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In Press
G., Azevedo S., Carvalho H., and Cruz-Machado V. "LARG index: a benchmarking tool for improving the leanness, agility, resilience and greenness of the automotive supply chain." Benchmarking: an International Journal (In Press).
Govindan, K., Azevedo, S. G., Carvalho, H., and V. and Cruz Machado. "Lean, green and resilient practices influence on supply chain performance: interpretive structural modeling approach." International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12 (2015): 15-34.
Azevedo, S. G., S., Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "A cross case analysis of RFID deployment Fast Fashion Supply Chain.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
K., Chantarachalee, Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "Designing lean supply chains a case study.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
Azevedo, S. G., S., Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "RFID application infant security systems of healthcare organizations.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
V., Raphaela, Carvalho H., and Cruz-Machado and V. "Strategic resilience development a study using delphy.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
H., Carvalho, Azevedo S. G., and Cruz-Machado and V. "Supply chain management resilience: a theory building approach." 1 (2014): 3-37. Abstract
K., Govindan, Azevedo S. G., Carvalho H., and Cruz-Machado V. "Impact of supply chain management practices on sustainability." Journal of Cleaner Production 85 (2014): 212-225.
SG, Azevedo, Govindan K, Carvalho H, and Cruz-Machado V. "Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain." 56 (2013): 131-146. Abstract
H, Carvalho, Azevedo S, and Cruz-Machado V. "An Innovative Agile and Resilience Index for the Automotive Supply Chain." 6 (2013): 259-283. Abstract
S, Azevedo, Carvalho H, and Cruz-Machado V. "Trade-offs among Lean, Agile, Resilient and Green Paradigms in Supply Chain Management: A Case Study Approach.", N/A. International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management 2013, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering., 2013. Abstract
Carvalho, H., S. G. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "An Innovative Agile and Resilient Index for the Automotive Supply Chain." International Journal of Agile Systems and Management in press (2013). Abstract

This paper proposes a composite index, called the AR Index, to assess the agility and resilience of automotive companies and their respective supply chains. As a first step, a model to support the AR Index is developed. Next, an AR Index for the automotive supply chain is suggested using a set of relevant Agile and Resilient supply chain practices. The Delphi technique was used to obtain a series of weights for those practices. Finally a case study approach is used to illustrate the application of the AR Index. This study represents an original approach that suggests a unique composite indicator for the Agile and Resilient paradigms in the context of automotive supply chains

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Using interpretive structural modeling to identify and ranking performance measures: an application in the automotive supply." Baltic Journal of Management in press (2013). Abstract

Purpose - The main objective of this paper is to identify and rank a set of performance measures using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach to support the automotive supply chain performance evaluation.
Design/methodology/approach - The paper develops a framework to analyze the interactions among a suggested set of performance measures using the {ISM} approach. To identify the contextual relationships among the suggested measures, five experts from the automotive industry were consulted.
Findings - Using the {ISM} approach the performance measures were clustered attending to their driving and dependence power. Inventory level and lead time are the two performance measures at the bottom level of the hierarchy, implying higher driving power. Also, operational costs, business wastage, environmental costs, delivery time and customer satisfaction are identified as autonomous measures. This means that they are relatively disconnected from the other suggested performance measures. It is also observed that the cash-to-cash cycle is a weak driver but strongly dependent on the other performance measures.
Practical implications - The proposed approach gives managers a better understanding on mutual influences of performance measures (driving performance measures) and also those measures which are most influenced by others (dependent performance measures). Using {ISM} managers can get insight on the order and direction of complex relations among the suggested performance measures. This kind of information is strategic for managers could identify which performance measures they should concentrate on, and how they can manage the tradeoffs between them.
Originality/value - This paper highlights the deployment of {ISM} as a manager' decision support tool in the identification and ranking of a set of performance measures to make part of a supply chain performance measurement system.

Azevedo, Susana Garrido, and Helena Carvalho. "Contribution of RFID technology to better management of fashion supply chains." International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 40 (2012): 128-156. AbstractWebsite

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the deployment of RFID technology in fashion supply chain management (FSCM). It highlights the contribution of RFID to FSCM, supporting faster logistics activities, with greater products quality, cheaper and with more responsiveness, improving customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive theory building approach is used to develop a conceptual model for RFID deployment in the {FSCM} context. Secondary data analysis from a sample of six companies supports the identification and discussion of the real advantages, disadvantages and barriers felt by companies in a fashion supply chain when {RFID} technology is introduced. Findings – The logistics activities in the fashion supply chain where {RFID} technology is most widely deployed are: shipping operations, tracking of raw materials, semi-finished components and finished garments, collecting finished goods, handling processes, tracking containers, tracking products from factory to store, receiving operations, monitoring, and sorting of merchandise. In most cases, the tagging operation is performed at some stage in the production process and tag reading occurs at distribution centres or at stores. The main barrier identified to the deployment of {RFID} is the problem of interoperability. The costs associated with the technology are the main disadvantage pointed out by the companies. Practical implications – A conceptual framework is proposed exploring the {RFID} advantages and disadvantages across the fashion supply chain, the main barriers to its introduction and the fashion supply chain logistics activities in which {RFID} could be found. This represents an important contribution to companies in this industry to become more aware of {RFID.} Also, new companies which are thinking of introducing this technology could overcome its barriers easily, improving its advantages and minimizing its disadvantages. Originality/value – This paper explores the deployment of {RFID} in the fashion supply chain from the perspective of technology users.

Azevedo, Susana, Elizabeth A. Cudney, António Grilo, Helena Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "The influence of eco-innovation supply chain practices on business eco-efficiency." (2012). AbstractWebsite

This paper aims to study the influence of eco-innovation practices on eco-efficiency of business, which embraces environmental and economic performance. Four hypotheses are drawn up based on the existing literature in green supply chain and considering the business innovation. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on a sample of {USA} and Portuguese innovative organizations. Multivariate statistics and Partial Least Squares ({PLS)} path modelling techniques were used to test the proposed hypothesis. The statistical analysis allows to conclude that there are differences between the eco-innovation practices deployed by organizations belonging to different sectors and with different sizes. Also, it was found that the level of implementation of the different eco-innovation practices by organizations influence the eco-efficiency of businesses.

Azevedo, S. G., K. Godivan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Deployment of radio frequency identification technology in healthcare organizations." In POMS 23rd Annual Conference. Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., 2012. Abstract

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a wireless technology that uses transmitted radio signals to tag, recognize, track and trace the movement of an item automatically. The study of this technology is actually considered a hot topic in all scientific areas and has been described as a major enabling technology for the automation of many processes. Although it is not a new technology it has only recently come to the awareness of the public and widely used in many sectors and particularly in the Healthcare. This paper aims to illustrate the deployment of RFID technology in Healthcare, more precisely in infant security systems. A case study about the experience of three hospitals and one RFID technology provider is presented to highlight the main architectural characteristics, functionality, and advantages associated to its deployment. After the case studies analysis it is possible to state that the infant security systems, using the RFID technology, are not so different among research case studies: they involve RFID tagging patients, they are easy to use not requiring an extensive training and also they are installed with an interface with others security systems.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, S. Duarte, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Influence of Green and Lean Upstream Supply Chain Management Practices on Business Sustainability." Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on 59 (2012): 1-13. AbstractWebsite

Green and lean paradigms have been adopted by companies in order to manage their relationships with suppliers in a supply chain management context, but nearly always separately and with little understanding of their influence on company performance. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the analysis of the influence of green and lean upstream supply chain management practices on the sustainable development of businesses. To attend this objective, a set of performance measures covering economic (operational cost, environmental cost, and inventory cost), environmental (business wastage, green image, and CO2 emission), and social (corruption risk, supplier screening and local supplier) perspectives is proposed. An explanatory case study was conducted at a Portuguese automaker to test qualitatively the validity of the proposed theoretical framework. From the case study, a model is suggested, which encompasses the relationships between green and lean upstream supply chain practices and sustainable business development.

Carvalho, H., J. G. Tavares, and V. Cruz-Machado. "A Mapping Framework for Supply Chain Resilience Assessment." International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management 12 (2012): 354-373. AbstractWebsite

Supply chains (SCs) may experience instability induced by disturbances such as extreme climate conditions or accidents. These events can cause severe negative effects on SCs, jeopardising the on-time delivery of products and services to customers. This paper proposes a mapping framework to improve SC resilience to such events, avoiding possible failure modes. The proposed mapping framework allows identification of the current SC operation and possible transition states, together with points of vulnerability. An illustrative example of the framework applied to a real-life wine SC is presented.