Export 80 results:
Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Asc)]
Gomes, F., J. Xavier, and H. Koerber. "High strain rate compressive behaviour of wood on the transverse plane." Procedia Structural Integrity. 17 (2019): 900-905. AbstractWebsite

The high strain rate compressive behaviour of Pinus pinaster Ait. wood along the radial and tangential material axes was addressed in this work. Both quasi-static and dynamic tests were considered for comparation purposes. The quasi-static compression tests were performed on rectangular prismatic specimens along the radial and tangential directions coupled with digital image correlation. The high strain rate tests were carried out using a classical split-Hopkinson pressure bar coupled with a high-speed imaging system allowing independent kinematic measurements through digital image correlation. From these tests and material symmetry orientations, the constitutive curves were determined from which the Young modulus, Poisson’s ratio and yield stress were evaluated and compared over the two different regimes over the strain rate spectrum. The mechanical properties observed for this species under quasi-static compression loading agree with reference values. A qualitative comparison between quasi-static and high strain rate regimes reveals a significant increase of some mechanical properties by increasing the strain rate. Quantitatively, by comparing mean values at the two strain rates, it was found that, in the radial direction, the modulus of elasticity increased by 6.3%, the yield stress showed an increase of 130.3% and the Poisson’s ratio is slightly higher by 3.0%. Furthermore, in the tangential direction, it was found that the modulus of elasticity increased by 21.9% while the value of the yield stress showed an increase of 111.8%, and finally the Poisson‘s ratio presented a reduction of 24.3%.

Majano-Majano, Almudena, Antonio José Lara-Bocanegra, José Xavier, and José Morais. "Measuring the Cohesive Law in Mode I Loading of Eucalyptus globulus." Materials. 12 (2019). AbstractWebsite

Assessing wood fracture behavior is essential in the design of structural timber elements and connections. This is particularly the case for connections with the possibility of brittle splitting failure. The numerical cohesive zone models that are used to simulate the fracture behavior of wood make it necessary to assume a cohesive law of the material that relates cohesive tractions and crack opening displacements ahead of the crack tip. This work addresses the determination of the fracture cohesive laws of Eucalyptus globulus, a hardwood species with great potential in timber engineering. This study centres on Mode I fracture loading for RL and TL crack propagation systems using Double Cantilever Beam tests. The Compliance-Based Beam Method is applied as the data reduction scheme in order to obtain the strain energy release rate from the load-displacement curves. The cohesive laws are determined by differentiating the relationship between strain energy release rate and crack tip opening displacement. The latter is measured by the digital image correlation technique. High strain energy release rates were obtained for this species, with no big differences between crack propagation systems. The difference between the crack systems is somewhat more pronounced in terms of maximum stress that determines the respective cohesive laws.

Majano-Majano, Almudena, Antonio José Lara-Bocanegra, José Xavier, and José Morais. "Experimental Evaluation of Mode II fracture Properties of Eucalyptus globulus L." Materials. 13 (2020). AbstractWebsite

Eucalyptus globulus Labill is a hardwood species of broad growth in temperate climates, which is receiving increasing interest for structural applications due to its high mechanical properties. Knowing the fracture behaviour is crucial to predict, through finite element models, the load carrying capacity of engineering designs with possibility of brittle failures such as elements with holes, notches, or certain types of joints. This behaviour can be adequately modelled on a macroscopic scale by the constitutive cohesive law. A direct identification of the cohesive law of Eucalyptus globulus L. in Mode II was performed by combining end-notched flexure (ENF) tests with digital image correlation (DIC) for radial-longitudinal crack propagation system. The critical strain energy release for this fracture mode, which represents the material toughness to crack-growth, was determined by applying the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) as data reduction scheme and resulted in a mean value of 1.54 N/mm.

Catalanotti, G., P. Kuhn, J. Xavier, and H. Koerber. "High strain rate characterisation of intralaminar fracture toughness of GFRPs for longitudinal tension and compression failure." Composite Structures. 240 (2020): 112068. AbstractWebsite

The elastic parameters, strengths, and intralaminar fracture toughness are determined for an E-Glass polymer composite material system, statically and at high strain rate, adapting methodologies previously developed by the authors for different carbon composites. Dynamic experiments are conducted using tension and compression Split-Hopkinson Bars (SHBs). A unique set of experimental parameters is obtained, and reported together with the experimental set-up, in order to ensure reproducibility. While in-plane elastic and strength properties were obtained by testing one specimen geometry, intralaminar fracture properties required the testing of different sized notched specimens with scaled geometries. This allowed the use of the size-effect method for the determination of the dynamic R-curve. When comparing these results with those previously obtained for a carbon/epoxy material system, it is observed that the dynamic fracture toughness exhibits a much more significant increase in both tension and compression. The obtained results permit the identification of the softening law at different strain rates, allowing its use in any analytical or numerical strength predictive method.

Pereira, J. C. R., A. M. P. de Jesus, J. Xavier, J. A. F. O. Correia, L. Susmel, and A. A. Fernandes. "Low and ultra-low-cycle fatigue behavior of X52 piping steel based on theory of critical distances." International Journal of Fatigue (2020): 105482. AbstractWebsite

The cyclic failure observed in structural components such as pipelines subjected to extreme loading conditions highlights some limitations concerning the application of existing fatigue damage models. The evaluation and prediction of this type of failure in these steel components under large-scale plastic yielding associated with high levels of stress triaxiality are not sufficiently known nor explored. This fatigue domain is conventionally called ultra-low-cycle fatigue (ULCF) and damage features are representative of both low-cycle fatigue (LCF) and monotonic ductile fracture. Thus, in order to understand the ULCF damage mechanisms both monotonic and LCF tests are required to get representative bounding damage information to model the material damage behaviour under such extreme loading conditions. This paper aims at exploring the Theory of Critical Distances (TCD) in the LCF and ULCF fatigue regimes, including the application of the point, line and area methods. The application of the TCD theories has not been explored so far in the ULCF fatigue regimes, despite its promising results in the LCF and high-cycle fatigue. An experimental program was carried out on several specimens’ geometries made of X52 piping steel. In detail, smooth plane specimens and notched plane specimens were cyclic loaded under tension/compression loading in order to obtain fatigue lives within the range of 101-104 cycles. In addition, cyclic bending tests on notched plane specimens were also incorporated in this study. Finite element simulations of all small-scale tests were conducted allowing to derive elastoplastic stress/strain fields along the potential crack paths. The numerical data were subjected to a post-processing in order to find characteristic lengths that can be treated as a fatigue property according to the TCD. A unified strain-life relation is proposed for the X52 piping steel together with a characteristic material length, consisting of a practical relation for pipeline strain-based design under extreme cyclic loading conditions.