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Xavier, J., J. Morais, and F. Pereira. "Non-linear shear behaviour of bovine cortical bone by coupling the Arcan test with digital image correlation." Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 110 (2018): 462-470. AbstractWebsite

The non-linear shear behaviour of bovine cortical bone is measured by coupling the Arcan test with digital image correlation. The experimental study is carried out on specimens taken from bovine femur and oriented along the longitudinal-tangential material plane. An ad hoc Arcan fixture is built to transfer the cross-head displacement of the testing machine into a shear loading at the centre of the V-notched section. A validation of predominant shear behaviour at the gauge section is shown from full-field deformation measurements. Moreover, direct evaluation of the shear modulus is obtained by integrating the shear strain component along the V-notches, avoiding numerical correction factors required in the classical data reduction scheme. The shear modulus of bovine cortical bone is found in good agreement with references from literature. Moreover, the shear stress at maximum load is understood as a suitable estimation of the shear strength. Furthermore, the Ramberg�Osgood model is found to provide an accurate description of the non-linear shear behaviour of bone tissue.

Xavier, J., A. M. P. de Jesus, J. J. L. Morais, and J. M. T. Pinto. "Stereovision measurements on evaluating the modulus of elasticity of wood by compression tests parallel to the grain." Construction and Building Materials. 26 (2012): 207-215. Abstract
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Xavier, J., and F. Pierron. "Measuring orthotropic bending stiffness components of Pinus pinaster by the virtual fields method." The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design. 53 (2018): 556-565. AbstractWebsite

Orthotropic stiffness components of Pinus pinaster Ait. wood are simultaneously determined by means of a heterogeneous plate bending test. The proposed inverse identification approach couples full-field slope measurements provided by deflectometry with the virtual fields methods. Wooden plates oriented in the longitudinal–radial and longitudinal–tangential material planes were manufactured. A procedure was implemented to allow suitable specular reflective coating of the wooden plates, required in the deflectometry technique. Reconstructed curvature fields, applied load and plate dimensions were input in virtual fields methods for material parameter identification, assuming Kirchhoff–Love classical plate theory. Several virtual fields and load cases were analysed to address the identifiability of the method. The values of the orthotropic elastic constants obtained from the proposed approach were found in good agreement with regard to reference ones for the same species and determined from classical tensile, compression and shear mechanical tests.

Xavier, J., S. Avril, F. Pierron, and J. Morais. "Novel experimental approach for longitudinal-radial stiffness characterisation of clear wood by a single test." Holzforschung. 61 (2007): 573-581. Abstract
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Xavier, J., J. R. A. Fernandes, O. Frazão, and J. J. L. Morais. "Measuring mode I cohesive law of wood bonded joints based on digital image correlation and fibre Bragg grating sensors." Composite Structures. 121 (2015): 83-89. Abstract

Abstract This work addresses the experimental identification of mode I cohesive law of wood bonded joints. The approach combines the double cantilever beam (DCB) test with both digital image correlation (DIC) and embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The spectrum geometric mean of the \{FBG\} reflected spectral response was determined, and the wavelength evolution was used to define the fracture process zone (FPZ) development phase. This evaluation allowed a consistent selection of experimental range of over which the identification procedure of mode I cohesive law is build up. Mode I crack length, Resistance-curve and cohesive law parameters are characterised and discussed. The strain energy release rate (GI) is determined from the P�d curve by the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). The crack tip opening displacement (wI) is determined by post-processing displacements measured by DIC. The cohesive law in mode I (sI�wI) is then obtained by numerical differentiation of the GI�wI relationship.

Xavier, J., J. C. R. Pereira, and A. M. P. de Jesus. "Characterisation of steel components under monotonic loading by means of image-based methods." Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 53 (2014): 142-151. AbstractWebsite
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Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, P. Monteiro, J. J. L. Morais, and M. F. S. F. Moura. "Direct Evaluation of Cohesive Law in Mode I of Pinus pinaster by Digital Image Correlation." Experimental Mechanics. 54 (2014): 829-840. AbstractWebsite
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Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, J. J. L. Morais, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determining mode İI\} cohesive law of Pinus pinaster by combining the end-notched flexure test with digital image correlation." Construction and Building Materials. 71 (2014): 109-115. Abstract

Abstract This work addresses the direct identification of cohesive law of Pinus pinaster in mode II. The end-notched flexure (ENF) test is selected for mode İI\} loading. The strain energy release rate in mode İI\} (GII) is determined according to the compliance-based beam method (CBBM) by processing the global load�displacement curve, without requirements to monitor the crack length during test. The fracture test is coupled with digital image correlation (DIC) for the local measurement of the crack tip opening displacement in mode İI\} (wII). Using a direct method, the cohesive law in mode İI\} (sII�wII) is determined by differentiating the GII�wII relationship. The procedure is validated from both numerical, using finite element analyses including cohesive zone modelling, and experimental approaches. The methodology and accuracy on this reconstruction is discussed. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is suitable for assessing the cohesive law of P. pinaster in mode II.

Xavier, J., U. Belini, F. Pierron, J. Morais, J. Lousada, and M. Tomazello. "Characterisation of the bending stiffness components of MDF panels from full-field slope measurements." Wood Science and Technology. 47 (2013): 423-441. Abstract
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Xavier, J. C., N. M. Garrido, M. Oliveira, J. L. Morais, P. P. Camanho, and F. Pierron. "A comparison between the Iosipescu and off-axis shear test methods for the characterization of ıt Pinus pinaster Ait." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 35 (2004): 827-840. Abstract

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Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, J. Morais, and J. Pinto. "Measurement of the shear properties of clear wood by the Arcan test." Holzforschung. 63 (2009): 217-225. Abstract
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Xavier, J., J. R. A. Fernandes, J. J. L. Morais, and O. Frazão. "Fracture behaviour of wood bonded joints under modes I and II by digital image correlation and fibre Bragg grating sensors." Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais. 27 (2015): 27-35. AbstractWebsite

Abstract Direct identification of cohesive laws in modes I and İI\} of wood bonded joints is addressed by the double cantilever beam (DCB) and end-notched flexure (ENF) tests, respectively. Moreover, the development and extension of fracture process zone (FPZ) ahead of the initial crack tip, is analysed by means of digital image correlation (DIC) and embedded fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. From \{FBG\} spectral response, the spectrum geometric mean is determined and the strain induced by wavelength variation employed to identify the initial and final stages of the FPZ. These stages are used to consistently define the cohesive laws in both modes I and II. Resistance-curves are determined from the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). Besides, the crack tip opening displacements (CTOD) are determined by post-processing displacement field provided by \{DIC\} around the initial crack tip. The strain energy release rate as a function of the \{CTOD\} are then determined for both mode I and mode II. The respective cohesive laws are reconstructed by numerical approximation and differentiation. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is effective to determine both the \{FPZ\} development phase and the corresponding cohesive laws of wood bonded joints in both mode I and mode II.

Xavier, J., J. Morais, N. Dourado, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Measurement of mode I and mode II fracture properties of wood-bonded joints." Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology. 25 (2011): 2881-2895. Abstract
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Xavier, J., A. Majano-Majano, and J. Fernandez-Cabo. "On the identifiability of stiffness components of clear wood from a 3D off-axes prismatic specimen: angle orientation and friction effects." European Journal of Wood and Wood Products. 74 (2016): 285-290. AbstractWebsite

The robustness of the test method based on a single 3D off-axis prismatic specimen for the simultaneous identification of the orthotropic stiffness components of clear wood is addressed. In this method, the specimen is consecutively submitted to uniaxial compression tests along its three orthogonal axes. A data reduction based on anisotropic elasticity is applied to extract active material parameters from 3D full-field deformation measurements provided by stereo-correlation over adjacent faces. Two major limitations of this test method, directly affecting the parameter identification, are analysed and discussed: (1) off-axes angle orientation; (2) friction effects. A numerical study pointed out that radial and tangential rotations of about 29° and 9°, respectively, balances out the strain components in the specimen response. Moreover, friction can be reduced by using mass lubricant or soft material in the contact interface, realising transverse shear deformation.

Xavier, J., A. M. R. Sousa, J. J. L. Morais, V. M. J. Filipe, and M. Vaz. "Measuring displacement fields by cross-correlation and a differential technique: experimental validation." Optical Engineering. 51 (2012): 043602. Abstract
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Xavier, J., P. Monteiro, J. J. L. Morais, N. Dourado, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Moisture content effect on the fracture characterisation of Pinus pinaster under mode I." Journal of Materials Science. 49 (2014): 7371-7381. AbstractWebsite
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Xavier, J., S. Avril, F. Pierron, and J. Morais. "Variation of transverse and shear stiffness properties of wood in a tree." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 40 (2009): 1953-1960. Abstract
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Xavier, J., M. Oliveira, J. J. L. Morais, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determining mode I cohesive law of Pinus pinaster by coupling double cantilever beam test with digital image correlation." Fracture and Structural Integrity. 31 (2015): 13-22. AbstractWebsite

The direct identification of the cohesive law in pure mode I of Pinus pinaster is addressed. The approach couples the double cantilever beam (DCB) test with digital image correlation (DIC). Wooden beam specimens loaded in the radial-longitudinal (RL) fracture propagation system are used. The strain energy release rate in mode I (GI ) is uniquely determined from the load-displacement ( P ?? ) curve by means of the compliance-based beam method (CBBM). This method relies on the concept of equivalent elastic crack length ( eq a ) and therefore does not require the monitoring of crack propagation during test. The crack tip opening displacement in mode I ? ? I w is determined from the displacement field at the initial crack tip. The cohesive law in mode I I I (? ? w ) is then identified by numerical differentiation of the I I G ? w relationship. Moreover, the proposed procedure is validated by finite element analyses including cohesive zone modelling. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is adequate for assessing the cohesive law in pure mode I of P. pinaster.

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Subramani, P., Sohel Rana, Bahman Ghiassi, Raul Fangueiro, Daniel V. Oliveira, Paulo B. Lourenco, and Jose Xavier. "Development and characterization of novel auxetic structures based on re-entrant hexagon design produced from braided composites." Composites Part B: Engineering. 93 (2016): 132-142. AbstractWebsite

Abstract This paper reports the first attempt of developing macro-scale auxetic structures based on re-entrant hexagon design from braided composite materials for civil engineering applications. Braided composite rods (BCRs) were produced and arranged as longitudinal and horizontal elements to produce three types of auxetic structures: (1) basic re-entrant hexagon structure, (2) basic structure modified by adding straight longitudinal elements and (3): structure-2 modified by changing structural angle. The influence of various material and structural parameters as well as structure type on Poisson's ratio and tensile properties was thoroughly investigated. The auxetic behaviour was found to strongly depend on the structural angle and straight elements, resulting in lower auxeticity with lower angles and in presence of straight elements. Material parameters influenced the auxetic behaviour to a lesser extent and a decrease in auxetic behaviour was noticed with increase in core fibre linear density and using stiffer fibres such as carbon. The reverse effect was observed in case of tensile strength and work of rupture. Among these structures, structure-3 exhibited good auxetic behaviour, balanced tensile properties, and high energy absorption capacity and their auxetic behaviour could be well predicted with the developed analytical model. Therefore, these novel structures present good potential for strengthening of civil structures.

Subramani, P., S. Rana, D. V. Oliveira, R. Fangueiro, and J. Xavier. "Development of novel auxetic structures based on braided composites." Materials & Design. 61 (2014): 286-295. AbstractWebsite
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Sousa, A. M. R., J. Xavier, J. J. L. Morais, V. M. J. Filipe, and M. Vaz. "Processing discontinuous displacement fields by a spatio-temporal derivative technique." Optics and Lasers in Engineering. 49 (2011): 1402-1412. Abstract
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Sousa, A. M. R., J. Xavier, M. Vaz, J. J. L. Morais, and V. M. J. Filipe. "Cross-correlation and differential technique combination to determine displacement fields." Strain. 47 (2011): 87-98. Abstract

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Silva, F., J. Xavier, F. A. M. Pereira, J. Morais, N. Dourado, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determination of cohesive laws in wood bonded joints under mode I loading using the DCB test." Holzforschung. 67 (2013): 835-959. AbstractWebsite
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Silva, A. L. L., A. M. P. de Jesus, J. Xavier, J. A. F. O. Correia, and A. A. Fernandes. "Combined analytical-numerical methodologies for the evaluation of mixed-mode (I+II) fatigue crack growth rates in structural steels." Engineering Fracture Mechanics. 185 (2017): 124-138. AbstractWebsite

Abstract This paper proposes an experimental study aiming to evaluate stress intensity factors (SIFs) for fatigue cracks propagating under pure mode I and mixed-mode I+II for a S235 structural steel. Compact tension (CT) specimens with a side hole were manufactured in order to generate a stress field, ahead of the crack tip, resulting in mixed-mode fatigue crack propagation. Specimens with distinct side hole locations were submitted to fatigue tests under stress controlled conditions for a stress rati

Silva, F. G. A., J. J. L. Morais, N. Dourado, J. Xavier, F. A. M. Pereira, and M. F. S. F. de Moura. "Determination of cohesive laws in wood bonded joints under mode II loading using the ENF test." International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives. 51 (2014): 54-61. AbstractWebsite

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