isolation and characterization of a new metalloprotein containing Cu and Fe atoms is reported. The as-isolated Cu-Fe protein shows an UV-visible spectrum with absorption bands at 320 nm, 409 nm and 615 nm. Molecular mass of the native protein along with denaturating electrophoresis and mass spectrometry data show that this protein is a multimer consisting of 14 +/- 1 subunits of 15254.3 +/- 7.6 Da. Mossbauer spectroscopy data of the as-isolated Cu-Fe protein is consistent with the presence of [2Fe-2S](2+) centers. Data interpretation of the dithionite reduced protein suggest that the metallic cluster could be constituted by two ferromagnetically coupled [2Fe-2S](+) spin delocalized pairs. The biochemical properties of the Cu-Fe protein are similar to the recently reported molybdenum resistance associated protein from Desulfovibrio, D. alaskensis. Further-more, a BLAST search from the DNA deduced amino acid sequence shows that the Cu-Fe protein has homology with proteins annotated as zinc resistance associated proteins from Desulfovibrio, D. alaskensis, D. vulgaris Hildenborough, D. piger ATCC 29098. These facts suggest a possible role of the Cu-Fe protein in metal tolerance. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Timoteo, C. G., AS Pereira, C. E. Martins, S. G. Naik, A. G. Duarte, JJG Moura, P. Tavares, BH HUYNH, and I. Moura. "Low-Spin Heme b(3) in the Catalytic Center of Nitric Oxide Reductase from Pseudomonas nautica." Biochemistry. 50 (2011): 4251-4262. AbstractWebsite

Respiratory nitric oxide reductase (NOR) was purified from membrane extract of Pseudomonas (Ps.) nautica cells to homogeneity as judged by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified protein is a heterodimer with subunits of molecular masses of 54 and 18 kDa. The gene encoding both subunits was cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence shows strong homology with enzymes of the cNOR class. Iron/heme determinations show that one heme c is present in the small subunit (NORC) and that approximately two heme b and one non-heme iron are associated with the large subunit (NORB), in agreement with the available data for enzymes of the cNOR class. Mossbauer characterization of the as-purified, ascorbate-reduced, and dithionite-reduced enzyme confirms the presence of three heme groups (the catalytic heme b(3) and the electron transfer heme b and heme c) and one redox-active non-heme Fe (Fe-B). Consistent with results obtained for other cNORs, heme c and heme b in Ps. nautica cNOR were found to be low-spin while FeB was found to be high-spin. Unexpectedly, as opposed to the presumed high-spin state for heme b(3), the Mossbauer data demonstrate unambiguously that heme b(3) is, in fact, low-spin in both ferric and ferrous states, suggesting that heme b(3) is six-coordinated regardless of its oxidation state. EPR spectroscopic measurements of the as-purified enzyme show resonances at the g similar to 6 and g similar to 2-3 regions very similar to those reported previously for other cNORs. The signals at g = 3.60, 2.99, 2.26, and 1.43 are attributed to the two charge-transfer low-spin ferric heme c and heme b. Previously, resonances at the g similar to 6 region were assigned to a small quantity of uncoupled high-spin Fe-III heme b(3). This assignment is now questionable because heme b(3) is low-spin. On the basis of our spectroscopic data, we argue that the g = 6.34 signal is likely arising from a spin spin coupled binuclear center comprising the low-spin Fe-III heme b(3) and the high-spin Fe-B(III). Activity assays performed under various reducing conditions indicate that heme b(3) has to be reduced for the enzyme to be active. But, from an energetic point of view, the formation of a ferrous heme-NO as an initial reaction intermediate for NO reduction is disfavored because heme [FeNO](7) is a stable product. We suspect that the presence of a sixth ligand in the Fe-II-heme b(3) may weaken its affinity for NO and thus promotes, in the first catalytic step, binding of NO at the Fe-B(II) site. The function of heme b(3) would then be to orient the Fe-B-bound NO molecules for the formation of the N-N bond and to provide reducing equivalents for NO reduction.

Ferreira, GC, R. Franco, S. G. Lloyd, AS Pereira, I. Moura, JJG Moura, and BH HUYNH. "MAMMALIAN FERROCHELATASE, A NEW ADDITION TO THE METALLOENZYME FAMILY." Journal of Biological Chemistry. 269 (1994): 7062-7065. AbstractWebsite

A [2Fe-2S] cluster has been detected in mammalian ferrochelatase, the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Natural ferrochelatase, purified from mouse livers, and recombinant ferrochelatase, purified from an overproducing strain of Escherichia coli, were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. In their reduced forms, both the natural and recombinant ferrochelatases exhibited an identical EPR signal with g values (g = 2.00, 1.93, and 1.90) and relaxation properties typical of [2Fe-2S](+) cluster. Mossbauer spectra of the recombinant ferrochelatase, purified from a strain of E. coli cells transformed with a plasmid encoding murine liver ferrochelatase and grown in Fe-57-enriched medium, demonstrated unambiguously that the cluster is a [2Fe-2S] cluster. No change in the cluster oxidation state was observed during catalysis, The putative protein binding site for the Fe-S cluster in mammalian ferrochelatases is absent from the sequences of the bacterial and yeast enzymes, suggesting a possible role of the [2Fe-2S] center in regulation of mammalian ferrochelatases.

Tavares, P., AS Pereira, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Metalloenzymes of the denitrification pathway." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 100 (2006): 2087-2100. AbstractWebsite

Denitrification, or dissimilative nitrate reduction, is an anaerobic process used by some bacteria for energy generation. This process is important in many aspects, but its environmental implications have been given particular relevance. Nitrate accumulation and release of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere due to excess use of fertilizers in agriculture are examples of two environmental problems where denitrification plays a central role. The reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas is accomplished by four different types of metalloenzymes in four simple steps: nitrate is reduced to nitrite, then to nitric oxide, followed by the reduction to nitrous oxide and by a final reduction to dinitrogen. In this manuscript we present a concise updated review of the bioinorganic aspects of denitrification. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Rivas, M. G., M. S. P. Carepo, C. S. Mota, M. Korbas, M. C. Durand, A. T. Lopes, CD Brondino, AS Pereira, GN George, A. Dolla, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "Molybdenum Induces the Expression of a Protein Containing a New Heterometallic Mo-Fe Cluster in Desulfovibrio alaskensis." Biochemistry. 48 (2009): 873-882. AbstractWebsite

The characterization of a novel Mo-Fe protein (MorP) associated with a system that responds to Mo in Desulfovibrio alaskensis is reported. Biochemical characterization shows that MorP is a periplasmic homomultimer of high molecular weight (260 +/- 13 kDa) consisting of 16-18 monomers of 15321.1 +/- 0.5 Da. The UV/visible absorption spectrum of the as-isolated protein shows absorption peaks around 280, 320, and 570 nm with extinction coefficients of 18700, 12800, and 5000 M(-1) cm(-1), respectively. Metal content, EXAFS data and DFT calculations support the presence of a Mo-2S-[2Fe-2S]-2S-Mo cluster never reported before. Analysis of the available genomes from Desulfovibrio species shows that the MorP encoding gene is located downstream of a sensor and a regulator gene. This type of gene arrangement, called two component system, is used by the cell to regulate diverse physiological processes in response to changes in environmemtal conditions. Increase of both gene expression and protein production was observed when cells were cultured in the presence of 45 mu M molybdenum. Involvement of this system in Mo tolerance of sulfate reducing bacteria is proposed.

Pereira, AS, P. Tavares, I. Moura, JJG Moura, and BH HUYNH. "Mossbauer characterization of the iron-sulfur clusters in Desulfovibrio vulgaris hydrogenase." Journal of the American Chemical Society. 123 (2001): 2771-2782. AbstractWebsite

The periplasmic hydrogenase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenbourough) is an all Fe-containing hydrogenase. It contains two ferredoxin type [4Fe-4S] clusters, termed the F clusters, and a catalytic H cluster. Recent X-ray crystallographic studies on two Fe hydrogenases revealed that the H cluster is composed of two sub-clusters, a [4Fe-4S] cluster ([4Fe-4S]H) and-a binuclear Fe cluster ([2Fe]H), bridged by a cysteine sulfur. The aerobically purified D. vulgaris hydrogenase is stable in air. It is inactive and requires reductive activation. Upon reduction, the enzyme becomes sensitive to O(2) indicating that the reductive activation process is irreversible. Previous EPR investigations showed that upon reoxidation (under argon) the H cluster exhibits a rhombic EPR signal that is not seen in the as-purified enzyme, suggesting a conformational change in association with the reductive activation. For the purpose of gaining more information on the electronic properties of this unique H cluster and to understand further the reductive activation process, variable-temperature and variable-field Mossbauer spectroscopy has been used to characterize the Fe-S clusters in D. vulgaris hydrogenase poised at different redox states generated during a reductive titration, and in the GO-reacted enzyme. The data were successfully decomposed into spectral components corresponding to the F and H clusters,and characteristic parameters describing the electronic and magnetic properties of the F and H clusters were obtained. Consistent with the X-ray crystallographic results, the spectra of the H cluster can be understood as originating from an exchange coupled [4Fe-4S] - [2Fe] system. In particular, detailed analysis of the data reveals that the reductive activation begins with reduction of the [4Fe-4S]H cluster from the 2+ to the If state, followed by transfer of the reducing equivalent from the [4Fe-4S]H subcluster to the binuclear [2Fe]H subcluster. The results also reveal that binding of exogenous CO to the H cluster affects significantly the exchange coupling between the [4Fe-4S]H and the [2Fe]H subclusters. Implication of such a CO binding effect is discussed.

Tavares, P., AS Pereira, S. G. Lloyd, D. Danger, DE Edmondson, E. C. Theil, and BH HUYNH. "Mossbauer spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of ferric clusters formed in h-chain ferritin mineralization." Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 213 (1997): 503-INOR. AbstractWebsite
Folgosa, F., C. M. Cordas, J. A. Santos, AS Pereira, JJG Moura, P. Tavares, and I. Moura. "New spectroscopic and electrochemical insights on a class I superoxide reductase: evidence for an intramolecular electron-transfer pathway." Biochemical Journal. 438 (2011): 485-494. AbstractWebsite

SORs (superoxide reductases) are enzymes involved in bacterial resistance to reactive oxygen species, catalysing the reduction of superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide. So far three structural classes have been identified. Class I enzymes have two ironcentre-containing domains. Most studies have focused on the catalytic iron site (centre II), yet the role of centre I is poorly understood. The possible roles of this iron site were approached by an integrated study using both classical and fast kinetic measurements, as well as direct electrochemistry. A new heterometallic form of the protein with a zinc-substituted centre I, maintaining the iron active-site centre II, was obtained, resulting in a stable derivative useful for comparison with the native all-iron from. Second-order rate constants for the electron transfer between reduced rubredoxin and the different SOR forms were determined to be 2.8 x 10(7) M(-1) . s(-1) and 1.3 x 10(6) M(-1) . s(-1) for SOR(Fe(IIII)-Fe(II)) and for SOR(Fe(IIII)-Fe(III)) forms respectively, and 3.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for the SOR(Zn(II)-Fe(III)) form. The results obtained seem to indicate that centre I transfers electrons from the putative physiological donor rubredoxin to the catalytic active iron site (intramolecular process). In addition, electrochemical results show that conformational changes are associated with the redox state of centre I, which may enable a faster catalytic response towards superoxide anion. The apparent rate constants calculated for the SOR-mediated electron transfer also support this observation.

Gavel, OY, SA Bursakov, G. Di Rocco, J. Trincao, I. J. Pickering, GN George, JJ Calvete, VL Shnyrov, CD Brondino, AS Pereira, J. Lampreia, P. Tavares, JJG Moura, and I. Moura. "A new type of metal-binding site in cobalt- and zinc-containing adenylate kinases isolated from sulfate-reducers Desulfovibrio gigas and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774." Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 102 (2008): 1380-1395. AbstractWebsite

Adenylate kinase (AK) mediates the reversible transfer of phosphate groups between the adenylate nucleotides and contributes to the maintenance of their constant cellular level, necessary for energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. The AK were purified from crude extracts of two sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio (D.) gigas NCIB 9332 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774, and biochemically and spectroscopically characterised in the native and fully cobalt- or zinc-substituted forms. These are the first reported adenylate kinases that bind either zinc or cobalt and are related to the subgroup of metal-containing AK found, in most cases, in Gram-positive bacteria. The electronic absorption spectrum is consistent with tetrahedral coordinated cobalt, predominantly via sulfur ligands, and is supported by EPR. The involvement of three cysteines in cobalt or zinc coordination was confirmed by chemical methods. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicate that cobalt or zinc are bound by three cysteine residues and one histidine in the metal-binding site of the "LID" domain. The sequence (129)Cys-X(5)-His-X(15)-Cys-X(2)-Cys of the AK from D. gigas is involved in metal coordination and represents a new type of binding motif that differs from other known zinc-binding sites of AK. Cobalt and zinc play a structural role in stabilizing the LID domain. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.