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2011
Santos, J. P., M. Guerra, and F. Parente. "New expression for the K-shell ionization." Journal of Physics: Conference Series Accepted (2011).
Santos, J. P., M. C. Martins, A. M. Costa, J. P. Marques, P. Indelicato, and F. Parente. "Production and decay of chlorine ion excited species in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma." Physica Scripta T144 (2011): 014005. AbstractWebsite

The most important processes for the creation of chlorine ion excited states from the ground configurations of Cl 10+ to Cl 15+ ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, leading to the emission of K x-ray lines, were studied. Theoretical values for inner-shell excitation and ionization cross-sections, including double KL and triple KLL ionization, transition probabilities and energies for the de-excitation processes, were calculated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock method. With reasonable assumptions about the electron energy distribution, a theoretical Kα x-ray spectrum was obtained, which was then compared with recent experimental data.

Santos, J. P., M. C. Martins, A. M. Costa, J. P. Marques, P. Indelicato, and F. Parente. "Production and decay of chlorine ion excited species in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma." Physica Scripta T144 (2011): 014005. AbstractWebsite

The most important processes for the creation of chlorine ion excited states from the ground configurations of Cl 10+ to Cl 15+ ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, leading to the emission of K x-ray lines, were studied. Theoretical values for inner-shell excitation and ionization cross-sections, including double KL and triple KLL ionization, transition probabilities and energies for the de-excitation processes, were calculated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock method. With reasonable assumptions about the electron energy distribution, a theoretical Kα x-ray spectrum was obtained, which was then compared with recent experimental data.

Santos, J., A. Costa, C. Madruga, F. Parente, and P. Indelicato. "Relativistic transition wavelenghts and probabilities for spectral lines of Ne II." The European Physical Journal D - Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics 63 (2011): 89-96. AbstractWebsite

Transition wavelengths and probabilities for several 2 p 4 3 p -2 p 4 3 s and 2 p 4 3 d -2 p 4 3 p lines in fluorine-like neon ion (NeII) have been calculated within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections. The results are compared with all existing experimental and theoretical data.

Santos, J. P., A. Costa, C. Madruga, F. Parente, and P. Indelicato. "Relativistic transition wavelenghts and probabilities for spectral lines of Ne II." The European Physical Journal D 63 (2011): 89-96. AbstractWebsite

Transition wavelengths and probabilities for several 2 p 4 3 p -2 p 4 3 s and 2 p 4 3 d -2 p 4 3 p lines in fluorine-like neon ion (NeII) have been calculated within the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method with quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections. The results are compared with all existing experimental and theoretical data.

Guimarães, D., M. L. Carvalho, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. P. Santos. "Study of lead accumulation in bones of Wistar rats by X-ray fluorescence analysis: aging effect." Metallomics In Press (2011): DOI: 10.1039/c1mt00149c. AbstractWebsite

The accumulation of lead in several bones of Wistar rats with time was determined and comparedQ3 for the different types of bones. Two groups were studied: a control group (n = 20), not exposedto lead and a contaminated group (n = 30), exposed to lead from birth, first indirectly throughmother’s milk, and then directly through a diet containing lead acetate in drinking water (0.2%).Rats age ranged from 1 to 11 months, with approximately 1 month intervals and each of thecollections had 3 contaminated rats and 2 control rats. Iliac, femur, tibia–fibula and skull havebeen analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Samples offormaldehyde used to preserve the bone tissues were also analysed by Electrothermal AtomicAbsorption (ETAAS), showing that there was no significant loss of lead from the tissue to thepreservative. The bones mean lead concentration of exposed rats range from 100 to 300 mg g 1while control rats never exceeded 10 mg g 1. Mean bone lead concentrations were compared andthe concentrations were higher in iliac, femur and tibia–fibula and after that skull. However, ofall the concentrations in the different collections, only those in the skull were statisticallyQ4 significantly different (p o 0.05) from the other types of bones. Analysis of a radar chart alsoallowed us to say that these differences tend to diminish with age. The Spearman correlation testapplied to mean lead concentrations showed strong and very strong positive correlations betweenall different types of bones. This test also showed that mean lead concentrations in bones arenegatively correlated with the age of the animals. This correlation is strong in iliac and femur andvery strong in tibia–fibula and skull. It was also shown that the decrease of lead accumulationwith age is made by three plateaus of accumulation,

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-methyltetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Chemical Physics Letters 516 (2011): 149-153. AbstractWebsite

The relative populations of the 1H- and 2H-tautomer of gas-phase 5-methyltetrazole (5MTZ) have been assessed through core-level photoelectron spectroscopy, and compared with the results obtained from Gaussian-n (Gn, n = 1, 2 and 3) and Complete Basis Set methods (CBS-4M and CBS-Q). The C 1s and N 1s core‚Äìelectron binding energies (CEBEs) for each ionization site of both tautomers have been computed using the Œîself-consistent-field (ŒîSCF) approach. The C 1s and N 1s XPS spectra, obtained at 313 K, yield a 1H/2H tautomer ratio of ca. 0.16/0.84 and 0.21/0.79, respectively.

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-methyltetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Chemical Physics Letters 516 (2011): 149-153. AbstractWebsite

The relative populations of the 1H- and 2H-tautomer of gas-phase 5-methyltetrazole (5MTZ) have been assessed through core-level photoelectron spectroscopy, and compared with the results obtained from Gaussian-n (Gn, n = 1, 2 and 3) and Complete Basis Set methods (CBS-4M and CBS-Q). The C 1s and N 1s core‚Äìelectron binding energies (CEBEs) for each ionization site of both tautomers have been computed using the Œîself-consistent-field (ŒîSCF) approach. The C 1s and N 1s XPS spectra, obtained at 313 K, yield a 1H/2H tautomer ratio of ca. 0.16/0.84 and 0.21/0.79, respectively.

Surzhykov, A., P. Indelicato, J. P. Santos, P. Amaro, Th Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche. "Two-photon absorption of few-electron heavy ions." Physical Review A 84 (2011): 022511. AbstractWebsite

The two-photon absorption of few-electron ions has been studied by using second-order perturbation theory and Dirac's relativistic equation. Within this framework, the general expressions for the excitation cross sections and rates are derived including a full account of the higher-order multipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. While these expressions can be applied to any ion, independent of its particular shell structure, detailed computations are carried out for the two-photon absorption of hydrogen-, helium-, and berylliumlike ions and are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. The importance of relativistic and nondipole effects in the analysis and computation of induced two-photon transitions is pointed out. Moreover, we discuss the potential of these transitions for atomic parity-violation studies in the high-Z domain.

Surzhykov, A., P. Indelicato, J. P. Santos, P. Amaro, Th Stöhlker, and S. Fritzsche. "Two-photon absorption of few-electron heavy ions." Physical Review A 84 (2011): 022511. AbstractWebsite

The two-photon absorption of few-electron ions has been studied by using second-order perturbation theory and Dirac's relativistic equation. Within this framework, the general expressions for the excitation cross sections and rates are derived including a full account of the higher-order multipole terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. While these expressions can be applied to any ion, independent of its particular shell structure, detailed computations are carried out for the two-photon absorption of hydrogen-, helium-, and berylliumlike ions and are compared with the available theoretical and experimental data. The importance of relativistic and nondipole effects in the analysis and computation of induced two-photon transitions is pointed out. Moreover, we discuss the potential of these transitions for atomic parity-violation studies in the high-Z domain.

Guimarães, D., J. P. Santos, M. L. Carvalho, G. Vale, H. M. Santos, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. L. Capelo. "Ultrasonic energy as a tool to overcome some drawbacks in the determination of lead in brain tissue and urine of rats." Talanta 86 (2011): 442-446 . AbstractWebsite

An ultrasonic assisted solid‚Äìliquid extraction method was developed to determine the level of lead in the brain and urine of rats. Lead was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Several analytical drawbacks were addressed and overcome, namely small brain sample mass and the formation of precipitate in the urine samples. Utrasonication provided by an ultrasonic probe succeeded in extracting lead from brain samples. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the formation of a precipitate lowered the lead content in the liquid phase of the urine. Lead was back extracted from the precipitate to the liquid phase with the aid of ultrasonic energy and acidifying the urine with 10% v/v nitric acid. A microwave-assisted acid digestion protocol was used to check the completeness of the lead extraction. The within bath and between bath precision was 5% (n = 9) and 7% (n = 3) respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.05 Œºg g‚àí1 for brain samples and 2.1 Œºg L‚àí1 for urine samples. A total of 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from control rats and another 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from rats fed with tap water rich in lead acetate were used in this research. Lead levels in brain and urine from exposed rats ranged from1.9 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 to 3.5 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 and from 752 ¬± 56 Œºg L‚àí1 to 60.9 ¬± 1.2 mg L‚àí1 respectively. Statistically significant differences of levels of lead in brain and urine were found between exposed and non exposed rats.

Guimarães, D., J. P. Santos, M. L. Carvalho, G. Vale, H. M. Santos, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. L. Capelo. "Ultrasonic energy as a tool to overcome some drawbacks in the determination of lead in brain tissue and urine of rats." Talanta 86 (2011): 442-446. AbstractWebsite

An ultrasonic assisted solid‚Äìliquid extraction method was developed to determine the level of lead in the brain and urine of rats. Lead was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Several analytical drawbacks were addressed and overcome, namely small brain sample mass and the formation of precipitate in the urine samples. Utrasonication provided by an ultrasonic probe succeeded in extracting lead from brain samples. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the formation of a precipitate lowered the lead content in the liquid phase of the urine. Lead was back extracted from the precipitate to the liquid phase with the aid of ultrasonic energy and acidifying the urine with 10% v/v nitric acid. A microwave-assisted acid digestion protocol was used to check the completeness of the lead extraction. The within bath and between bath precision was 5% (n = 9) and 7% (n = 3) respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.05 Œºg g‚àí1 for brain samples and 2.1 Œºg L‚àí1 for urine samples. A total of 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from control rats and another 6 samples of urine and 12 samples of brain from rats fed with tap water rich in lead acetate were used in this research. Lead levels in brain and urine from exposed rats ranged from1.9 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 to 3.5 ¬± 0.2 Œºg g‚àí1 and from 752 ¬± 56 Œºg L‚àí1 to 60.9 ¬± 1.2 mg L‚àí1 respectively. Statistically significant differences of levels of lead in brain and urine were found between exposed and non exposed rats.

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-methyltetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Chemical Physics Letters 516 (2011): 149-153. AbstractWebsite

Chemical Physics Letters, 516 (2011) 149-153. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2011.10.001

2012
Guimarães, D., M. L. Carvalho, M. Becker, A. von Bohlen, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. P. Santos. "Lead concentration in feces and urine of exposed rats by x-ray fluorescence and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry." X-Ray Spectrometry 41 (2012): 80. AbstractWebsite

Measurements made in feces and urine of Wistar rats exposed to lead acetate (n = 20) in drinking water since the fetal period were compared with those obtained from a control group (n = 20) in order to assess the age influence on Pb excretion. The measurements were made in different collections of rats aging between 1 and 11 months. To determine the Pb content of the samples, total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were used for the urine samples and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used for the feces.The results show high concentrations of Pb being eliminated from the organism by urine and feces in contaminated rats. Values vary from (600`140)mgl1 to (5 460`115)mgl1 in urine and from (4 500`300)mgg1 to (11 400`3 300)mgg1 in dry feces. The control rats show, in general, low lead concentrations or below detection limits. The fecal/urinary ratio was studied. It was shown to be about three to four orders of magnitude and positively correlated with time. It was verified in feces and urine that excretion decreases with the animal age and that this decrease is made by different levels of excretion. The excretions of Pb in urine and in feces are positively correlated.A good agreement was found between the results obtained with TXRF and ETAAS for urine samples. This work also stresses the suitability of these techniques in the study of Pb intoxication.

Palma, M. L., and J. P. Santos. "Nuclear spin–spin constants, rotational g factor and susceptibility of sulphur hexafluoride." Molecular Physics 110 (2012): 2163. AbstractWebsite

Following our previous study on spin–rotation and shielding constants of the SF6 molecule, the rotational g factor and the magnetic susceptibility are calculated here, using ab initio methods to evaluate the electronic contribution to the nuclear hyperfine constants, and compared with experimental results. It is shown, for the first time, that the electronic component of the rotational g factor is proportional to a constant, which is given by a sum over electronic states. We also evaluate for the SF6 molecule the indirect, or electron-coupled spin–spin interaction, theoretically described by Ramsey, and show that it gives non-negligible corrections to direct coupling constants d1 and d2. The contributions of the terms included in this interaction (DSO, PSO, SD and FC) are also analysed.

Guimarães, D., M. L. Carvalho, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. P. Santos. "Study of lead accumulation in bones of Wistar rats by X-ray fluorescence analysis: aging effect." Metallomics 4 (2012): 66. AbstractWebsite

The accumulation of lead in several bones of Wistar rats with time was determined and compared Q3 for the different types of bones. Two groups were studied: a control group (n = 20), not exposed to lead and a contaminated group (n = 30), exposed to lead from birth, first indirectly throughmother’s milk, and then directly through a diet containing lead acetate in drinking water (0.2%). Rats age ranged from 1 to 11 months, with approximately 1 month intervals and each of the collections had 3 contaminated rats and 2 control rats. Iliac, femur, tibia–fibula and skull have been analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Samples of formaldehyde used to preserve the bone tissues were also analysed by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS), showing that there was no significant loss of lead from the tissue to the preservative. The bones mean lead concentration of exposed rats range from 100 to 300 mg g 1 while control rats never exceeded 10 mg g 1. Mean bone lead concentrations were compared andthe concentrations were higher in iliac, femur and tibia–fibula and after that skull. However, of all the concentrations in the different collections, only those in the skull were statistically Q4 significantly different (p o 0.05) from the other types of bones. Analysis of a radar chart also allowed us to say that these differences tend to diminish with age. The Spearman correlation test applied to mean lead concentrations showed strong and very strong positive correlations betweenall different types of bones. This test also showed that mean lead concentrations in bones are negatively correlated with the age of the animals. This correlation is strong in iliac and femur and very strong in tibia–fibula and skull. It was also shown that the decrease of lead accumulation with age is made by three plateaus of accumulation,

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreno, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-aminotetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 185 (2012): 13-17. AbstractWebsite

The C 1s and N 1s photoelectron spectra of gas-phase 5-aminotetrazole (5ATZ) were recorded using synchrotron radiation, with the aim of evaluating 1H/2H tautomer population ratios. The core-electron binding energies (CEBEs) were estimated from computational results, using the delta self-consistent-field (ΔSCF) approach. Simulated spectra were generated using these CEBEs and the results from Gaussian-n (Gn, n=1, 2 and 3) and Complete Basis Set (CBS-4M and CBS-Q) methods. Results reveal the almost exclusive predominance of the 2H-tautomer, with a 1H/2H ratio of ca. 0.12/0.88, taken from a gross analysis of the XPS C 1s spectrum, recorded at 365 K.

Guimarães, D., M. L. Carvalho, M. Becker, A. von Bohlen, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. P. Santos. "Lead concentration in feces and urine of exposed rats by x-ray fluorescence and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry." X-Ray Spectrom. 41 (2012): 80. Abstract

n/a

Palma, M. L., and J. P. Santos. "Nuclear spin–spin constants, rotational g factor and susceptibility of sulphur hexafluoride." Mol. Phys. 110 (2012): 2163. AbstractWebsite

Following our previous study on spin–rotation and shielding constants of the SF6 molecule, the rotational g factor and the magnetic susceptibility are calculated here, using ab initio methods to evaluate the electronic contribution to the nuclear hyperfine constants, and compared with experimental results. It is shown, for the first time, that the electronic component of the rotational g factor is proportional to a constant, which is given by a sum over electronic states. We also evaluate for the SF6 molecule the indirect, or electron-coupled spin–spin interaction, theoretically described by Ramsey, and show that it gives non-negligible corrections to direct coupling constants d1 and d2. The contributions of the terms included in this interaction (DSO, PSO, SD and FC) are also analysed.

Guimarães, D., M. L. Carvalho, V. Geraldes, I. Rocha, and J. P. Santos. "Study of lead accumulation in bones of Wistar rats by X-ray fluorescence analysis: aging effect." Metallomics 4 (2012): 66. AbstractWebsite

The accumulation of lead in several bones of Wistar rats with time was determined and compared Q3 for the different types of bones. Two groups were studied: a control group (n = 20), not exposed to lead and a contaminated group (n = 30), exposed to lead from birth, first indirectly through
mother’s milk, and then directly through a diet containing lead acetate in drinking water (0.2%). Rats age ranged from 1 to 11 months, with approximately 1 month intervals and each of the collections had 3 contaminated rats and 2 control rats. Iliac, femur, tibia–fibula and skull have been analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). Samples of formaldehyde used to preserve the bone tissues were also analysed by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS), showing that there was no significant loss of lead from the tissue to the preservative. The bones mean lead concentration of exposed rats range from 100 to 300 mg g 1 while control rats never exceeded 10 mg g 1. Mean bone lead concentrations were compared and
the concentrations were higher in iliac, femur and tibia–fibula and after that skull. However, of all the concentrations in the different collections, only those in the skull were statistically Q4 significantly different (p o 0.05) from the other types of bones. Analysis of a radar chart also allowed us to say that these differences tend to diminish with age. The Spearman correlation test applied to mean lead concentrations showed strong and very strong positive correlations between
all different types of bones. This test also showed that mean lead concentrations in bones are negatively correlated with the age of the animals. This correlation is strong in iliac and femur and very strong in tibia–fibula and skull. It was also shown that the decrease of lead accumulation with age is made by three plateaus of accumulation,

Pinto, R. M., A. A. Dias, M. Coreano, M. de Simone, B. M. Giuliano, J. P. Santos, and M. L. Costa. "Tautomerism in 5-aminotetrazole investigated by core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and ΔSCF calculations." J. Electron. Spectrosc. Related Phenomena 185 (2012): 13-17. AbstractWebsite

The C 1s and N 1s photoelectron spectra of gas-phase 5-aminotetrazole (5ATZ) were recorded using synchrotron radiation, with the aim of evaluating 1H/2H tautomer population ratios. The core-electron binding energies (CEBEs) were estimated from computational results, using the delta self-consistent-field (ΔSCF) approach. Simulated spectra were generated using these CEBEs and the results from Gaussian-n (Gn, n=1, 2 and 3) and Complete Basis Set (CBS-4M and CBS-Q) methods. Results reveal the almost exclusive predominance of the 2H-tautomer, with a 1H/2H ratio of ca. 0.12/0.88, taken from a gross analysis of the XPS C 1s spectrum, recorded at 365 K.

Safari, L., P. Amaro, S. Fritzsche, J. P. Santos, and F. Fratini. "Relativistic total cross section and angular distribution for Rayleigh scattering by atomic hydrogen." Physical Review A 85 (2012): 043406. AbstractWebsite

We study the total cross section and angular distribution in Rayleigh scattering by hydrogen atom in the ground state, within the framework of Dirac relativistic equation and second-order perturbation theory. The relativistic states used for the calculations are obtained by making use of the finite basis-set method and expressed in terms of B splines and B polynomials. We pay particular attention to the effects that arise from higher (nondipole) terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. It is shown that the angular distribution of scattered photons, while symmetric with respect to the scattering angle θ=90∘ within the electric dipole approximation, becomes asymmetric when higher multipoles are taken into account. The analytical expression of the angular distribution is parametrized in terms of Legendre polynomials. Detailed calculations are performed for photons in the energy range 0.5 to 10 keV. When possible, results are compared with previous calculations.

Guerra, M., F. Parente, P. Indelicato, and J. P. Santos. "Modified binary encounter Bethe model for electron-impact ionization." Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 313 (2012): 1. AbstractWebsite

Theoretical expressions for ionization cross sections by electron impact based on the binary encounter Bethe (BEB) model, valid from ionization threshold up to relativistic energies, are proposed.
The new modified BEB (MBEB) and its relativistic counterpart (MRBEB) expressions are simpler than the BEB (nonrelativistic and relativistic) expressions because they require only one atomic parameter, namely the binding energy of the electrons to be ionized, and use only one scaling term for the ionization of all sub-shells.
The new models are used to calculate the K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections by electron impact for several atoms with Z from 6 to 83. Comparisons with all, to the best of our knowledge, available experimental data show that this model is as good or better than other models, with less complexity.

Santos, J. P., A. M. Costa, M. C. Martins, F. Parente, and P. Indelicato. "Modeling praseodymium K X-ray lines in an electron beam ion trap." Eur. Phys. J. D 66 (2012): 202. AbstractWebsite

We study the most important processes for the creation of excited states in He-like through C- like praseodymium ions from the ions ground configurations, leading to the emission of K X-ray lines. Theoretical values for inner-shell excitation and ionization cross sections, transition probabilities and energies for the deexcitation processes, are calculated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac- Fock method, including QED corrections. Using these calculated values, a theoretical Kα X-ray spectrum is obtained, which is compared to recent experimental data obtained in the Livermore Super-EBIT electron beam ion trap facility.

Santos, J. P., A. M. Costa, M. C. Martins, F. Parente, and P. Indelicato. "Modeling praseodymium K X-ray lines in an electron beam ion trap." The European Physical Journal D 66 (2012): 202. AbstractWebsite

We study the most important processes for the creation of excited states in He-like through C- like praseodymium ions from the ions ground configurations, leading to the emission of K X-ray lines. Theoretical values for inner-shell excitation and ionization cross sections, transition probabilities and energies for the deexcitation processes, are calculated in the framework of the multi-configuration Dirac- Fock method, including QED corrections. Using these calculated values, a theoretical Kα X-ray spectrum is obtained, which is compared to recent experimental data obtained in the Livermore Super-EBIT electron beam ion trap facility.