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Govindan, K., Azevedo, S. G., Carvalho, H., and V. and Cruz Machado. "Lean, green and resilient practices influence on supply chain performance: interpretive structural modeling approach." International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12 (2015): 15-34.
Azevedo, S. G., S., Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "A cross case analysis of RFID deployment Fast Fashion Supply Chain.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
K., Chantarachalee, Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "Designing lean supply chains a case study.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
Azevedo, S. G., S., Carvalho, H., H., Cruz-Machado, and V. "RFID application infant security systems of healthcare organizations.", 45-57. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing., 2014. Abstract
Carvalho, H., S. G. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "An Innovative Agile and Resilient Index for the Automotive Supply Chain." International Journal of Agile Systems and Management in press (2013). Abstract

This paper proposes a composite index, called the AR Index, to assess the agility and resilience of automotive companies and their respective supply chains. As a first step, a model to support the AR Index is developed. Next, an AR Index for the automotive supply chain is suggested using a set of relevant Agile and Resilient supply chain practices. The Delphi technique was used to obtain a series of weights for those practices. Finally a case study approach is used to illustrate the application of the AR Index. This study represents an original approach that suggests a unique composite indicator for the Agile and Resilient paradigms in the context of automotive supply chains

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Using interpretive structural modeling to identify and ranking performance measures: an application in the automotive supply." Baltic Journal of Management in press (2013). Abstract

Purpose - The main objective of this paper is to identify and rank a set of performance measures using the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach to support the automotive supply chain performance evaluation.
Design/methodology/approach - The paper develops a framework to analyze the interactions among a suggested set of performance measures using the {ISM} approach. To identify the contextual relationships among the suggested measures, five experts from the automotive industry were consulted.
Findings - Using the {ISM} approach the performance measures were clustered attending to their driving and dependence power. Inventory level and lead time are the two performance measures at the bottom level of the hierarchy, implying higher driving power. Also, operational costs, business wastage, environmental costs, delivery time and customer satisfaction are identified as autonomous measures. This means that they are relatively disconnected from the other suggested performance measures. It is also observed that the cash-to-cash cycle is a weak driver but strongly dependent on the other performance measures.
Practical implications - The proposed approach gives managers a better understanding on mutual influences of performance measures (driving performance measures) and also those measures which are most influenced by others (dependent performance measures). Using {ISM} managers can get insight on the order and direction of complex relations among the suggested performance measures. This kind of information is strategic for managers could identify which performance measures they should concentrate on, and how they can manage the tradeoffs between them.
Originality/value - This paper highlights the deployment of {ISM} as a manager' decision support tool in the identification and ranking of a set of performance measures to make part of a supply chain performance measurement system.

Azevedo, Susana Garrido, and Helena Carvalho. "Contribution of RFID technology to better management of fashion supply chains." International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management 40 (2012): 128-156. AbstractWebsite

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the deployment of RFID technology in fashion supply chain management (FSCM). It highlights the contribution of RFID to FSCM, supporting faster logistics activities, with greater products quality, cheaper and with more responsiveness, improving customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – An inductive theory building approach is used to develop a conceptual model for RFID deployment in the {FSCM} context. Secondary data analysis from a sample of six companies supports the identification and discussion of the real advantages, disadvantages and barriers felt by companies in a fashion supply chain when {RFID} technology is introduced. Findings – The logistics activities in the fashion supply chain where {RFID} technology is most widely deployed are: shipping operations, tracking of raw materials, semi-finished components and finished garments, collecting finished goods, handling processes, tracking containers, tracking products from factory to store, receiving operations, monitoring, and sorting of merchandise. In most cases, the tagging operation is performed at some stage in the production process and tag reading occurs at distribution centres or at stores. The main barrier identified to the deployment of {RFID} is the problem of interoperability. The costs associated with the technology are the main disadvantage pointed out by the companies. Practical implications – A conceptual framework is proposed exploring the {RFID} advantages and disadvantages across the fashion supply chain, the main barriers to its introduction and the fashion supply chain logistics activities in which {RFID} could be found. This represents an important contribution to companies in this industry to become more aware of {RFID.} Also, new companies which are thinking of introducing this technology could overcome its barriers easily, improving its advantages and minimizing its disadvantages. Originality/value – This paper explores the deployment of {RFID} in the fashion supply chain from the perspective of technology users.

Azevedo, Susana, Elizabeth A. Cudney, António Grilo, Helena Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "The influence of eco-innovation supply chain practices on business eco-efficiency." (2012). AbstractWebsite

This paper aims to study the influence of eco-innovation practices on eco-efficiency of business, which embraces environmental and economic performance. Four hypotheses are drawn up based on the existing literature in green supply chain and considering the business innovation. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on a sample of {USA} and Portuguese innovative organizations. Multivariate statistics and Partial Least Squares ({PLS)} path modelling techniques were used to test the proposed hypothesis. The statistical analysis allows to conclude that there are differences between the eco-innovation practices deployed by organizations belonging to different sectors and with different sizes. Also, it was found that the level of implementation of the different eco-innovation practices by organizations influence the eco-efficiency of businesses.

Azevedo, S. G., K. Godivan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Deployment of radio frequency identification technology in healthcare organizations." In POMS 23rd Annual Conference. Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., 2012. Abstract

The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is a wireless technology that uses transmitted radio signals to tag, recognize, track and trace the movement of an item automatically. The study of this technology is actually considered a hot topic in all scientific areas and has been described as a major enabling technology for the automation of many processes. Although it is not a new technology it has only recently come to the awareness of the public and widely used in many sectors and particularly in the Healthcare. This paper aims to illustrate the deployment of RFID technology in Healthcare, more precisely in infant security systems. A case study about the experience of three hospitals and one RFID technology provider is presented to highlight the main architectural characteristics, functionality, and advantages associated to its deployment. After the case studies analysis it is possible to state that the infant security systems, using the RFID technology, are not so different among research case studies: they involve RFID tagging patients, they are easy to use not requiring an extensive training and also they are installed with an interface with others security systems.

Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, S. Duarte, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Influence of Green and Lean Upstream Supply Chain Management Practices on Business Sustainability." Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on 59 (2012): 1-13. AbstractWebsite

Green and lean paradigms have been adopted by companies in order to manage their relationships with suppliers in a supply chain management context, but nearly always separately and with little understanding of their influence on company performance. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for the analysis of the influence of green and lean upstream supply chain management practices on the sustainable development of businesses. To attend this objective, a set of performance measures covering economic (operational cost, environmental cost, and inventory cost), environmental (business wastage, green image, and CO2 emission), and social (corruption risk, supplier screening and local supplier) perspectives is proposed. An explanatory case study was conducted at a Portuguese automaker to test qualitatively the validity of the proposed theoretical framework. From the case study, a model is suggested, which encompasses the relationships between green and lean upstream supply chain practices and sustainable business development.

Carvalho, H., J. G. Tavares, and V. Cruz-Machado. "A Mapping Framework for Supply Chain Resilience Assessment." International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management 12 (2012): 354-373. AbstractWebsite

Supply chains (SCs) may experience instability induced by disturbances such as extreme climate conditions or accidents. These events can cause severe negative effects on SCs, jeopardising the on-time delivery of products and services to customers. This paper proposes a mapping framework to improve SC resilience to such events, avoiding possible failure modes. The proposed mapping framework allows identification of the current SC operation and possible transition states, together with points of vulnerability. An illustrative example of the framework applied to a real-life wine SC is presented.

Carvalho, Helena. Modelling resilience in supply chain In Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Lisbon: Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2012.phd_hmlc.pdf
Azevedo, S. G., H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Proposal of a conceptual model to analyse the influence of LARG practices on manufacturing." Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing 8 (2012): 174-184. AbstractWebsite

The main objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual model about the influence of lean, agile, resilient, and green ({LARG)} practices on supply chain operational, economic and environmental performance. This model is based on the literature review about the four supply chain management paradigms and also performance measurement systems. This paper contributes to the literature by introducing a new model to improve the leanness, agility, resilience, and greenness of manufacturing supply chains. Among the suggested {LARG} practices, the ones influencing more the supply chain performance are the just in time and also the supplier relationships. Also the supply chain performance measures with more {LARG} practices influencing them are the inventory levels and the time, that is, the supply chain’s operational performance is the most affected by the simultaneous paradigms deployment in the supply chain.

Carvalho, H., S. G. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Agile and resilient approaches to supply chain management: influence on performance and competitiveness." Logistics Research 4 (2012): 49-62. AbstractWebsite

Supply chain management must adopt different and more innovative strategies that support a better response to customer needs in an uncertain environment. Supply chains must be more agile and be more capable of coping with disturbances, meaning that supply chains must be more resilient. The simultaneous deployment of agile and resilient approaches will enhance supply chain performance and competitiveness. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework for the analysis of relationships between agile and resilient approaches, supply chain competitiveness and performance. Operational and economic performance measures are proposed to facilitate the monitoring of the influence of these practices on supply chain performance. The influence of the proposed agile and resilient practices on supply chain competitiveness is also examined in terms of time to market, product quality and customer service.

Azevedo, S. G., K. Govindan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain." Journal of Cleaner Production in press (2012). AbstractWebsite

This paper suggests an Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of automotive companies and the corresponding supply chain. An integrated assessment model is proposed based on green and resilient practices. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights of the supply chain paradigms that are the focus of the study and the corresponding practices. The application of the proposed index is then illustrated using a case study approach in the automotive supply chain; in particular the case study is focused in the link supplier/manufacturer. The case study findings confirm the applicability of this index in a real-world supply chain and highlight its managerial implications. The results show that the resilient paradigm is considered to be the one that contributes more to the competitiveness of the automotive supply chain. The green practice identified as the most important to the greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive sector; this constitutes an initial effort to close the gap between theory and practice. Future research is needed to investigate the index applicability in different industry contexts.

Azevedo, S. A., K. Govindan, H. Carvalho, and V. Cruz-Machado. "An integrated model to assess the leanness and agility of the automotive industry." Resources, Conservation and Recycling 66 (2012): 85-94. AbstractWebsite

The main objective of this paper is to propose an index to assess the agility and leanness of individual companies and the corresponding supply chain. The index is named Agilean and is obtained from a set of Agile and Lean supply chain practices integrated in an assessment model. The Delphi technique is used to develop a series of weighted Agile and Lean {SCM} practices and also the importance of paradigms through experts in automotive research topics. As a way to illustrate the application of the index and find out if it returns return meaningful values, a case study is presented. The case study results confirm the quite easy applicability of the suggested Agilean index in a supply chain real-world setting. This index makes it possible to assess the companies and corresponding supply chain Agile and Lean behaviour, which is translated into an index score to compare competing companies and supply chains.

Carvalho, H., M. Maleki, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Links between supply chain disturbances and resilience strategies." International Journal of Agile Systems and Management 5 (2012): 203-234. AbstractWebsite

The purpose of this paper is to establish links between supply chain disturbances and corresponding strategies of resilience to counter them. To this end, an inductive research approach is used, examining a sample of 38 cases. Secondary data from the cases is used to identify disturbances which affected the corresponding supply chains and the resilience strategies used by managers. The empirical evidences shows that the negative effects of supply chain disturbances can be categorised into a number of supply chain failure modes. In addition, a set of resilience strategies was identified that could be used to overcome those failure modes. A conceptual model, with links between supply chain disturbances, failures and resilience strategies, is proposed. The limitations of this research result from the use of secondary data sources. The findings are only valid for the selected case studies and, consequently, may not be applicable in other scenarios. Future research should focus on detailed case studies that investigate cross-functional applications across the organisation and the supply chain.

Carvalho, H., A. P. Barroso, V. H. Machado, S. G. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Supply chain redesign for resilience using simulation." Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012): 329-341. AbstractWebsite

Supply chains are facing numerous changes that are contributing to increasing their complexity and vulnerability to disturbances, therefore, to survive, supply chains must be resilient. The paper presents a supply chain simulation study for a real case concerned with the Portuguese automotive supply chain. The subset automotive supply chain involved in the case study is a three-echelon supply chain, composed by one automaker, two 1st-tier suppliers, two 2nd-tier suppliers, and one outsource entity. The purpose of the study is to evaluate alternative supply chain scenarios for improving supply chain resilience to a disturbance and understanding how mitigation strategies affect each supply chain entity performance. Two strategies widely used to mitigate disturbance negative effects on supply chains were considered and six scenarios were designed. The scenarios differ in terms of presence or absence of a disturbance in one hand and presence or absence of a mitigation strategy in other hand. To evaluate the scenarios designed, two performance measures were defined per supply chain entity, Lead Time Ratio and Total Cost.

Carvalho, H., S. A. Azevedo, and V. Cruz-Machado. "Supply chain resilience: an empirical model." In Euroma 2012. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2012. Abstract

This paper proposes a model for management of supply chain resilience. To this end the structured content analysis of media news is used to analyze a sample constituted by sixty two documents containing evidences of seventy seven companies that were affected by the Japan 2011 earthquake. The sample provides evidences that companies failed to sustain their operations mainly because capacity shortages and material shortages. Also provides empirical evidence of twelve resilience practices to reduce the disturbance severity and the recovery time. Based on these findings four propositions were made and aggregated to propose a model for supply chain resilience management.